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THE FLORA 

OF THE 

NORTHERN TERRITORY 

BY \ 

ALFRED J. EWART, D.Sc. Ph.D.. F.L.S. 

AND 

OLIVE B. DAVIES, M.Sc. 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUT^HORITY OF THE 
MINISTER FOR HOME ANDl TERRITORIES. 



BY AUTHORITY: 



McCARRON, BIRD & CO.. Printers, 479 Cellini Street, Melbourne. 



1917. 



(? 



E'^f 




5Jew lark 
5'tate (ftoUcgc of Agriculture 

3V,t dtorneU IniuetaitH 

JItliaca. SJ. 1- 



IGthrara 



THE FLORA 



OF THE 



Northern Territory. 



BY 



ALFRED J. EWART, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.L.S. 

Government Botanist, Professor of Botany and Plant Physiology in the University of 
and Chairman of the Forest Examination Board, 

AND 

OLIVE B. DAVIES, M.Sc. 



WITH APPENDICES BY 
J. H. MAIDEN, F.R.S., I.S.O. 

Director of the Sydney Botanic Gardens and Government Botanist, 
AND BY 

A. A. HAMILTON and EDWIN CHEEL 



Melbourne, 



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AND ILLUSTRATIONS BY 



ETHEL McLENNAN, BSc; ISABEL COOKSON, B.Sc •> ■" f y 
ELLINOR ARCHER, B.Sc; and M. FLOCKTON. .i-^'^f^^'^ ' 



Published by the Authority of the Minister for Home and Tenitories. 



McCARRON, BIRD & CO., Printers, 479 Collins Street, Melbourne. 
1917. 



)K 
E34 



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MELBOURNE : 
M'CARRON, BIRD AND CO., PRINTERS, 
479 COLLINS STREET. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 





PAGE 


Map 


Frontispiece. 


Preface 


vii. 


Introdtjotoby 


1 


Table of Nattjeal Orders 


- 5-18 


General Text of Orders, Genera and Species - 


19-281 


Addenda 


281 


PoPXTLAR Names 


282 


Plants of Fodder Value 


- 284 


Valuable Woods 


284 


Poisonous and Injurious Plants - 


- 285 


Medicinal Plants 


285 


Appendix I.- — Cyperaceje 


- 287 


„ II. — MyRTACEi; 


290 


III.— Eucalyptus 


- 305 


,, IV. — Acacia 


318 


Index 


'353 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924000615512 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plate 



I 

II 

III, 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX 

X. 

XI 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

x.y 

XVI, 

XVII 

XVIII 

XIX 

XX, 

XXI 

XXII. 

XXIII 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII 



— ^Spathia neurosa 

— Setosa eeecta 

— ^Setosa erecta 

— Ebiachnb nervosa - 

— astbebla elymoides 

, — Eeiocaulon graphithstum 

, commelina acuminata 

— Grevillea uvea 
. — Hakea diqyna 
■ — Hakea intermedia 

— Atbiplex varia , 

Bassia spinosa. Terminalia arostrata 

polycabpaea brevianthera 

polyoarpaea triloba - - - 

. rossittia soabra - - ... 

— Phyllanthits Hitnti ..... 

, — Petaiostigma quadriloculahe vab. nigrum 

, corohorus sericeus .... 

, — ^Waltheria vtrgata 
• — -Carpbntia plobibunda 

, solanum . petbophilum vae. pedicellata 

goodenia erecta - . . 

. scaevola paniculata 

— Dampiera cinbrea - . . 

— ^Helioteopium ethelium 

— ^Acacia Alleniana ; A. Jenseni ; A. Jennebae - 
— ^Acacia Hilliana ; A. Tanumbirinense ; A. difficilis 



PAGE 

361 
362 
363 
364 
365 
366 
367 
368 
369 
370 
371 
372 
373 
374 
. 375 
376 
377 
378 
379 
380 
381 
382 
383 
384 
385 
386 
3S7 



PREFACE. 



During the last few years a growing interest has been taken in that large 
area, the Northern Territory of Australia ; and questions are continually being 
raised as to its value for agricultural and pastoral purposes. Some interest 
may be felt then in the study of the flora of this land, not only as increasing in 
some degree the study of Systematic Botany, but also as giving some indica- 
tions as to the fertility of the soil, the moisture conditions, and the fodder or 
other values of the natural vegetation. 

The Commonwealth Government, since taking over the Northern Territory, 
have carried out a policy of energetically investigating the natural resources of 
this tract of country. 

In addition to the Expedition by GUruth and Spencer, the Barclay Ex- 
pedition traversed a large part of the Territory, and Mr. HiU, the collector 
attached to the party, made large collections of plants. 

Dr. A. Morrison was appointed to assist in the work of investigating these 
collections, and the flora of the Territory generally, and in September, 1913, 
with Professor Ewart, he published a paper : — " Contributions to the Flora of 
AustraUa, No. 21. The Flora of the Northern Territory (Leguminosse)." 
Unfortunately he subsequently became seriously HI, and died towards the end 
of 1913. 

Miss Davies was appointed successor to Dr. Morrison, and began work in 
February, 1914, continuing to the end of 1916. 

Mr. Maiden undertook the investigation of the Eucalypts and Acacias 
collected by the Barclay Expedition, and has made a general examination of 
these genera as represented in the Northern Territory. Mr. Cheel has con- 
tributed an account of the MjTtacese, exclusive of Eucalyptus, and Mr. Hamilton 
one of the Cyperacese. For the sake of uniformity, a general account of these 
groups is given in the text, and the special accounts by the authors in question 
are given as appendixes at the end of the work. The manuscripts of the 
Acacias and Eucalyptus, owing to Mr. Maiden's illness, were received too late 
for the insertion of the additional species in the Keys, and some records of 



vm. THE FLORA OP THE NOETHEEN TEEEITORY. 

additional species, in other groups were also found too late for complete inser- 
tion. They are, however, quoted at the end of each genus. For several years 
the National Herbarium has kept records of additions to the Flora of the North- 
ern Territory. In Mueller's Census, and for some time subsequently, the re- 
cords were given merely as from N. Australia, which might or might not include 
the Northern Territory. General records from N. Australia are given separately 
at the end of each genus. Aid in the identification of a second smaller col- 
lection of plants by Hill was given by Mr. J. R. Tovey, of the National Herb- 
arium . The descriptions and figures for various new species have been made 
by lliss E. McLennan, B.Sc, Miss I. Cookson, B.Sc, and Miss E. Archer, B.Sc. 
The large map was prepared by Captain Rossiter. Messrs. Tovey and Audas 
have assisted in the correction of the proofs. 

ALFRED J. EWART, 

Melboitrne University^ 
September, 1917. 



THE FLORA 



OF THE 



NORTHERN TERRITORY 



BY 



ALFRED J. EWART, D.Sc. Ph.D., and OLIVE B. DAVIES, M.Sc. 



INTRODUCTORY 



The present work not only gives much additional information as to the 
distribution of the plants in the Territory, but includes several new species 
and genera, viz. : — 

Graminese. Panicum orthostachyum. Spathia neurosa. Setosa erecta> 

Eriachne nervosa. Astrebla elymoides. 
Eriocaulese. Eriocaulon graphitinum. 
Commelinacese. Commelina acuminata. 
Proteaceae. Hakea digyna. Hakea intermedia. Grevillea decurrens. 

G. Uvea. 
Chenopodiacese. Atriplex varia. Bassia spinosa. 
Caryophyllacese. Polycarpsea brevianthera. P. triloba. Rutaceae. 

Rossittia scabra. 
Tiliacese. Corchorus sericeus. 

Malvacese. Abutilonpedatum. Hibiscus Spenceri. 
Euphorbiaceae. Petalostigma nigrum. Phyllanthus Hunti. 
Combretacese. Terminalia arostrata. StercuUacese. Waltheria virgata. 
Convolvulacese. Carpentia floribunda. 
Goodeniaceae. Goodenia erecta. Scaevola paniculata. Dampiera 

cinerea. 



2 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Rubiaceee. Spermacoce scabra. 

Myrtacese. Eucalyptus Spenceriana. Tristania grandiflora. 

In addition the following new species of Leguminosse had previously been 
described by Ewart and Morrison (Proc. Royal Soc, Vict., Vol. 26, p. 152, 
1913) :— 

Isotropis argfentea. 

Jacksonia anomala. 

Psoralea luteosa. 

Tephrosia pubescens. 

Very little is yet known as to the economic properties of the plants of the 
Northern Territory, more particularly as regards their fodder value or poisonous 
properties. Dr. Gilruth obtained data during his first visit of the food values of 
certain grasses, which were identified and pubhshed in the 19th Contributions 
to the Flora of Austraha (Proc. of the Royal Soc. of Victoria, 1912, Vol. XXV., 
p. 105). In the present work these and similar records are given where it has 
been possible to obtain them, together with information as to valuable wood 
and other economic properties, including all cases in which plants are known to 
be poisonous or are suspected of poisonous properties. In this respect many of 
the Leguminosse of the Northern Territory more especially come under sus- 
picion. 

Few of the plants on the present list have been tested as yet from this 
point of view, but poisonous species are known to occur in the following genera : 
Bauhinia has three poisonous species, one of which is a fish poison, and another 
an anthelminthic, but no data are available for the species of this genus on the 
present hst. Brachysema undulatum grows in other parts of Austraha, and 
causes mechanical injury. Canavalia obtusifolia causes gastro-enteritis in 
stock. 

Several species of Cassia are considered poisonous, and, according to 
Greshoff, this also applies to Cassia Sophora and C. Sturtii. 

No less than five species of Crotalaria are recorded as poisonous, and of 
these one, C. Mitchelli, grows in the Northern Territory. Three species of 
Erythrina and two of Erythrophlseum have been recorded as poisonous, but 
they do not include any of the species growing in the Territory. The Asiatic 
Flemingia congesta is a taenifuge, but the F. Uneata of the Territory has not 
been tested. Many species of Gastrolobium are poisonous, but only one 
incompletely tested species (G. grandiflorum) is included in the present 
list. 

Indigofera boviperda, however, has in West Australia been responsible for 
large losses of stock. The genera Phaseolus, Psoralea and Sesbanea include 



THE FLOBA OF THE NOBTHEEN TEEEITOEY. 6 

poisonous species, but apparently none from the Ter^itor3^ Rhynchosia 
minima is, however, poisonous according to Greshoff, and the same may be 
found ultimately to apply to some of the species of Swainsona and Tephrosia. 
Several species of the latter genus are well-known fish poisons, and this apphes 
to at least one species from the Territory, namely, Tephrosia purpurea. In this 
direction there will be much work to be done in the future. 

By following the distribution of the flora along the route taken by the 
Barclay Expedition, it is possible to pick out the most fertile and the best 
grazing parts. Included also is a map, illustrating the route taken by the 
Expedition, and showing the camping places with the more important plants 
collected at each. 



B:EY to the AUSTRALIAN NATURAL ORDERS. 

{See pp. 5-18.) 

In the following key, the initial letter of an order in which any given 
character occurs is put in the square corresponding to the order and the 
character ; but unless specified the character need not be constant in the order. 
When a character is only rarely present the initial letter is in itahcs. 

Thus taking the first line Ranunculaceae, the key indicates that this order 
comprises Herbs and Climbers, but not trees, shrubs or undershnibs, that the 
leaves may be opposite or alternate, but not whorled, that stipules are only 
very rarely present, that bracts are wanting although rarely an involucre is 
present, etc., etc. 

It frequently happens that specimens are received which are so imperfect 
that they cannot be referred readily to their natural order. Suppose a leafy 
branch with scattered bundles in the stem and compound leaves were received 
with a collector's note, " over 30 feet high. Young flowers enclosed by a large 
bract." The scattered bundles restrict it to Monocotyledons. Over 30 feet, 
restricts it to Liliaoese, Palmse, Pandaneae, or Graminese. Compound leaves 
restrict it to Palmse, or Graminese (Bamboos), and the bract confines it to 
Palmse. 

The keys for the genera and species are based upon those of Bentham's 
" Flora AustraHensis" ; such alterations having been made as were necessary 
for new nomenclature, altered classification, and new species. 



4 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

PILICES. 

Only few Ferns were collected. Of these one, Notholsena (Cheilanthes) 
distans, R.Br., was not previously recorded from the Northern Territory. 
Owing to the dry character of the greater part of the terrain the fern flora is 
scanty, and mainly occurs along creeks, river beds and near the coast. 

Cheilanthes tenuifolia, Sw. — 100 miles N. Haast's Bluff. G. F. Hiil 
(No. 844), 3/6/1911. 

G. F. Hill (No. 342, C. II.), 3/6/1911. 

Notholaena (Cheilanthes) distans, B. Br. — Borroloola. G. F. H. (No. 725), 
13/1/1912. 

On Sandstone Ranges. 

Notholaena Broivnii, Desv. [Cheilanthes vellea, F. v. M.). — Sandstone- 
Ranges, 22 miles S.S.W., Borroloola. G.F.H., 16/2/1912. 

With the older records and recent additions the list^of__the ferns recorded 
from North Australia is as follows : — 
Ophioglossum vulgatum, L. 
Helminthostachys zeylanica (L) Hk. 
Helminthostachys dulcis, Klf. 
Lygodium soandens, Sw. 
Lygodium japonicum, Sw. 
Schizaea dichotoma, Sm. 
Schizsea bifida, Willd. 
Hymenophyllum Walleri, Maid. & Bet. 
Ceratopteris thalictroides, Brogn. 
Gleichenia platyzoma, F. v. M. 
Gleichenia circinata, Sw. 
Gleichenia flabellata, R.Br. 
Gleichenia Hermanni, R.Br. 
Lindsaya flabellulata, Dryand. 

Schizoloma ensifolium, J. Sm.( Lindsaya ensifolia, Sw.^. 
Adiantum lunulatum, N. Burm. 
Notholaena (Cheilanthes) Prenticei (Luers), Bak« 
Notholsena fragilis, Hook. 
Notholaena vellea, Desv. 
Notholaena distans, R. Br. 
Cheilanthes tenuifolia, Sw. 
Blechnum serrulatum, C. Rich. 
Blechnum orientale, L. 

[Continued on page 19. \ 



THE FLORA OF THE NO 





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lOBANTHAOE^ . . 


L 

C 


L 

C 








L 


i 
















Lj 


Capbifohace^ 


C 




C 


C 








C 


c 






c 


c ! 




^^ 


■^ 


Etjbiaoe^ 


E 


E 


E 




R 


R 




E 










E 











































IE.THBEN TEEEITOEY. 



Blower. 


INELOKBSOENOE. 


Caitx. 






O 

i 


i 

e 
3 


O 


1 


I 


c3 
1 


i 


I' 

H 
o 

02 


e4 
1 


o 


P4 

02 


1 




1 
1 




Sepals 


1 


EH 

-< 




M 


B 


H 


> 


> > 


3 

























































.. 






I 


I 


I 


I 




I 


I 


/ 




I 














/ 


I 


I 


/ 


J' 










c 


c 




c 


c 




C 


c 




c 













c 


c 


c 


■■ 












s 






s 


s 






s 
















s 




■• 










R 


E 




E 


E 




E 


E 




E 


E 










E 


E 






E 




A 




A 


A 










A 


A 


A 


A 












A 


A 














S 






S 


s 




S 


S 




S 


S 










S 


S 






S 


L 


A 




A 


A 


A 


A 


A 










A 










A 


A 


A 


A 




A 








L 


L 


L 


L 


L 


i 


L 




L 




L 








i 


L 


L 






L 


I 






R 


R 




R 


E 


E 


R 


E 














R 


R 


E 


R 


R 


R 










S 




S 


S 


S 


S 


S 




S 


S 










S 


S 


S 


S 


S 










c 




c 


c 




c 


c 


.:- 


c 


c 








C 


c 



D 




C 

i) 












D 




D 


D 


D 


D 


D 
















D 




I 


H 






H 




H 


H 




H 






H 










H 


H 


H 






H 










R 




R 




R 




E 






E 










E 


E 


E 


E 


















C 


C 







C 


C 














C 


C 


C 





C 










M 


if 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 




M 










M 


M 


M 






M 










M 


M 


M 


M 


M 








M 


M 








M 


M^M 


Jf 














L 


i 


L 


L 


•l 




L 




L 


L 








L 


L 


L 


L 




L 






























.. 




























i 








S 


S 


S 


S 




s 




s 1 s 


S 






s 


S 


s 


S 


S 


s 


S 




P 






P 




P 




p 


p 


P 














p 


P 






P 




C 






c 




c 




c 


c 






C 












c 




















F 


F 


F 




F 




F 








i*' 


F 


F 






F 




u 




U 








TJ 






















U 








i 






A 








A 




A 




.. 1 A 


































C 


C 






C 


.. C 






C 






C 


C 


c 




C 




L 


i 








L 


L 


L 


L 


L 




L 




L 






L 


L 


L 


i 


L 
















C 






C 












c 


C 


C 








i 


E 


is 


R 






R 


R 


R 


E 


E 




E 










E ; E 









10 



THE FLOBA OF THE Nt 







Ovary. 




Ovules. 








Fkot 




Celled. 


4 


3 

g 


5^' 

Ski 

Bg 

§ 


P 


i 


Capsule. 
Follicle. 






a 3 


> 
►1 


> 


> 


1 

n 


OLACACE.E 








■■ 


.. 













-!o 








ILICINKS 




I 


I 


I 




I 


I 








.. !.. 




CELASTRACB.B . . 


c 


C 


C 


C 




c 








c 1 c 


c 




c 


Stackhouslacb* 


s 

R 


s 

R 


s 

R 


s 


^^ 


s 

R 




^^ 


•• ! s 








RHAMSAOB.B 


B| R 


R 






A1IPELIDACE.S . . 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 




! 






.« 


Sapindaob^ 


S 


S 


S 






S 


S 


s 


S { S 


S 


•• 


s 


ANACARDIACEf 


A 


A 


A 


A 




A 






.. 1 A 








JjEdVKrSOSM . . 












L 


L 


L 


L 1 L 




L 




ROSACE.E 


R 


R 


R 


R 




R 


R 


R 


iJ|R 


.. 




B 


SAXIFRAGAOE^ .. 


S 


S 


S 


S 




S 




S 


S 1 5 

|.. 


s 
c 


■^ 


S 


CRASSU1ACB.S . . 
















c 




DROSERACE.B 
HAiORAGACE.S . . 


D 
H 


B 
H 


"F 


H 


D 


H 


H 


D 
H 


D ;.. 


D 


-^ 




RmZOPHOKACE^ 


R 


R 


R 


R 






R 


R 




COMBKETACEii .. 













M 


C 
M 


C 
M 


.. c 

M JM 


M 


-^ 




MYBTACEiE 


M 

M 


M 

M 


M 

M 


M 

M 


M 
M 


a 


MELASTOHACEf 




M 


M 


MM 


M 




» 


Ltthkace^ 


L 


L 


L 


L 








L 


L j.. 


L 






Ojtaqbacejb 


O 





















;.. 









Samtdace^ 














. . ■ S 


s ! s 








PASBIFLORACEfi. . 












— 


■ ■ 


P 
C 


p i p 






p 


CnCCEBITACEiE . . 




C 




C 


C 


c 1 c 






.- 


Ticaass 


F 


¥ 


¥ 


¥ 




F 


F 


F 


F F 


F 






Umbeujfer.^ . , 


V 


■• 








U 






.. U 


.. 






Abaliaceje 


A 


A 




A 


A 


A 






..|A 








C011NACE.S 


^ 


1 
■ " 1 






C 






..|C 








LORAHTHACE.S .. 












L 






••|L|-. 




I 


CAPRIK)MA0B.B 


C 


C 


C 


C 




C 






..|C 






c 


Ktjbiack* 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 




B 


a R 


B 




B 



•RTHERN TERRITOEY. 





Seeds. 






1 


04 

o 
m 


o 


i 




n 

g 
o 


g 


g 

< 
O 
|2i 


i 

s 

< 


i 

o 


Eemakks. 





























I 


















I 






c 






— 








C 




c 


c 


Samaka. 


















s 






E 


R 




E 








E 


E 


E 


R 










A 












A 




















S 


S 




S 




A 






A 












A 


A 






















L 


L 


Pod. 


E 


















R 


E 


ACHENE. 








S 












S 


S 






















c 
























D 






H 






H 












H 












E 












E 


E 




C 






C 














C 


Fruit Winged. 


M 






M 


iif 










M 


M 




— 


— 


— 


— 














M 
















L 












































s 


S 


s 




















p 


P 


p 


























C 




J' 


















r 






A 




— 


A 












u 




Umbei,. 










A 




Umbel. 


C 






C 



















L 


L 




L 












L 




Paeasites. 




















C 






E 


U 
















E 


R 





12 



THE FLORA OF THE N( 





Corolla 


Stamens. 




Petals. 


< 

K 


kH 


S 

a 
S 


! 




VI. 
VII. 


\ 




►H 


l-i 


! 
3' t 


> 


- 


1 




i- 


t—l 

> 


'A 


1 

'A 


COMPOSIT.E 


c .., 




c 


c\.. 










i r!ri 


: ■ i 
1 ■ ■ " 1 


STYLIDIACE.E . . 


.. .. j 






s 


s 






1 
■ ■ 1 ' • 


s 




1 
■ ■ 1 " " 






■■I-! 


GOODENIAOB-E .. 






~c 


c 


G 




T 














G 


..j.. 








Campanulace* 


c i c 












c 


C 


c 1 c 






c 


EE1CACE.B 










El.. 


















.. !.. 






E 


EPACRIDACEi; . . 








E 


El.. 














E 


E 










Pltimbagisace* 










p ;.. 












1 


P 








-I- 


PKUnjLACEi; 








P 


p|p 


p 














P 








.... 


MYllSrNACE.S; , . 






.. 


ilX 1 JI ; . . 














M 


M 








..i.. 


SAPOTACE.E 






.. 


s 


s s 


s 














S 


S j s 








Ebenace^ 






E 


E 


E 1 E 


E 




E 
















E 


Styracace^ 








S 


S|.. 






S 








.. 1 .. 1 .. 










Jismssx 




J 




J 


J 


•> 


J 








J 


















Apoctnace^ . . 


_ 


■^ 


.. 1 .. 


A 
A 


— 


— 




.. 










A 












ASCIEPIADACE^ 














A 












LOGASIACEil . . 






•• ^ 


L 
















L 


L 












GENTIAKACEi; . . 






.. [ G 


G 






.. 










G 


G 












HYDROPEYLLAC.fi 








H 


















H 












BORAQmAOE..B .. 






..\B 


B 




B 












B 


B 




■■ 








COKVOLVULACE.B 








C 








.. 










C 












SOLANACE.£ 






.. 1 S 


S 
















S 


S 




- 








SCE0PHULAB1ACB.B 




s 


.. S 


s 




S 








s 




S 


s 




.. 








lENTIBTJLAEIACE.fi 




L 


L L 


L 






•• 


..|.. 


L 


















OEOBAKCHACEi: 







.. 1 











1- 























GBSNEBIACE.B . . 


-• 


G 




G 








i--!-- 


G 




G 














BiSNONXACEi . . 




B 




B 






•■ 






B 




B 














ACASTHACE.B . . 




A 




A 












A 




A 














PEDALLACE.B 






.. j .. 














P 




P 














MYOPOKACE.fi . . 






-|M 


M 
















M 














Selagine^ 




S 


.. S 


S 
















S 














Vbrbenace.* . . 






•■ 1 ^ 


V 


F 


r 








V 




V 


V 


V 


V 


V 







RTHERN TERRITORY. 















Anthers. 








Carpels. 








Style. 






1 




Bo 


i 

ii 


1 

Ph 

Eh 


Hi 


LLE 

M 


> 


Sa 

Ow 


ii 


Hi 


M 


3 


fc 


> 


^ 


> 

is 


1 


d 

coo 


E-i . 
go 


la 


I 

si 

oo 




C 




c 


C 




c 




c 
















.. 


s 


S 






— 


C 




^^ 


-^ 


"g" 


G 




s 

G 


■^ 


G 


-^ 
















s 























C 


V 


c 







E 


11- 


C 
E 


T" 














. . i 


















.. 


B 
E 


^^ 


P 


■^ 






E 






E 








B 














..!.. ' 


E 














P 




P 
















.. 


V 




P 






























.. 


P 








P 




M 






























.. 


M 








M 




S 
































S 


E 


-^ 


-^ 




















E 
















.. 






S 
































s 






















J 




J 






























L 


•^ 


^ 


A 
L 


-^ 


A 
A 
L 


— 


A 
L 


-^ 




A 












A 
A 


A 


-^ 


-^ 


A 






A 








.. 




A 


















L 


L 










G 
H 




^^ 


G 
H 


-^ 


G 
H 




G 
H 


G 
















G 


G 






G 


















~b' 


H 


H 


-^ 


H 




B 

T 


-^ 


— 


■^ 


— 


B 


— 


B 

C 


-B 




B 


















C 












C 


C 










^^ 






s 
s 


s 




s 
s 


S 
















s 


^^ 




-^ 
































1 
























L 




L 




L 




^^ 


— 



















































G 


G 




G 


















G 
A 


A 


G 


^^ 


G 




^^ 


■^ 


A 


B 

A 




B 


-^ 






•• 


































P 




p 












iif 








M 


M 




M 


















M 
V 


V 


-^ 
















S 


























V 












V 




V 
















•' 



"14 



THE FLORA OF THE NOB 





EH 


s 


1 


1= 


o 


Leaves. 


Bkao- 

TEOLE, 






1 

s 


i 

1 




1 


t 


a 
> 

s 


n 


1 

1 


Ph 


n 

CO 

1 
1 


6 

s 


i 


1 


5 


Xabiat^ . . 


L 


L 


L 






L 




L 




L 


L 


L 






L 










JLANTAGINACB* 






P 












P 




















■■ 




i 

1 




1 

w 


03 

i 


o 


Leayes. 


Bkac- 

TEOLE. 


"i 




1 




o 


4 
1 


d 

a 


1 


1 


1 


(» 

p 

CO 


CO 

1 


i 

•< 




i 

> 


PHYTOLACCACE^ 


p! p|p 


p 






p 






p 


••!■• 






p 




P 




I 


'Chenopodiace^ 


.. ..|c 


c 




c 


c 








..|.. 






c 




C 




c 


Amakantace^ . . 


.. a\ a 


A 


A 


A 


A 






A 






A 




A 




A 




-4 


Paronychiaob^ 


.. ..IP 






p 


P 






P 








P 






P 






POLYSONAOEiE . . 


.. . p p 




P 


•• 


P 














P 










I 


Nyctaqinaoe« . . 


N N N 






N 


N 






N 










N 








^ 


Myeistice* 


M'.. |.. 








M 






M 




M 






M 










MONIMIACE* . . 


M M . . 




M 


M 








M 




M 






M 








a 


Laukace* 


L L |.. 






i 


L 






L 




L 






L 






i 


I 


Peoteace^ 


P ' P |.. 


P 




P 


P 






P 


p 








P 










THYMELiEACE^ .. 


T 

B 


T T 






T 


T 






T 








■• 






■■ 


T 


i"" 


Bl,EAONACE^ • . 


E .. 




E 




E 






B 




















Nepenthaob^ . . 




N 


.. 


N 






N 
















N 






•■ 




EUPHORBIACE^ 


E 


E 


E 






B 


E 






E 


.B 






B 


B 




B 


E 




IjRTICEiE 


TJ 


U 


U 






U 


U 






U 


U 






U 


V 






U 
C 




CASHAEINACEi: . . 


C 


C 






























C 




PIPERAO^ 


P 


P 


P 




P 


P 


P 






P 








P 


P 




C 




AEISTOLOCHIACEiE 




A 


A 




A 




A 
















A 


i 


■CUPUlIFERai 


C 


C 






.. 


-. 


C 














C 


C 




SANTAIACE^ . . 


s 


s 


S 






s 


S 






S 










s 


\ 


Baianophoraoe^ 






































- 


CONIFEEJE 


c 


c 






— 


c 




C 


..Ic 


















Cyc'adac;e 






I-- 












c 






-ll-l-l- 


1- 



ITHERN TBEKITOEY. 



FlOWEE. 


IWPIORESOENCE. 


Calyx. 




n 


o 
o 
o 
B 

O 

s 


o 

u 

e 
S 


QQ 

P 

o 

s 

•< 
o 

o 


Pi 
< 

p 


P 
OJ 
pa 


i 

>< 
< 


i4 


o 


1 


m 


|i4 


p^ 






s 

o 


Sepals, 


1 
o 


•< 

'A 

o 

§ 




i-i 


1— 1 


h-i 




> 


? 








l\ L 


L 


L 




L 


L 


L 




L 








L 






L 
















p 




P 




P 






P 














P 










FIOWER. 


INFLOEESOBNOE, 


Perianth. 


" 


i 

t 
i 

i 

a 

i 


p 
o 

i 


CO 

g 

3 

e 
5 


o 

s 

o 

lit 


g 


i 


i 


-< 
Us 
S 

EH 




1 

o 




S 


8 

Ph 


i 


EH 


M 




a 


> 
l-t 


>-■ 


> 


M 






p 


p 








p 


p 


p 


P 




P .. 


P 










P 


P 




1 








c 


c 


c 


c 


C 


c 






C j c 


C 












C 






I 


A A 








A 


A 


A 




^ 


A 


A 


A 








.1 


A 


A 








.. |.. 








P 


P 


P 




P 






P 








P 


P 


P 






' 


P|.. 




p 




P 


P 








P 


P 


P 












P 


P 




r 


..\^ 








N 


N 


N 




N 




N 


N 






-■ 




iV 


N 








.. M 




M 




M 






M 






M 








M 


M 


M 








I 


M M 


M 


M 




M 


M 


M 




M 




M 












M 


M 


M 


M M 


' 


•• ! i 




L 










L 


L 


i L 


L 


i 






i 




L 




'1^ 


' 


P\.. 




P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 




p;.. 












P 








: 


..\ T 




T 


T 


T 


T 


T 


T 




T 




T 










T 


T 






5 


.. 1 E 








E 








E 


E 




B 


— 




E 


if 


E j .. 










N 










N 




N 






N 




N|.. 
B 1 B 


B 








B 


E 

U 






^^ 


B 


B 


E 


B 




B 


B 


E 


B 










v\.. 


U 


V 


ir 


U 


U 




V 


U 




Cf 


t' 


U 


U TJ 


!T 




















C 








C 






C 


c 







.. j.. 








> 


P 


P 








P 


P 




P 




P 






P 


A 

c 


— 


— 


C 










V 












A 




A 


A 








A 








C 










C 




C 






c 




C 


C 


C 




( 




s 










S 


S 




S 


s 












s 


s 


S 


S 








B 


B 










B 








B 






B 




JB 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 




C 


C 








C 







.. 1., 




-- 


C 










1 
.. 1 . . 








C 









1- 




i-- 




h 




L: 


h 


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..j.. 







THE FLORA OF THE 1 





OVARY. 


Ovules. 


Fruit 




Obllbd. 




M 
h-t 

Hi < 


o 


3 


i 
1 


1 
1 


1 




ti 


M M 


> > 


Labiate , . 






li 




L 
















PIANTAQINAOEiE 


P 




P 




P 


p 


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p 


p 


p 








1 

> 
o 


Ovules. |i 


Fruit. 




o 

la 
p-i 


M 
M 


Si 
Is 




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i 

o 


g 

m 


I 




o 

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D 


i 

CO 

g 

o 


PHTTOLACCACB^E 




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p P 
















CHENOPODIAOBiB 


c 






. c 














c 








Amakantace^ . . 




A 
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•^ 


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A A 


^ 




4 








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PAKONYCHIAOB^ 




. P 














P 








POLYQONAOE^ . . 
NTOTAaraAOE^.. 


■^ 


P 

N 


— 


-^ - 






— 




— 


p 


^- 


P 

N 


MTRISTIOEa: 




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M .. 














M 


MONIMIACE^E 


-- 


M 
L 


L 


^^ - 










M 


M 




M 










L 


L 






T, 














Pkotbaob^ 


■^ 


P 


P 

T 


p 


P P 


P 






P 


P 




P 


Thtmbl^ace^ . . 


T 


T T 


T 




T 


T 


T 










B 






.. E 


























Nepbnthaobje . . 




B 

U 


B 


N 


N .. 


N 














ECPHOKBIACE^ 




B E 


E 




B 


B 


B 




B 






.. U 






r 


U 


U 








C 








Casdaeinace^ .. 




















PIPERACjE 


A 


P 






p 






p 








P 













AKISTOLOCHIAOBi: 


A 




A 














CUPIILIFEKJE 





c 

B 


c 



















C 


SANTALAOBjE 


S 


.. s 






s 


S 


s 




S 


BALANOPHORACBi: 










B 


B 




B 


COHIPBR^ 




C 


c 


c 


















Ctcauac^ 






c 





















OBTHBRN TBBBITOBY. 







jEEDS. 








1 




o 

iCl 
■133 


o 


5 




o 

o 


g 


QQ 

s 

o 


65 
S 


P 
g 

<! 
o 

!2i 


Bemarks. 


.. L 


■^ 


p 














L 


Stem IV. -angled 














P 






Seeds. 




1 


S 
S 


O 

P5 


1 


i 




1 


1 
o 


Bemakks. 










P 


P 


P 


p 
















C 


C 


Utkiclb 














A 




Utricie. 














P 




riMOIE. 














P 


















N 


















M 


















M 




















L 




P 














P 
















T 


T 
















E 


B 
















N 




Leaves with Pitoheks. 








E 






E 


E 
















U 


V 


Utricle. 
















C 


Cone. Leaves Eeplaced by Scales 














P 




Branches Usttally Aeticuiate. 














A 


















S 


c 


Catkins. 
































Utricle. Leafless Boot Parasites. 


C 

















Cones. Catkins. 














c 




Cones. Catkins. 



18 



THE FLOBA OF THE N 





Stamens. 


An-. 

THEKS. 


OVAKY. 






a 

1 


t— f 


H 


3 


> 


^ 


3h 


i 

o 


o 


s 
g 

p 

CO 


M 


Cbiied. 

M a 3 


a 




Htdeoohaeitaoejs 




B 


H 


H 




H 


H 




H 




H 


H 


.. 


H 


H 


H 


SOITAMINEjE 




S 




S 




S 




S 


S 




S 


S 




S 






■Okchidacb^ 



















B 










• • 









BDKMANNIAOEiE 








B 




B .. 




B 






B 




B 


iRIDAOEai 








I 




/ 




-^ 


I 




I 






I 




I 


Amakyllide^ . . 








A 




A 


A 


.. 


A 


A 




A 




A 


Taocaoe« 












T 






T 
D 




T 


T 










DIOSCOKEACB^ . . 








D 




D 






D 






D 


■• 


D 


BOXBURGHIAOB^ 










B 








E 


E 


.. 


K 










XlLIAOBi: 








L 




L 




.. 


L 


L 








L 




L 


PONTEDEBIACEiE 








P 




P 






P 


P 








P 




P 


PHILYDBACEa) .. 




p 














P 


P 




P 




P 






Xtkidaob^ 








X 










X 










X 




X 


COMMELYNAOEiB 


* 
















— 


C 
J 








C 





•• 


C 


Jtjncaob^ 








J 




J 








J 




J 




J 


Palu^ 








P 




P 


P 




P 






P 




P 




V 


PAKDANACBiB . . 














P 




P 






P 








p 


AKOIDEiE 










A 


A 




A 


A 




1.. 


A 


A 


A 






TYPHACBiE 








T 








L 


L 






T 








T 


lEMNAOEfi 




L 


L 














L 








h 


if AIADAOB^ 




N 


N 


N 


N 


N 




N 


N 












N 


In 


Alismace^ 












A 


A 




A 






.. 




A 


A 


1 A 


JEeiooauiaob^ .. 










E 


E 






E 


.. 




.. 


E 


B 




E 


■Centkolepidaoe^ 













■■ 




C 
B, 


B, 


— 


— 



E 





C 
E 




C 


Hbstiace^ 








B, 








E 


Oypebacb^ 




c c 


C 


C 





C 




C 






C 






.. 


.. 


'GKAMINE^ 




e 





G 




G 


G 


•• 


G 


•• 




G 











ORTHBRN TEERITOEY. 



OVDLES. 


FUDIT. 


Seeds. 




I 

Ce 


l-H 


M 

II 


Q 

n 


1 


•< 


i 

p 




o 


15 

g 


15 

A 




S 


s 


H 

s 

"o~ 
IT 


H 














H 








■ 




s 


S 


s 





























B 








B 












I 




I 








I 


I 






A 

L 
P 

C 
J 

T 
'V 

A 
T 
L 

N 
A 
E 
C 


A 
D 
L 

C 
P 

"a" 

L 

T 


A 
T 

R 
T 
P 
P 
X 

c 
J 

IT 

A 

L 

N 
A 


A 


A 








A 


A 














T 




T 






D 


» 






D 


D 


D 








R 








R. 


R 






L 


L 






L 


i 


L 








P 








P 


P 








P 








P 


P 








X 








X 


X 






C 


C 











C 








J 








J 


J 






P 






p 


P 




P 












p 






P 










A 




A 




A 


A 




-^ 


— 




t 






T 














L 


L 


No STEMS OK Leaves. Utricle. 


N 


S 








N 




N 


Nuts ok Foluculak. 


A 


A 


^^ 


^^ 


^-^ 


B 


B 


A 


Nutlets. 










C 






R 


^^ 


-^ 


e|r 










R 




Spikelets. Nut. 












i c 




Spikelbts. Nut. 


..|.. 










G 




Spikelets. Nut or Uteiclb. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 



19 



Doodia (Woodwardia) caudata (Cav.), 

R.Br. 
Asplenium normale, Don. 
Asplenium unilaterale, Lam. (A. 

amcenum, Presl.). 
Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott. 
Aspidium unitum, Sw. 
Aspidium molle, Sw. 



Dryopteris prolifera (C. Retz), D. 

Chr. (Polypodium proliferum, 

Roxb.). 
Polypodium Walleri, Maid. & Bet. 
Polypodium phymatodes, L. 
Drymaria quercifolia (L.), J. Sm. 
Stenochlsena palustris (Burm.), Bedd. 
Acrostichum aureum, L. 
Acrostichum pteroides, R.Br. 

The material available is insufficient for a separate list confined to the 
hmits of the Northern Territory. 

CYCADACE.aj. 

Pinnae linear, with a prominent midrib. Pemale scales elongated, woolly, 
with 2 or more erect ovules on each side in marginal notches. — 1. Cycas. 

Pinnse hnear, with several longitudinal scarcely prominent nerves. Female 
scale with 1 pendulous ovule on each side under the thickened acuminate apex. 
— 2. Macrozamia. 

1. CYCAS, Linn. 

1. C. media, R.Br. — North-west and North Coasts, A. Cunningham; 
Port Bssington, Armstrong ; Escape CUffs, Hulls. 



2. MACROZAMIA, Miq. 1841. 

(Lepidozamia, Regel. 1857. Catakidozamia, T. Hill. 1865.) 

" Rickets" plants. All supposed poisonous to stock. 

1. M. Macdonndli, F. v. If.— Simpson's Gap, G. P. Hill, 1911. (Her- 
mansburg, Finke River. G. F. Hill (No. 95), 16/3/1911. Appears to be the 
leaf of M. Miquelii and fruits of Cycadse and PalmsB mixed.) 

CONIFERS. 

1. CALLITRIS, Vent. 1808. 

(Frenela, Mirb., 1826. FresneUa, Steud., 1840. Leichardtia, Steph., 1851, 
Pachylepis, Brogn., 1833. Octoolinis, P. v. M., 1858. Parolinia, Endl., 1841. 
Widdringtonia, Endl., 1842.) 

1. C. robusta, R.Br., var. microcarpa. — ^Katherine Creek, Gilruth and 
Spencer, July -August, 1911. 

Hermansburg, Finke River. G. F. HiU (No. 96), 16/3/1911. 

Recorded. York Sound, Regent's River, and Brunswick Bay, N.W. 
Coast, A. Cunningham ; Mackenzie River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz 
(No. 438). Cypress Pine. 

Var. intratropica, F. v. M. — ^Recorded from North Austraha. 
An Australian species of Calhtris is poisonous according to Greshoff. 
Principle unknown. 

TyPHACE.S!. 
1. TYPHA, Linn. 

1. T. angustifolium, Linn. — Port Essington, Armstrong ; in the interior, 
M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. Bulrush. 

B 



20 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

PANDANACEffi. 
1. PANDANUS, Linn. 

Drupes connate in clusters, nearly flat on the apex. Male spikes sessile. — 

2. P. odoratissimus. 
Drupes all free. — 1. P. aquaticus. 

1 . P. aquaticus, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, P. v. Mueller. 

2. P. odoratissimus, Linn. — Arnhem's Land and Islands of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 613) ; Escape Cliffs, 
Hulse ; King's Sound, Hughan. 

POTAMOGETONACEiB. 

Tribe L — Flowers hermaphrodite. Anthers short and broad, sessile at 
the base of the scale-Kke perianth segments. Carpels 3 to 6, 1-seeded. — 

1. Potamogeton. 

Tribe 2. — Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual. Perianth none or rudi- 
mentary or in one sex only. Carpels 1 or 3 or rarely more, 1-seeded or rarely 
several-seeded. Aquatic submerged plants, mostly marine or subsahne. — 

2. Cymodocea. 

1. POTAMOGETON, Linn. 1735. 

(Buccaferrea, Bubani, 1873. Groelandia, Fourr, 1869. Groenlandia, 
J. Gay, 1854. Peltopsis, Rafin, 1819. Sprillus, J. Gay, 1854.) 
Pond Weed. 

Section 1 . — Leaves all alternate and petiolate with floating laminae, or the 
lo\^'er ones submerged. Stipules connate within the petiole. 

Floating leaves 1 to 2 in. long. Nutlets beaked. — 3. P. tricarinatus. 

Floating leaves to \ in. long. Nutlets distinctly beaked. — 2. P. tenui- 
caulis. 

Section 2. — Leaves all submerged, sessile or nearly so, those under the 
peduncles and branches opposite, the others alternate. Stipules connate within 
the petiole, often very deciduous. — 1. P. crispus. 

1. P. crispus, Linn. — Albert River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. P. tenuicaulis, F. v. M. — Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

3. P. tricarinatus, F. v. M. and A. Benn. — Hugh River, Macdonnell 
Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 132), 4/5/1911. 

Pond Weed. — Liable to give trouble in ponds, etc. 

The National Herbarium Census also records P. natans Linn, from North 
Australia. 

2. CYMODOCEA, Koen. 

1. C. ciliata, Ehrenb. — Whitsunday Islands, Kilner. 
C. rotund ata Asch. and Sch. and C. isoetifolia Asch. and Sch. also recorded 
in National Herbarium Census from North Australia. 

NAIADACE^. 

1. NAIAS, Linn. 

1. N. major, All. — Flinders River, F. v. Mueller. 

N. tenuifolia also recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Australia. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 21 

APONOGETONACEiE. 

1. APONOGETON, Thunb. 

Bulb-shaped rootstock covered with filamentous remains of leaf-sheaths, 
and emitting roots from the base. Leaves under 6 in. long. Fruit carpels 
tapering into a short recurved style. — 2. A. monostachyus. 

Bulb-shaped rootstock without filaments, emitting fibrous roots from the 
apex. Leaves above 6 in. long. Fruit carpels obtuse with the rudimentary 
style, almost lateral. — 1. A. elongatus. 

1. A. dongattis, F. v. M. — Roper and Van Alphen Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

2. A. monostachyus, Linn. — Gilbert River, Gulliver. 

JUNCAGINACEffi. 

1. TRIGLOCHIN, Linn. 
Arrow-grass. 

1. T. procera, R.Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

ALISMACE.X. 

1. ALISMA, Linn. 

Water Plantain. 

Carpels, about 3 fines long, hard, often muricate. — 1. A. acanthocarpum. 
Carpels under 2 lines long, smooth or tuberculate, the pericarp not very 
hard. — 2. A. ofigococcum. 

1. A. acanthocarpum, F. v. M. — Lower Victoria River, F. v. Mueller; 
Gulf of Carpentaria, Gulfiver. 

2. A. oligococcum, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz. 

BUTOMACEa:. 

1. TRENAGOCHARIS, Hochst. 

1. T. cordofana, Hochst. — (Butomopsis lanceolata Kunth.) Lagoons on 
Gilbert River, Armit. 

HYDROCHARITACEiE. 

Tufts of radical leaves and scapes fixed to the bottom of the water. 

Leaves with a broad lamina. Flowers hermaphrodite, soUtary. 

Ovary partially 6-celled. — 4. Ottefia. 
Leaves elongated without any lamina. Flowers unisexual. 

Male flowers several in a spathe, exserted. Perianth of 6 

segments. — 3. Blyxa. 
Male flowers numerous, crowded in a head shorter than 
the spathe. Perianth of 3 segments. — 2. VaUisneria. 

Leaves small, verticellate along the floating stems. Spathes sessile, both 
males and females 1- flowered. — 1. HydriUa. 

1. HYDRILLA, Rich. 

1. H. verticillata, Casp.^ — Gilbert and Roper Rivers, F. v. M.. A trouble- 
some water -weed, blocking watercourses.. 

B2 



22 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY- 



2. VALLISNERIA, Linn. 

1 . F. spiralis, Linn. — Albert and Roper Rivers, F. v. M. ; Arnhem's Land , 
R. Brown. Tape Grass. 

3. BLYXA, TH0T7. ' 

1. B. Boxburghii, Rich. — Robinson River, Gulf of Carpentaria, P. v. M. ; 
Port Darwin, Sehultz (No. 423). 

4. OTTELIA, Pees. 

Leaf -lamina broadly cordate. Spathe winged. — 1. 0. alismoides. 
Leaf-lamina ovate or oblong. Spathe not winged. — 2. 0. ovalitolia. 

1. 0. alismoides, Pers. — Roper River, F. v. M. ; Creeks in the neigh- 
bourhood of Rockhampton, Bowman, O'Shanesy, Watson ; Kennedy district, 
Daiatree. 

2. 0. ovalifolia, L. C. Rich. — Recorded. Albert River, Henne. 

GRAMINEiE. 

A. Panicaceae. Pedicel articulate below the glumes. Spikelet with one 
fertile flower, the male or barren flower, if any, below it. 

Tribe I. — Paniceae. Fertile spikelets with one terminal hermaphrodite 
or female flower, with or without a male one below it. Glumes 4 or 3, the upper 
flowering one of a firmer texture, the outer one usually smaller, sometimes 
wanting. A palea to each flower. Stamens 3, rarely fewer. Grain enclosed 
in the hardened (rarely thin, but stiffened) upper glume and palea. Awns rare, 
and when present neither twisted nor bent back. 

Series I. Spikelets hermaphrodite. 

Inflorescence not bracteate. No bristle-hke involucre. 

Fruiting glume hardened. 

Glumes 3 (the outer one deficient). 

Spikelets not callous at the base. Flowering glume not awned. — 15. 

Paspalum. 
Spikelets with a callous annulus or cup at the base. Flowering glume 
with a point or short awn. — 16. Eriochloa. 
Glumes 4. — 17. Panicum. 

Spikelets surrounded by or intermixed with abortive branches of the 
panicle, forming a lobed or bristly involucre. Fruiting glume 
hardened. 
Spikelets intermixed with long persistent bristle-like branches, and 

faUing ofi from them. — 18. Setaria. 
Involucres crowded or distant along a simple rachis, each enclosing 
1 to 3 spikelets and falling off with them. 

Involucres of numerous simple or plumose bristles completely 

surrounding the spikelet. — 20. Pennisetum. 
Involucre of several outer bristles and inner fiat lobes com- 
pletely surrounding 1 to 3 spikelets, and at length 
hardened. — 19. Cenchrus. 
Branches of the panicle produced beyond the base of the last spikelet. 
Fruiting glume stiff but scarious and rather thin. 

Spikelets solitary or few along the slender inarticulate 

branches of the panicle. — ^21. Chamseraphis. 
Spikelets few on the very short branches of a spike-Uke 
panicle, the common rachis broad and flat, at length 
articulate. — 23. Stenotaphrum. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEBN TEEBITORY. 23 

Spikes of few spikelets enclosed at the base in sheathing bracts. — 22. 
Xerochloa. 

Series II. Spikelets unisexual. Stems prostrate or divaricate. 

Spikelets monoecious in a simple spike, the upper ones male, the lower 
female. — 24. Thuarea. 

Spikelets dioecious, in dense heads. — 25. Spinifex. 

Tribe II. — Andropogoneae. — ^Fertile spikelets with one terminal her- 
maphrodite or female flower, with or without a male one below it. Glumes 4 
or rarely fewer, one of the outer ones (the largest) enclosing the fruit, the third 
smaller, thin and hyaline, sometimes wanting, the upper or flowering one very 
thin and hyaUne, often bearing a twisted and bent awn. A palea to each flower, 
sometimes very small or deficient in the fertile flower. Stamens 3, rarely 
fewer. 

Sub-tribe I. — Zoysieae. Spikelets soUtary or rarely in clusters of 2 or 3, 
inserted all round the inarticulate rachis of a simple spike or raceme. Awns 
none on the flowering glume, none or straight on the outer ones. 

Spikelets 2, rarely 3 or 4 together on very short pedicels. Glumes usually 
3, the larger one echinate, a minute outer one sometimes wanting, and a small 
hyaline flowering one. — 11. Tragus. 

Spikelets in a loose spike or raceme, very narrow. Glumes 3, the 2 outer 
ones with straight awns. — 12. Perotis. 

Spikelets single in a notched spike, with an awn at the base of the pedicel. 
13. Setosa. 

Sub-tribe II. — ^Rottboelliese. Spikelets awnless, in pairs or rarely sohtary, 
in alternate notches of the articulate rachis of a simple spike, one sessUe fertile 
and more or less embedded in the rachis, the other pedicellate. Spike 
1 -sided. 

Outer glume of the sessile spikelet hard and globular. Pedicellate 
spikelet barren. — 7. Manisuris. 

Spike nearly cylindrical. No pedicellate spikelet. — 6. Ophiurus. 
Spike nearly cyHndrical. Pedicellate spikelet barren or fertile. — ^5. RottboeUia. 

Sub-tribe III. — Maydese. Spikelets unisexual, the male usually pani- 
culate, the females spicate at the base of the males or in a separate inflorescence. 
Female spikelets below the males, the fruiting glume very hard, smooth and 
shining. — 1. Chionachne. 

Sub-tribe IV. — ^Euandropogonese. Spikelets in pairs or threes, rarely 
sohtary, one sessile and fertile and one or two pedicellate and male, neuter or 
rudimentary, rarely fertile or deficient. Flowering glume of the fertile spikelet 
usually awned or reduced to an awn. 

Spikelets in pairs along one side of a simple spike or of the spike-hke 
branches of a simple panicle. 

Spikes single or digitate. Sessile spikelet with a male flower below 

the fertile one. — 8. Ischsemum. 
Spikes digitate. Spikelets 1-flowered, solitary in the notches. — 2. 

Dimeria. 
Spikes digitate. Spikelets in pairs, both 1-flowered and usually fer- 
tile. — 4. PoUinia. 
Spikes sohtary, digitate, or several nearly sessile on a simple rachis. 
Sessile spikelet 1-flowered and fertile, pedicellate one male or 
neuter. — 9. Andropogon. 
Spikelets in pairs crowded on a short simple axis and enclosed by a large 
bract. 4a. Spathia. 



24 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

Spikelets in single or few pairs or triplets on the slender branches of a more 
or less compound panicle. — 3. Imperata. 

Spikelets in triplets (1 sessile and fertile between 2 pedicellate and male 
neuter or rudimentary) within sheathing bracts. — 10. Anthistiria. 

Sub-tribe V. — Tristeginese. Spikelets paniculate, all similar, the terminal 
flowering glume more or less stiffened or enlarged when in fruit almost as in 
Paniceae, but the awn twisted and bent as in Andropogonese. — 14. Arundinella. 

B. Poacese. Pedicels not articulate below the glumes. Rachis of the 
spikelet articulate above the 2 or 3 lowest glumes, or wholly continuous. Spike- 
lets with one or more fertile flowers, the males or imperfect ones if any above or 
very rarely below them. 

Tribe IV. — Phalarideae. Spikelets with one terminal hermaphrodite 
flower and rarely two male flowers lower down. Glumes 2 to 6, all keeled or 
with a central nerve, 2 below the articulation of the rachis persistent or in 
several genera deficient,, 4 or fewer above the articulation, of which 2 enclose 
the grain without any distinct 2-nerved palea. — 26. Oryza. 

Tribe V. — Steptatherae. Spikelets with 1, 2, or rarely several hermaphro- 
dite flowers, and rarely a male flower above or below. Flowering glume 
usually bearing an awn twisted in the lower part, bent or divided about the 
middle. Palea 2-nerved, usuaUy thin or small, awn, 3-branched. — 27. Aristida. 

Tribe VI. — Astreptae. Spikelets with several or in a few genera only 1 or 
2 hermaphrodite flowers, the rachis usually produced and often bearing 1 or 
more empty glumes above them. Flowering glumes unawned, or with 1 or 
more terminal untwisted awns. Palea prominently 2-nerved or 2-keeIed, 
usually as long or nearly as long as the glume. 

Sub-tribe I. — Pappophorese. Spikelet 1 or several- flowered, in a dense 
compound head or in a spike-Hke or looser panicle. Flowering glume rounded 
on the back, with three or more nerves leading to 3 or more terminal lobes or 
teeth all unawned or the central one or all tapering into untwisted awns. 

Spikelets with 1 perfect flower and one or more males or empty glumes in a 
short dense or loose panicle. Flowering glume with 9, or in extra- Australian 
species more, plumose awns. — 36. Pappophorum. 

Spikelets several- flowered, sessile in 2 rows on one side of 1 or 2 simple 
spikes. Lobes of the flowering glume 3, the central one alone awned. — 

33. Astrebla. 

Spikelets several- flowered, paniculate. 

Flowering glume with 3 narrow awned lobes. — 37. Triraphis. 
Flowering glume with 3 unawned lobes or teeth. — 39. Triodia. 

Sub-tribe II. — Chloridese. Spikelets 1 or several- flowered, sessile in simple 
secund or unilateral spikes, which are either solitary or digitate or scattered on 
a common rachis. Flowering glumes usually keeled, entire and unawned, or 
with 1, rarely 3, untwisted awns. 

Spikelets I-flowered, awnless, in a simple slender spike, the rachis of the 
spikelet not produced above the flower. — 30. Microchloa. 

Spikelets 1- flowered, awnless, in digitate spikes, the rachis of the spikelet 
not at all or minutely produced above the flower. — 31. Cjoiodon. 

Spikelets 1- flowered, awned, in a simple or in digitate spikes, with 1 or 
more empty glumes above the flowering one.^ — 32. Chloris. 

Spikelets several- flowered, awnless or with long-pointed glumes, in digitate 
or scattered spikes. Grain or seed within the pericarp loose and rugose. — 

34. Eleusine. 

Spikelets several or rarely 1- flowered, awnless, in scattered spikes. Grain 
smooth, the pericarp adnate. — 35. Leptochloa. 



THE FLOBA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 25 

Spikelets several- flowered, awnless, in a single or in scattered spikes. 
Flowering glumes with a minute point between 2 small hyaUne lobes. — 40. 
Diplachne. 

Sub-tribe III. — Miliese. Spikelets 1 or 2- flowered in a loose or narrow dense 
panicle, the rachis of the spikelet not produced above the upper flower. Outer 
glumes usually convex, several-nerved or almost nerveless, unawned. Flower- 
ing glumes nearly similar, unawned or with 1 straight awn. Grain free. 

Rachis of the spikelet glabrous or nearly so. Outer glumes faintly nerved. 
Flowering glumes unawned. — ^28. Sporobolus. 

Rachis of the spikelet hairy round the flowering glumes. 

Spikelets 2-flowered. Outer glumes many-nerved. Flowering glumes 
awned or unawned. — 29. Eriachne. 

Sub-tribe IV. — Festucacese. Spikelets several, often many- flowered in a 
loose or narrow or dense panicle or, capitate, the rachis of the spikelet usually 
produced beyond the last flower or ending in an empty glume; Outer glumes 
usually narrow acute, or rarely obtuse, unawned. Flowering glumes entire or 
slightly notched, obtuse, acute, or the keel or midrib produced into a point or 
straight awn. 

Empty glumes several, either above 1 or 2 flowering ones, or in a, separate 
spikelet. 

Several empty unawned glumes above 1 or 2 flowering ones. Panicle 
narrow and dense or loose and spreading. — 42. Ectrosia. 

Many empty glumes above 1 flowering one, all unawned. Panicle con- 
tracted into a dense sessile head or interrupted spike. — 43. Heterachne. 

Only 1 empty glume above the flowering ones, sometimes rudimentary or 
deficient. 

Spikelets usually flat, the flowering glumes keeled entire. — 38. 

Elytrophorus. 
Spikelets usually many- flowered. Flowering glumes 3-nerved. — 

41 . — ^Eragrostis . 
Spikelets few- flowered. Flowering glumes 5-nerved. — 44. Poa. 

Sub-tribe V. — Hordeacese. Spikelets 1 or several- flowered, sessile on the 
opposite sides of alternate notches of the rachis of a simple spike. Glumes 
entire, awned or unawned. — 45. Lepturus. 

1. CHIONACHNE, R.Br. 1838. 

1. C. cyathopoda, F. v. M.—Okej Creek. G. F. Hill (782), 16/2/1912. 
Recorded. Upper Victoria River, Hooker and Sturt's Creeks, F. v. M. ; 
Gulf of Carpentaria, Landsborough. 
Common food of large birds. 

2. DIMERIA, R.Br. Domithopoda, Trin. 
1. Dimeriatenera,Trin. — ^Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 321.) 

3. IMPERATA, Cyr. 
3. /. arundinacea, Cyr. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R.Br. 

4. POLLINIA, Trin. 1833. 

(Dactylus, Burm., 1768. Eulaha, Kunth, 1829. Leptatherum, Nees, 
1841. Mcrostegium, Nees, 1836. Nemastachys, Steud., 1855.) 

Third glume very small and hyaline or none. Awn contracted at the base 
into a narrow flexuose stipes. 



26 THE FLORA OS THE NOBTHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

Spikes several, often numerous. Spikelets both pedicellate, 2nd glume 
with a fine straight awn. Awn of the terminal glume long. 

Annual. Spikes 1| to 2 in. long. — 1. P. articulata. 
Perennial. Spikes 3 to 5 in. long. — 3. P. irritans. 

Spikes 2 or 3. Spikelet sessile ; 2nd glume not awned. 
Awn of the terminal glume short and fine. — 2. P. Cumingii. 
Third glume not much shorter than the second, thin and hyaline. Awn 
with a narrow hyaline 2-lobed dilatation at the base. — 4. P. Mackinlayi. 

1. P. articulata, Trin. — ^Port Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 146). 

2. P. Cumingii, Nees.—QO miles N.E., C. II., G. F. Hill (No. 292), 
7/6/1911. 

Near Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 199). Alt., 4000. 
22/5/1911. Near water. 79 miles N.W. of C. III., in desert west of 
Lander Creek. G. F. Hill (No. 343), 14/6/1911. Newcastle Waters. G. F. 
Hill (No. 492), 7/7/1911. Undunya Creek, near Finke River. G. F. Hill 
(No. 29), 3/3/1911. Grass in creek bed, 4 ft. high. At Black Rocks, 
MacArthur River. G. F. Hill (No. 650), 22/10/1911. Northern Territory. 
Gilruth and Spencer. July- Aug., 1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Dampier's 
Archipelago, A. Cunningham ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 466). 

3. P irritans Benth. — ^Arnhem's Land, M'Kinlay. 

4. P. Mackinlayi, F. v. M. — ^North Coast of Arnhem's Land, M'Kinlay. 

4a. SPATHIA, EWART. 

Spikes protected by large sheathing bracts which are enlarged bases of 
foHage leaves. Lamina persists, but is reduced ; it articulates with enlarged 
base and tends to be deciduous at the articulation. 

Inflorescence consists of one or two empty bracts at the base, and above 
them are larger bracts which completely surround the clusters of flowers. 
When young the lowest bracts ensheath the upper, but as the axis elongates 
they separate. Main axis of each condensed panicle is short, secondary axes 
are digitate, 3 or 4 at end of main axis. 

Spikelets are arranged in notches on secondary pedicels, 'wdth articulation 
at each node. Pedicels also branched at each node, and spikelets disarticulate 
in groups of two. The lower groups bear the stalks of the groups above. 

Spikelets 1- flowered and of two kinds. One is hermaphrodite with four 
glumes and two lodicules. Outer glume largest, cUiate ; second smaller and 
more membranous : third reduced, hyaHne ; fourth glume represented by an 
elongated awn, which is closely appHed to but free from the glume enclosing it. 

The upper spikelet, as far as can be determined, is sterile, but it may 
possibly be male. No stamens could be found in any upper spikelet. It con- 
sists of one large outer glume, which completely surrounds a rudimentary 
membraneous inner glume. 

The styles are distinct. The grain is enclosed in the outer glume, but is 
free from it. 

Spathia, neurosa. Ewart and Archer, (Plate I.) 

Stems about 1 ft. high ; nodes hairy. Leaves deciduous, lamina having 
definite articulation, which breaks readily. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHEBN TEBBITOEY. 27 

Spathes large with prominent veins. Spikelets covered with long brown 
hairs, which are chiefly on outer glume, second glume hairy along edges only. 
Awn long and twisted. 

30 miles S.E. of Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 504), 9/8/11. 

Affinities. Spathia appears to be intermediate between PoUinia and 
Andropogon. It approaches. Polhnia in the type of inflorescence, and partly 
in the structure of the lower spikelet. It agrees with Andropogon in having 
sterile (or male) spikelets grouped with the hermaphrodite ones. It differs 
from both genera in its large sheathing spathes, which are probably a xerophytic 
adaptation. Within them self-polhnation appears to take place, the spikelets 
disarticulating and escaping from the investing bracts after fertilization, when 
the seeds are ripe. 

5. ROTTBOELLIA, Linn. 1779. 

(Apogonia, Foum, 1883. Coelorachis, Brogn., 1829. Cymbachne, Retz., 
1791. Lasiurus, Boiss., 1859. Manisuris, Linn, 1767. Ophiurus Br. Pel- 
tophorus, Desv., 1810. Phacelurus, Griseb., 1844. Phohnurus, Trin., 1821. 
Stegosia, Lour, 1790.) 

The species form good fodder in the tropical parts of Queensland. 

No pedicellate spikelet. — 1. R. corymbosa. 

Pedicellate spikelet barren or fertile. 

Stems scarcely branched, with single spikes of 2 to 3 in., the articles of 
•the spike densely cihate at the top. Sessile spikelet 1- flowered, the outer 
glume silky villous. — 2. R. formosa. 

Stems usually branched. Peduncles solitary in the upper sheaths, with a 
spike of 3 to 6 in., quite glabrous. Sessile spikelet above two lines long ; 
1-flowered. 3. R. exaltata. 

Stems branched. Peduncles clustered in the upper sheaths, the spikes 
slender, under 3 in., glabrous. Sessile spikelet under two lines long ; 1-flowered 
— 4. R. ophiuroides. 

1. R. corymbosa, Linn. — Upper Victoria and Albert Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

2. R. formosa, B.Br. — ^Islands of the North Coast, R. Brown ; Depot 
Creek, Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; North Coast of Amhem's Land, 
M'Kinlay. 

3. R. exaltata, Benth. — Islands of the North Coast, R. Brown. 

4. R. ophiuroides, Benth. — ^Everywhere, N.A. Gilruth and Spencer, 
July-Aug., 1911. 

Borroloola. G. F. HiU (No. 789), 23/2/1912. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Victoria and Fitzmaurice 
Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 798). 

6. OPHIURUS, R. Bb. 
1. 0. Gorymbosus, Gaertn. — Victoria and Albert Rivers, Mueller. 

7. MANISURIS, SwABTz. 

1. M. granularis, Sw. — Depot and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 
A good pasture grass. 

8. ISCHAEMUM, Linn. 1742. 

(CoUadoa, Cav., 1799 ; Hologamium,Nees, 1835. ; Ischaemopogon, Griseb., 
1864 ; Meoschium, Beauv,, 1912 ; Schoenanthus, Adans, 1763 ; Schima, Forsk, 
1775). 

Sessile spikelet, 2- flowered, awnless. Pedicellate spikelet 1-flowered, 
awned. Outer glume membranous. Spikes 3 to 5. — 5. I. truncatiglumis. 



28 THE TLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Spikelets both 2- flowered and awned. Outer glume rigid. Spikes 2 to 3, 
rarely 4, erect, often appressed so as to appear like 1 cylindrical spike. Nodes 
glabrous. Stem tall, erect. — 1. I. arundinaceum. 

Nodes bearded. Stems 2 to 3 ft. high. Awn exserted. — 2. I. australe. 

Sessile spikelet 2- flowered, awned. Pedicellate spikelet unawned, with a 
male or without any flower. Spikes 2. — 3. I. decumbens. 

Spike solitary. PediceUate spikelets lanceolate, flattened, with 2 male 
flowers. — 4. I. laxxim. 

1. /. arundinaceum, F. v. M. — Roper River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, 
Sohultz (Nos. 30, 182, 815). 

2. /. australe, B.Br. — ^N. AustraHa, near Sea Range, F. v. Mueller. 
Var. villosum, Benth. — ^Near 5-Mile Bar, MacArthur River, G. F. HUl 

(No. 740), 6/2/1912. 

Recorded. North Coast, R. Brown. 

3. /. decumbens, Benth. — Port Darwin, Schultz, (No. 126). 

4. I. laxum, B. Brown. — ^Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 494), 
7/7/1911 ; MacArthur River, G. F. HiU (No. 743), 7/2/1912. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; mainland of the 
Gulf, Landsborough ; Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; Port Darwin, Schultz 
(No. 10) ; Arnhem's Land, M'Kinlay. 

5. /. truncatiglumis, F. v. M. — Arnhem's Land, F. v. MueUer. 

/. pectinatum, Trin, recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Austraha. 

9. ANDROPOGON, Linn. 1735. 

(Agenium, Nees, 1836. Alloianthena, Steud., 1855. AUoiatheros, Rafln, 
1830. Anadelphia, Hack, 1885. Anatherum, Beauv., 1912. Anthrostachys. 
Desv., 1831. Cymbachne, Retz., 1791. Cymbogon, Spreng, 1815. Dichan- 
thium, Willem, 1796. Drectonis, H. B. and K., 1815. Dischanthium, Kunth, 
1833. Eriopodium, Hochst, 1846. Exotheca, Anderss., 1856. Graya, Arn., 
1840. Gymnandropogon, Duthie, 1878. Depeocercis, Trin., 1820. Oropogon, 
Neck., 1790. Pithecurus, Willd., 1833. Schizachyrium, Nees, 3829. Schizo- 
pogon, Reichb., 1828. Vetiveria, Thou., 1827.) 

Spikelets in pairs along one side of a simple spike or of the spikehke 
branches of a simple panicle. 

Spike single. Spikelets unisexual, the awned females turned to one side, 
the awnless males imbricate behind them. (Heteropogon). 

Spikes about 2 in. long ; male spikelets 3 to 4 hnes. — 6. A. contortus. 
Spikes 3 to 6 in. long ; male spikelets \ in. — 18. A. triticeus. 

Spikes sohtary, digitate, or several nearly sessile on a simple rachis. 
Sessile spikelet 1- flowered and fertile pedicellate one male or neuter. (Andro- 
pogon.) 

- Spikes 2, 3 or more, clustered at the end of a peduncle without sheathing 
bracts, very rarely reduced to a single spike. 

Spikelets concealed or nearly so under copious long silky hairs. 

Long silky hairs on the back of the outer glumes as well as on the rachis 
and pedicels. — 17. A. sericeus. 

Long silky hairs only or chiefly on the rachis and pedicels. — 2. A. affinis. 

Spike silky hairy, but the hairs not covering the spikelets. 

Spikes 3 or 4 in a close cluster. Outer glumes obtuse or toothed. — 
3. A. annulatus. 

Spilies numerous, the common axis elongated. — 11. A. intermedins. 

Spikes 2 together on each peduncle within or above a sheathing bract. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEBN TERRITORY. 29 

Silky hairs long, concealing the spikelets or nearly so. 

Spikes erect. Awns prominent. 

Leaves long and broad. Stems tall and stout. — 15. A. procerus. 

Leaves flat and narrow. Spikes densely woolly. — 13. A. lanatus. 

Leaves wholly subulate or very narrow, tapering into long subulate points. 

Spikelets small. — 8. A. exaltatus. 

Spikes at length spreading or re flexed. 

Awns none or very fine and scarcely projecting. — 5. A. bombycinus. 

Hairs minute. Spikes soon re flexed. Awns very short or none. — 
16. A. refractus. 

Peduncles axillary or terminal, bearing each a single spike above a narrow 
sheathing bract. — 9. A., fragilis. 

Spikelets in single or few pairs or triplets on the slender branches of a more 
or less compound panicle. 

Outer glume either membranous or narrow and rigid, with two promi- 
nent often muricate lateral nerves. (Chrj'sopogon). 

Spikelets 3 to 5 lines long, 1 fertile and 2 pedicellate ones to each 
branch, second glume of the fertile one awned. Awn of the 
terminal one long and rigid. — 10. A. Gryllus. 

Spikelets scarcely 1|- lines long, 1 to 3 fertile besides the pedi- 
cellate ones on each branch, second glume awnless. — 14. A. 
montanus. 

Spikelets 2| to 3 Unes long, 3 to 5 fertUe besides the pedicellate 
ones on each branch. Panicle narrow, usually compact. 

Panicle 3 to 4 in. long, second glume of the fertile spikelet 

acute awnless. — 1. A. aoieularis. 
Panicle 4 to 10 in. long, second glume of the fertile spikelet 

shortly awned. — 1. A. elongatus. 

Outer glume when in fruit hard, smooth and shining, ovate or lanceo- 
late. (Sorghum). 

Nodes bearded. Fruiting spikelets lanceolate, 2J to 4 lines long 
villous. Awn usually long. Ovary glabrous. — 4. A. aus- 
trahs. 

Nodes bearded. Fruiting spikelets ovoid, 2 Unes long, some- 
times with a short conical apex, villous. Awn not very 
long. Ovary glabrous. — 18. A. triticeus. 

Nodes glabrous. Fruiting spikelets lanceolate, about four Unes 
long, viUous. Awn very long. Ovary crowned by tuft of 
hairs. — 12. A. intrans. 

1. A. acicularis, Kunth. (Chrysopogon acicularis, Trin.). — Abel Tasman 
River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. A. affinis, R.Br. — Between Bauhinia Downs and Tanumbirini, 
G. F. HiU (No. 820), 26/3/1912. 

A very good fodder grass. 

3. A. annulatus, Forsk. [var. macrostachya). — Red Lily Lagoon, Roper 
River, G. P. HiU (No. 838), 7/4/1912. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 
Good stock grass. 

4. A. australis, Spreng (Sorghum plumosum. Beauv.). — 30 miles N E. 
Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 503), 9/8/1911. 

Near Parson's River. G. F. HiU (No. 817), 24/3/1912. 



30 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHBRN TEEEITOEY. 

Lat. 29 degrees, 16 minutes, N.T. Survey Route, G. F. Hill (No. 427), 
4/7/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Victoria River, 

F. V. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 188) ; Escape Cliffs, Hulse ; Arn- 
hem's Land, M'Kinlay. 

Good feed before seeding. 

5. A. bomhycinus, R.Br. — Sandstone Ranges, near Tanumbirini, G. F. 
HUl (No. 811), 26/3/1912. 

Amongst rocks not plentiful, of doubtful fodder value. 

Black Rocks, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 652), 23/10/1911. 

6. A. contortus, Linn (Heteropogon contortus. Eoem. and Schult). — Ash- 
burton Range, Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 483), 29/7/1911. 

Roper River, Gihuth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Newcastle Waters, G. F. HiU (No. 467), 15/7/1911. 

Between Borroloola and Tanumbirini, G. F. Hill (No. 813), 26/3/1912. 
On boggy country. 

Okey Creek, G. F. HUl (No. 785), 16/2/1912. On plains. 

Head of Kilgour River, G. F. HiU (No. 467), 30/8/1911. 

Northern Territory, GUruth and Spencer, July -August, 1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the North Coast, R. Brown ; Victoria River, EJsey ; 
Strangeways River, M'Douall Stuart ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 10, l46, 
151) ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

Bunch spear grass. 

By nO means a desirable grass. Frequently bores into the skin and in- 
testines of animals, causing fatal iaUammation and peritonitis. Cattle eat it 
when it is young, but it has been stated that in Ceylon they do not touch it. 

7. A. dongatus, Spreng. {Chrysopogon elongatus, Benth.). — Borroloola, 

G. F. HUl, 23/2/1912. Near creeks and springs. 

Edith Creek, GUruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 
North Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, G. F. HiU (No. 619), 20/10/1911. 
Recorded. Coen River, Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Albert River, 
Landsborough ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

8. A. exaltatus, R.Br. — ^Meyer's Camp, near Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell 
Ranges, G. F. HUl (No. 193), 23/5/1911. Alt., 4000 ft. 

Var. lanatus. iJ.5r.— Near Darwin, G. F. HUl (2nd Series, 93), 26/7/1913. 
Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. HUl (No. 70), 11/3/1911. 
Recorded. Islands of the North Coast, R. Brown ; Sturt's Creek, F. v. 
MueUer ; Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cunningham ; Walcot. 

9. A. fragilis, R. Brown. — ^Upper Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz. 

10. A. Gryllus, Linn. (Chrysopogon Gryllus, Trin). — ^Near Hermansburg, 
Finke River, G. F. HUl (Nos. 102 and 103), 20/3/1911. 

Borroloola, G. F. HiU (Nos. 609, 713 and 790), 9/10/1911 ; 13 and 25/1/1912. 
Five MUe Bar, MacArthur River, G. F. HiU (Nos. 737 and 738), 25 and 
28/1/1912. 

Near Hugh River, MacdonneU Ranges, G. F. HUl (No. 140), 4/5/1911. 

Roper River, GUruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Okey Creek, G. F. HiU (No. 781), 16/2/1912. 

Northern Territory, GUruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Borroloola to Roper River, G. F. HUl, (No. 814), 26/3/1912. 

60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. HiU (No. 291), 7/6/1911. 

40 mUes S.S.W. of Newcastle Waters, G. F. HiU (No. 457), 8/7/1911. 



THE FLORA OP THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 31 

Borroloola, G. P. Hill, 23/2/1912. Specimen with smut. 

A good summer grass. 

" Excellent fooder grass. Probably one of the best grasses for horses in 
the Northern part of the Northern Territory." 

Recorded. Cygnet Bay, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, Sturt's Creek 
and Abel Tasman River, F. v. Mueller ; Gulf of Carpentaria, Landsborough, 
GuUiver. 

11. A. intermedius, R.Br. — Newcastle Waters, G. P. Hill (No. 493), 
7/7/1911. 

Five-mile Bar, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 742), 4/2/1912. 
Recorded. Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 
A good grass, producing a large quantity of excellent fodder. 

12. A. intrans, F. v. M. {Sorghum intrans, F. v. M.}. — ^Five-mile Bar, 
MacArthur River, G. F. HiH (No. 739), 20/1/1912. 

MacArthur River, G. F. HiU (No. 731), 6/2/1912. 
Northern Territory, G. F. Hill, 1911. 

Recorded. Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 
31, 149, 185) ; Lagrange Bay, Hughan. 

13. A. lancUus, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong. 

14. A. monianus, Roxh. (Ghrysopogom parviflorus, Benth.). — Batchelor 
Farm, G. F. HiU (2nd Series, No. 49), 23/1/1913. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

Scented golden-beard. 

Produces a large quantity of coarse fodder. 

15. A. procerus, R.Br. — ^Near Darwin, GUruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Sandstone Ranges, near Tanumbirini, G. F. HiU (No. 812), 26/3/1912. 
Among rocks. 

Haast's Bluff, MacdonneU Ranges, G. F. HiU (No. 182), 17/5/1911 Alt 
4000 ft. 

AUce Springs, G. F. HiU (No. 128), 24/4/1911. 

Recorded, Groote Island, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria River, F. v Mueller • 
Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 60, 147, 150, 241, 262). 

Lavender-scented grass on hiUs. 

16. A. refractus, R.Br. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 
Barbed-wire grass. 

A coarse pasture-grass. 

17. A. sericeus, R.Br. — ^Abraham's Lagoon, GUruth and Spencer Julv- 
August, 1911. 

Top Spring, G. F. HiU (No. 549), 31/8/19n-. 

Borroloola, G. F. ffiU (No. 693), 14/2/1912. 

Bauhinia Downs, Tanumbirini, G. F. Hill (No. 818), 26/3/1912. Very 
good stock grass ; grows in rich soU. 

55 miles S.E. of Newcastle Waters, G. F. HUl (No. 511), 26/3/1911. 

Blue grass ; exceUent for pasture. 

Var. polystachyus, Benth. — Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. MueUer ; 
Albert River and Sweers Island, Henne ; Escape CUffs, Hulse. 

Tassel Blue Grass. 

18. A. triticeus, R.Br. — ^Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
R.Br. ; Arnhem's Land, M'Kinlay ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 30) ; Port 
Essington, Armstrong ; Bountiful Island, Henne. 



32 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

A. punctatus, Roxh. ; A. brevif alius, Sw. ; A. micranthus, Kunth ; A. 
serratus, Thun. Recorded in National Herba,rium Census from North Australia. 

Some of the species of Andropogon are excellent fodder plants, while some 
have produced valuable oils. 

10. ANTHISTIRIA, Linn. 1779. 

(Androscepia, Brogn., 1829 ; Aristaria, Jungh., 1840 ; Exotheca, Anderss., 
1856; Germainia, Balansa and Poitras, 1873; Heterelytron, Jungh., 1840; 
Iseiiema, Anderss., 1856; Perobachne, PresL, 1830; Themeda, Forsk., 1775). 
The 4-whorled barren spikelets sessile. Awn very long and rigid. 
Spikelets in dense compound clusters, sessile within the bracts. 

Bracts glabrous. Barren spikelets glabrous or sprinkled with 
long ciUa. Fertile spikelet glabrous or shortly pubescent at 
the end. — 3. A. imberbis. 
Bracts sprinkled with long spreading hairs. Spikelets nearly of 
A. imberbis. — 1. A. frondosa. 

Spikelets with the surrounding barren ones on slender.pedicels within 
the sheathing bracts. Barren spikelets glabrous. Fertile one 
densely villous with brown hairs. — 2. A. gigantea. 

The four-whorled barren spikelets pedicellate ; all the spikelets glabrous ; 
awns very fine. — 4. A. membranacea. 

1. A. frondosa, E. Br. — ^Recorded. Islands off the North Coast, R. 
Brown ; Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 155, 
180, 217). 

2. A. gigantea, Cav. (A. avena^ea, F. v. M.). — 15 miles E. of Hermans- 
burg Mission Station, Finke River, G. P. Hill (No. 100), 29/3/1911. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 
Oat Kangaroo Grass. 

3. A. imberbis, Retz. {A. ciliata, Linn). — Five-mile Bar, MacArthur 
River, G. F. HiU (No. 718), 19/1/1912. 

Edith Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, Juty- August, 1911. 
Henbury Station, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 48), 10/3/1911. 
Kangaroo Grass. 

4. A. membranacea, Lindl. — Tanumbirini, G. F. Hill (No. 815), 26/3/1912. 
Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 472), 17/7/1911. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller, Gregory ; Nichol Bay, Mrs. 
Crouch. One of the best grasses for stock. 

11. TRAGUS, Hall. 

1. T. racemosus Hall. (Lappago racemosa Willd.). — Sturt's Creek, F. v. 
Mueller. 

Small Burr Grass. 

12. PEROTIS, AiT. 1789. 

{Xystidium., Trin. 1820). 

1. P. latifolia. Ait. (P. rara, E. Br.). — Bauhinia Downs to Tanumbirini, 
G. F. Hill (No. 816), 25/3/1912. 

Margin of Claypan, Chewing's Well, G. F. Hill (No. 404), 1/7/1911. 
Comet River Grass. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 33 

Before seeding forms a good leafy pasture. Of no value for stock after 
flowering. 

Recorded. Between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, Gulliver'; in the in- 
terior of Arnhem's Land, M'DouaU Stuart. 

13. SETOSA, EwART. 

Spikelets two- flowered, one terminal hermaphrodite flower with a male 
one below it. 

Glumes unawned, but a long straight awn arises laterally from the pedicel 
of spikelet, close to the articulation of the latter with the main axis. Outer 
glumes three of unequal size, lowest being very small and scale like, middle one 
long, while third is smaller than latter and functions as the flowering glume 
of male flower. Stamens of hermaphrodite flower have broad filaments and 
small- functionless anthers. Grain is enclosed by hardened pale and flowering 
glume, but is free from them. Hilum is rounded. 

Setosa erecta, Ewart and Cookson. (Plate II.) 

A harsh, stiff grass, about 2 ft. high, erect stems arising from a glabrous, 
horizontal, rhizome. Nodes sHghtly hairy, leaves and stem glabrous. 

Leaves linear, blades short, decreasing in length as the^' approach top of 
stem, and ending in a bluntly rounded point. 

Inflorescence a spike-hke raceme 3 to 4 in. long, spikelets borne on a 
triangular-shaped pedicel, which is attached laterally to a much- flattened, 
curved and unsegmented axis. 

Spikelets 6 to 7 hues long, flattened dorso-ventrally, two- flowered, upper 
terminal flower hemaphrodite, a male one below it. A long awn, scabrous, with 
short stiff points, arises laterally from the pedicel close to the articulation of 
latter with main axis. Pedicel is slightly hairy. 

Outer glumes three, unawned, scabrous, with extremely small pointed 
hairs interspersed with a few longer rigid ones, one of the three functioning as 
flowering glume to the male flower. Lowest outer glume is very minute, 
colourless, scale-like and deciduous. Middle outer glume large, 4 to 5 lines 
long ; leathery, 9- 11 -nerved and ending in a blunt tip. 

Male flower. Flowering glume is smaller than large outer glume, 3.5 to 
4 Unes long, but of same texture with 7 to 11 nerves. Palea as long as the flower- 
ing glume, thin and papery, enclosing three stamens, two large lodicules. 

Hermaphrodite flower smaller than male flower, about 2 lines long.' Both 
flowering glume and palea are thin and hyaline, palea being enclosed by the flower- 
ing glume. Lodicules two, large. Stamens three, with broad flat filaments, 
small anthers, as long as broad with sagittate base and apex. These stamens 
seem to be degenerating, the function of pollen production being transferred to 
the stamens of male flower. Styles distinct, sharply curved at the base of 
two large feathery stigmas. Grain elongated, enclosed in hardened palea and 
flowering glume, but free from them. HUum rounded. 

Plant seems weU adapted to xerophilous conditions. In section of 
rhizome a thick, complete band of sclerenchyma is seen, in. which the outer 
ring of vascular bundles is embedded. 

The leaf is covered on upper surface by a thick cuticle, which is raised into 
little finger-hke projections. Sclerenchyma is also present over each bundle. 

Relationships. — Systematic position of this grass is doubtful. In the 
presence of three outer glumes, of which the third serves as flowering glume of 
male flower, and in the nature of the inflorescence it resembles Neurachne 
among the Zoysese. The first small glume would indicate a relationship to the 
Tristeginese, but here all the flowers are hermaphrodite. 



34 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

The awn is altogether pecuhar in position, and its homology is doubtful. 
It is possible that the genus may ultimately form the basis of an additional 
subsection of the Andropogoneae. 

Five-mile Bar Camp, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 705), 30/12/11. 

14. ARIHSTDINELLA, Raddi. 1823. 

(Acratherum, Link, 1934 ; Brandtia, Kunth., 1830 ; Calamochloe, Reicht., 
1828 ; Goldbaohia, Trin., 1821 ; Riedeha, Trin., 1833 ; Thysanaohne, Presl., 
1829). 

Outer glume nearly as long as the spikelet, with a short point. — 1. A. 
nepalensis. 

Outer glume about halt the spikelet, with a long point. — 2. A. Schultzii. 

1. A. ne2}alensis, Trin. — Abraham's Lagoon, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. A. Schultzii, Benth. — Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 31). 

15. PASPALUM, Linn. 

Spikes 2 to 5, usually distant. Spikelets orbicular or broadly ovate, 
obtuse, about 1 line long. — 2. P. scrobiculatum. 

Spikes 2 or 3, digitate or nearly so. Spikelets ovate, about | hne long. — 
1. P. longiflorum. 

1. P. longiflorum, Retz. (P brevifolium, Fluegge.) Var. propinquum, 
Benth. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; between M'Adam Range and Provi- 
dence Hill, F. V. Mueller. 

2. P. scrobiculatum, Linn. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
M'Adam Range and Roper River, F. v. Mueller ; between Norman and Gil- 
bert Rivers, GuUiver ; Sweers Island, Henne ; Escape Chffs, Hulse ; Sims 
Island, A. Cunningham. 

Ditch MiUet. 

16. ERIOCHLOA, Humb. and Kunth. 

1. E. punctata, Hamilt. — ^Near Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller. 
Early Spring Grass. 
Excellent for pasture or hay. 

17. PANICUM, Linn. 1735. 

(Acicarpa, Raddi., 1823 ; Bluffia, Nees, 1835 ; Brachiaria, Griseb., 1853 
Digitaria, Heist., 1763 ; DUencaden, Rafin., 1840 ; Echinochloa, Beauv., 1812 
Eriachne, Phil., 1871 ; Eriolytrum, Desv., 1829 ; Holosetum, Steud., 1850 
Milium, Adans., 1763 ; Pseudoraphis, Griff., 1851 ; SanguineUa, Gleichen., 
1764 ; Syntherisma, Walb., 1788 ; Thalasium, Spreng., 1827). 

Some species contain prussic acid. Most species are good for stock, and 
would form excellent hay, but should then be cultivated, and cut when in 
flower. 

Series I. Digitariece. — Spikelets mostly in pairs along the outer or lower 
side of the simple slender branches of the panicle, one of each pair always 
pedicellate the other sessile or on a shorter pedicel, the upper ones of each 
branch occasionally sohtary, the lower ones very rarely clustered. Outer 
glume usually very small. 

Branches of the panicle often numerous, the lower ones long and verticil- 
late, the upper ones scattered. — 32. P. papposum. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHBEN TEEEITOEY. 35 

Branches of the panicle few, digitate or clustered at the end of the peduncle. 
Branches 3 to 8. Spikelets of each pair similar, both fertile, glabrous 

or softly ciliate. — 30. P. sanguinale. 
Branches usually 2. Spikelets of each pair dissimilar. — 7. P. cten- 
anthum. 
Branches of the panicle scattered or the upper ones approximate, the lower 
ones rarely clustered and not verticiUate. 

Branches usually 2 or 3, distant, 1 to 1| in. long. — 33. P. steno- 

stachyum. 
Branches often numerous, 2 to 6 in. long. — 23, P. parviflorum. 

Series II. Trichachneoe. — Spikelets silky-hairy, or fringed with long 
hairs, sessile or shortly pedicellate, clustered or rarely in pairs along the rachis 
of the simple spike-Uke panicle or of the two or few long erect branches. 

Spike single. Spikelets mostly in pairs, about 1 hne long, silky hairy, 
the outer glume deficient. — 12. P. gibbosum. 

Spike-like branches few or spike single. -Spikelets mostly clustered, 
1 to 1| lines long, the outer glume present but small and often concealed by the 
long silky hairs. — 18. P. leucophceum. 

Spike-hke branches few. Spikelet 2 to 2^ Knes long, fringed with long 
hairs connected by a prominent nerve or membrane. Glumes with fine points. 
— 31. P. semialatum. 

Series III. PaspaloidecB. — Spikelets sessile or very shortly pedicellate, 
in one or two rows, very rarely in pairs, along the short simple alternate often 
distant spikes or spike-like branches of the panicle, rarely reduced to a single 
terminal spike. 

Spikes erect, distant or single. Spikelets usually sessile. 

Spike single, terminal. Spikelets glabrous, singly distant or the 

lowest in pairs. — 28. P. rarum. 
Spikes several distant. Spikelets with long silvery hairs. 
Spikelets truncate, singly distant. — 2. P. argenteum. 
Spikelets ovoid, often approximate. — 16. P. holosericeum. 
Spikes several distant. Spikelets glabrous in two close rows. 

Spikelets oblique, 1 to IJ lines long in two close regular rows, 
second glume broad gibbous, third glume flatter, with a 
palea in its axil. — 10. P. flavidum. 
Spikelets nearly straight, 1 to 1-| lines long, the rows not always 
regular and sometimes very few in the spike, second and 
third glumes nearly equal ; both empty. — 14. P. gracUe. 

Spikes usually approximate, erect or at length spreading. Spikelets not 
so closely sessile and frequently subtended by hairs or bristles. 

Spikelets about 1 line long, frequently in pairs. A palea in the third 
glume. Fruiting glume obtuse, rarely tipped with a minute 
# point. — ^27. P. prostratum. 

Spikelets nearly 2 hnes long, in two rows. A broad palea in the 
third glume. Fruiting glume obtuse, with an awn-like point. — 
15. P. helopus. 
Spikelets nearly 2 Unes long, in two rows. A broad palea in the 3rd 
glume, which is cihate with long hairs. Fruiting glume obtuse 
with a short point. — 13. P. Gilesii. 
Spikelets nearly 2 fines long, in two rows. Third glume empty. 
Fruiting glume obtuse, without any point. Leaves hairy. — 24. 
P. piligerum. 

(And 1st species of Paniculatae). 



36 THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHEEN TEREITOEY. 

Spikes distant, at length spreading or re flexed. Spikelets alternate along 
the rachis, but not close and appearing almost uniseriate. 

Leaves pubescent. Spikelets distant on a slender rachis. — 25. P. 

polyphyllum. 
Leaves glabrous. Spikelets near together on a flattened rachis. — 
9. P. distachyum. 

Series IV. Echinochloae. — Spikelets sessile and crowded in three or four 
rows or irregularly along the simple alternate usually seound spikes or spike- 
like branches of the panicle. Glumes sometimes awned. 

Spikelets about 1 line long, never awned, densely crowded in four rows 
along the rachis, without hairs or bristles. — 6. P. colonum. 

Spikelets IJ to 2 lines long, acuminate or awned, crowded and clustered 
along the rachis, usually intermixed with rigid hairs or bristles. — 6. P. Crus- 
gaUi. 

Series V. Myuroideae. — Spikelets not silky, crowded and clustered in a 
dense continuous or rarely interrupted cylindrical spike-like panicle. 

Spikelets ovoid, obtuse, J to | line long. — 20. P. myosuroides. 

Spikelets acuminate, curved, 1 to IJ lines long or rather more. — 25. P. 
pihgerum. 

Series VI. Paniculatae. — Panicle branches usually more or less divided. 
Spikelets all pedicellate (except sometimes first four species). Panicle branches 
scarcely divided. ■ Spikelets few, rarely more numerous, scarcely under 2 lines 
long. No male flowers. 

Spikelets nearly or sometimes quite sessile. — 11. P. foliosum. 
Spikelets few, distinctly pedicellate in a loose spreading panicle. 

Spikelets 3 hues long, glabrous. Fruiting glume raised above the 
others on a stipes dilated at the top. Panicle pedunculate. — 19. 
P. majusculum. 
Spikelets 2 lines long, glabrous. Fruiting glume raised above the 
others. Panicle scarcely exceeding the floral leaves. — 24. P. 
pauciflorum. 
Panicle narrow or spreading. Spikelets numerous, 1 to near 2 hues long. 
A male flower in the third glume. 
• Spikelets crowded on the smaller branches. Glumes acute or acumi- 
nate ; nerves of the second very prominent and rigidly ciliate. — 
32. P. semitonsum. 
Spikelets crowded or clustered on the smaller branches. Glumes 

acute or acuminate, not ciliate. — 1. P. antidotale. 
Spikelets often numerous, shortly pedicellate not clustered. Glumes 

acute or acuminate. — 29. P. repens. 
Spikelets numerous, on rather long pedicels. Glumes acute. — 4. P. 
capilhpes. 
Spikelets ^ to f Hne long. No male flower. — 35. P. trichoides. * 
Spikelets usually numerous, 1 to near 2 lines long, pedicellate. No male 
flower. — 3. P. Bunoei. 

Panicle spreading with numerous capillary branches. 

Lower panicle branches clustered but scarcely verticillate. — 8. P. 

deoompositum. 
Lower panicle branches verticillate. Outer glume nearly as long as 
the others. A palea in the third glume. — 34. P. trachyrhachis. 

1. P. antidotale, iJefe.— 160 miles N. of Camp IV., G. F. Hill (No. 428), 
4/7/1911. 



THE TLOBA OF THE NOB.THBEN TBBBITORY. 37 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, Point Cunningham, Cygnet Bay, A. Cunningham, 
Enderby Island, Walcot. 

2. P. argenteum, It. Br. — Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
R. Brown. 

Silver-spiked Grass. A decorative as well as a useful pasture grass. 

3. P. Buncei, F. v. if.— Near Bauhinia Downs, G. P. Hill (No. 821), 
22/3/1912. 

Sandy soil near creeks. Fair stock grass. 
Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 607), 9/10/1911. 

4. P. capillipes, Benth. — Batchelor Farm, G. F. Hill (2nd Series, No. 42), 
23/1/1913. 

Recorded. Escape CUfFs, Hulse ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 806). 

5. P. colonum, Benth. — Port Essington, Armstrong ; Upper Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller. 

A good fodder grass. 

6. P. Grus-galli.—Lake Woods, G. F. HiU (No. 484), 3/8/1911. 
Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 727), 13/1/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River and M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller. 
Cockshin Grass. Excellent fodder. Seeds form bird food. 

7. P ctenanthum, F. v. M. — Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, F. v. Mueller ; 
Dampier's Archipelago, Walcot. 

8. P. decompositum, B. Br. — Five-mile Bar, MacArthur River, G. F. 
Hill (No. 741), 6/2/1912. 

Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 476), 17/7/1911. 

Cullen Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

10 miles W. of Hugh River, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 155), 
6/5/1911. Alt., 2500 ft. 

Camp III., Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 320), 10/6/1911. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Victoria and Fitzmaurice 
Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Cygnet Bay, A. Cunningham. Barley Grass, Papa 
Grass, an excellent pasture grass. Seed used by natives as food. 

9. P. distachyum, Linn. — ^Northern Territory, Gilruth and Spencer, July 
August, 1911. 

10. P. flavidum, Betz. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

11. P. foliosum, B. Br.— Okey Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 783), 16/2/1912. 
A good fodder grass ; good foliage and abundance of grain. 

12. P. gibbosum, R. Br. — ^North Coast, R. Brown ; Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

13. P- Gilesii, Benth. — Charlotte Waters, Giles. 

14. P gracile, B. Br. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

15. P helopus, Trin. Var. glabrior, Benth. — Lower Victoria River 
F. V. Mueller. 

16- P. holosericeum, R. Br. — Near Western Creek, G. F. Hill (No 752) 
15/2/1912. 

Recorded. Islands of the GuH of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 14, 113, 136, 138, 830) ; Arnhem's 
Land, M'Kinlay. 

17. P. indicum, Linn. — ^Near M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller ; Port Dar- 
wm, Schultz (No. 184) ; between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, Gulliver. 



38 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

18. P. leucophaeum, H.B.K. (P. lanatum, Rottb.). — ^25 miles N.E. of 
Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 246), 7/6/1911. 

Camp III., Lander Creek, G. P. Hill (No. 321), 10/6/1911. 
35 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 255), 7/6/1911. 

19. P. majusculum, F. v. M. — ^Northern Territory, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July -August, 1911. 

Recorded, Victoria River, Elsey. 

20. P. myosuroides, R. Br. — Victoria River, P. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 344). 

21. P- orthostachyum, Ewart and Davies {Digitaria orthostachyus, Stapf 
mid Jessoji).— Darwin, G. F. Hill (Series III., No. 4), 2/3/1914. 

Sandstone Ranges, Western Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 750), 15/2/1912. 

Near Darwin, C. J. F. Allen, Jan.-March, 1914. 

This species was first collected in 1912, and was in process of description as 
a new species, when it was found that specimens collected in 1914 had been for- 
warded to Kew, and described by Stapf and Jesson (Kew Bulletin, 1915, p. 93) 
as a new species under Digitaria. There is nothing to add to the description 
given. Large as is the genus Panicum (300 species) it is not larger than such 
genera as Eucalyptus, Acacia, and Euphorbia, and the morphological dis- 
tinctions upon which its subdivision into smaller genera is based are not larger 
than those existing in the genera mentioned. 

22. P. papposum, R. Br. — ^Five-mile Bar, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill 
(No. 701), 30/12/1911. 

Recorded. Arnhem South Bay, R. Brown. 

23. P.parviflorum, R. Br. Var. pilosa. Bail. — Five-mile Bar, MacArthur 
River, G. F. HUl (No. 707), 30/12/1911. Good pasture. 

24. P. pauciflorum, R. Sr.— Near Western Creek, G. F. Hill, 15/2/1912. 
Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

25. P. piligerum, F. v. M. — ^Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. An excellent 
hay grass. 

26. P. polyphyllum, R. Br. — ^Islands off the North Coast, R. Brown ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darv/in, Schultz (Nos. 34, 148, 191, 818). 

27. P. prostratum, Lam. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Gulf of 
Carpentaria, Landsborough. 

28. P. rarum, R. Br. — Islands of the N. Coast, R. Brown. 

29. P. repens, Linn. — ^N.W. Coast, Point Cunningham, Cygnet Bay, 
A. Cunningham ; Enderby Island, Walcot. 

30. P. sanguinale, Linn. — ^Northern Territory, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July-August, 1911. 

Five-mile Bar Camp, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 706), 30/12/1911. 

Recorded. Port Essington, Armstrong. 

Poisonous. According to Greshoff acts as emetic. Contains Prussic 
Acid (Brunnich). Summer grass. Excellent for hay (Bailey), but a weed in 
cultivation. 

31. P. semialatum, R. Br. — Five-mile Bar, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill 
(No. 536), 28/1/1912. 

Northern Territory, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 
Borroloola, G. F. Hill (Nos. 659 and 712), 5/12/1911 and 13/1/1912. 
MacArthur River, at Black Rocks, G. F. Hill (No. 651), 22/10/1911. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 3& 

Upper Victoria River and M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller ; Escape Cliffs, 
Hulse ; Sweers Island, Henne ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 146, 192, 662, 784, 
801) ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

32. P. semitonsum, F. v. M. — ^Victoria River, Elsey ; Near Providence 
Hill, F. V. MueUer. 

33. P. stenostachyum, Benth. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. MueUer. 

34. P trachyrhachis, 5ewife.-^ Victoria River, Elsey ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 343) ; Amhem's Land, M'Kinlay. Coolibar grass. 

35. P. trichoides, Sw. — Port Darwin, Schultz. (No. 264). 

P. tubulatum, Haeck. ; P. brevifolium, Linn. ; P. effusum, R. Br. ; P. 
Mitchelli, Benth. ; recorded in National Herbarium Census from North Aus- 

18. SET ARIA, Beauv. 1807. 
{Iscyphorus Schhcht, 1861-2). 

Fruiting glume transversely rugose. AwnUke panicle-branches, scabrous, 
with erect teeth. 

Panicle cylindrical, simple, 1 to IJ in. long, the spikelets soHtary 

at the base of the awn-hke branches. — 1. S. glauca. 
Panicle dense or interrupted, 3 to 8 in. long, the spikelets clustered 
near the base of the awnlike branches. — 2. S. macrostachya. 
Fruiting glume smooth. Spikelets more or less clustered. 

Awnlikp, panicle branches, scabrous, \^ith erect teeth. — 4. S. viridis. 
Awnlike panicle branches, scabrous, \Vith reversed teeth. — 3.S. 
verticillata. 

1. S. glauca, Beauv. — Batchelor Farm, G. F. Hill (2nd Series, No. 40), 
23/2/1913. 

Recorded by various collectors from numerous locahties. Pigeon grass. 
A good fodder. 

2. S. macrostachya, H. B. K. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill 
(No. 79), 12/3/1911. 

Recorded. Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 272). Good fodder. 

3. 8. verticillata, Beauv. — Dampier's Archipelago and Nichol Bay, Walcot. 

4. 8. viridis, Beauv. — Five-mile Bar Camp, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill 
(No. 702), 30/12/1911. 

Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cunninghan. 

19. CENCHRUS, Linn. 

Leaves glabrous. Involucre under 4 lines long, the inner bristles or lobes 
lanceolate, not cihate, inflexed when in fruit. — 2. C. inflexus. 

Leaves softlj^ villous. Involucres 5 lines long, the inner bristles or lobes 
shortly cihate. Spikelets usually three. — 1. C. elymoides. 

1. C. elymoides, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. MueUer; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (Nos. 59, 193). A coarse tropical fodder grass. 

2. C. inflexus, R. Br. — ^Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown. Hillside Burr 
Grass. 

C. tribuloides, £.— Darwin, G. F. HUl, (2nd Series, No. 57), 1/4/1913. 
An introduced alien. 

20. PENNISETUM, Rich. 
1 . P. arnhemicum, F. v. m. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. MueUer. 
P. refractum, F. v. M. ; recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
AustraUa. 



40 THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHBBN TBRBITOEY. 

21. CHAMAER APHIS, R. B. 

Panicle spreading, with distant spikelets on filiform branches. Fruiting 
glume short and obtuse, — 2. C. spinescens. 

Panicle spikelike and close, the spikelets all solitary at the base of the long 
awnlike branches. Fruiting glume acuminate. Outer glume scarcely promin- 
ent, callous and truncate. — 1. C. hordeacea. 

1. C. hordeacea, R. Br. — Islands off the North Coast, R. Brown. 

2. C. spinescens, Poir. — Var. parvispicula, Benth. — Islands of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, R. Brown ; between the Norman and Gilbert Rivers, Gulliver. 

22. XEROCHLOA, R. Br. 1810. 

Spikelets glabrous. — 2. X. imberbis. 

Pedicel second glume and palea of the third glume densely bearded, at 
least in the upper spikelets. — 1. X. barbata. 

Pedicel second glume and palea of the third glume covered with long 
intricate woolly hairs. — 3. X. laniflora. 

1. X. barbata, R. Br. — Carrington's Landing, MacArthur River, G. F. 
Hill (No. 594), 20/9/1911. 

160 miles W. of Camp IV., G. F. Hill (No. 422), 3/7/1911. 
Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. IBrown ; Albert River, 
Henne. 

2. X. imberbis, E. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Cygnet Bay, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; 
Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 337). 

3. X. laniflora, Benth.-^O miles N.W. of Camp IV., G. F. Hill (No. 381), 
24/6/1911. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

23. STENOTAPHRUM, Trin. 

1. 8. americanum, Schrank {S. dimidiatum, Trin.). — ^N.W. Coast, Wick- 
ham ; Foul Point, A. Cunningham. Buffalo grass. Useful as a coarse lawn 
grass in hot climates, but browned by frost, and a low-grade pasture plant. 

24. THUAREA, Pers. 
1. T. sarmentosa, Pers. — Amhem North Bay, R. Brown. Beach grass. 

25. SPINIFEX, Linn. 1771. 
{Ixalum, Forsf., 1786). 
Heads of spikelets several inches in diameter. Male spikelets in spikes 
of Itoljin. Females at the base of rigid rachises of 3to4in. — 1. S. longifohus. 
Heads of spikelets not above 1 in. diameter. Male spikelets sohtary or 
clustered within small bracts. Females within broad bracts, the rachis shorter 
than the spikelets and sometimes minute or obsolete. — 2. S. paradoxus. 

1. S. longifolius, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Careening Bay, A. Cunningham ; Quail Island, Flood ; Nichol Bay, Walcot ; 
Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 199, 200). 

2. S. paradoxus, Benth. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 82) 
12/3/1911. Both coarse spiny drought-resistant grasses of shght pasture 
value. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHEEN TERRITORY. 41 

26. ORYZA, Linn. 
1. 0. sativa, Linn. — ^Marshes a.bout Hooker and Start's Creeks, F. v. 
Mueller. Wild Rice. Produces an excellent fodder, as well as grain. 

27. ARISTIDA, Linn. 1753. 

( Arthratherum, Beauv., 1812 ; Chaltaria, Beauv., 1812 ; Kielboul, Adans., 
1863 ; Molinsia, Rafin, 1830 ; Ortachne, Nees., 1852-7 ; Schistachne, Figar. 
and Be Nol., 1832 ; Streptachne, H. B. and K., 1815 ; Trixostis, Eafin, 1830). 

Of very little economic value. Three-awned Spear grasses. Not desirable 
grasses. 

Section I. Awn articulate on the glume, entire and spirally twisted below 
the branches. Flowering glume much shorter than the outer ones. 

Awn 2 to 3 in. long below the branches, which are at least as long. — 4. A. 
hygrometrica. 

Awn about 1 J in. below the branches, which vary from i| to 2J in. — 7. A. 
stipoides. 

Awn i to f in. below the branches, which vary from 1 to 3 in. — 1. A. 
arenaria. 

Section II. Awn not articulate and divided to the glume into three 
branches, the glume itself when barren sometimes twisted but not the awn. 
Flowering glume about as long or longer than the outer ones. 

Panicle-branches very long, at length spreading, with few spikelets on long 
jjedicels. Glumes at least ^ in. long. — 5. A. leptopoda. 

Panicle narrow, rather loose. Outer glumes as long as the flowering ones. 
Glumes scarcely 3 hnes. Awns under J in. long. — 6. A. ramosa. 
Glumes, 4 to 5 hnes. Awns f to 1 in. long. — 2. A. calycina. 

Panicle narrow, dense. Spikelets sessile and crowded on the short 
branches. Glumes 3 hnes or the flowering ones rather longer. Awns 4 to 6 
Hnes. — 3. A. depressa. 

1. A. arenaria, Gaud. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 56), 
11/3/1911. 

15 miles E. of Crown Point, G. F. HUl (No.24), 1/3/1911. 
Nichol Bay, Mrs. M'Croud. 

2. A. calycina, R. Br. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. HUl (No. 74), 
11/3/1911. 

75 mUes W. of Powell's Creek, G. F. HiU (No. 452). 
AUoe Springs, G. F. HiU (No. 130), 24/4/1911. With smut. 
75 miles N.W. of Camp IH., G. F. HUl (No. 344), 14/6/1911. 
35 miles N.E. of Camp II., G F. HUl. (No. 249), 7/6/1911. 
Near Hugh River, MaodonneU Ranges, G. F. HUl (No. 138), 4/5/1911. 
Recorded. Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz 
(No. 765). 

3. A. depressa, Retz. — ^Lat. 29 degrees 16 minutes, N.T. Survey Route, 
G. F. HiU (No. 428), 4/7/1911. 

4. A. hygrometrica, R. Br. — Between Borroloola and Tanumbirini, G. 
F. HiU (No. 822), 23/3/1912. 

GeneraUv on poor sandy country ; useless for stock. 

Borroloola, G. F. HiU, 23/2/1912. On aU higher locahties. 

Northern Territory, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Recorded. Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria River, F. v. 
MueUer. 

The awns bore into the skins of animals and occasionaUy reach the intestiries, 
thus causing death. 



42 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEERITOEY. 

5. A. leptopoda, Benih. — ^Northern Territory, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July- August, 1911. 

6. A. ramosa, R. 5r.— Near Western Creek, G. P. Hill (No. 780), 16/2/12. 

7. A. stipoides, B. £r.— Borroloola, G. P. Hill (No. 608), 9/10/1911. 
90 miles W. of Powell's Creek, G. P. Hill (No. 440), 6/7/1911. 
Pive-Mile Bar Camp, MacArthur River, G. P. Hill (No. 699), 30/12/1911. 
Northern Territory, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 
Newcastle Waters, G. P. Hill (No. 491), 7/7/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Gilbert River, 
SulHvan ; Nicholson and Upper Victoria Rivers, P. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, 
tSchultz, (No. 82) ; Dampier's Archipelago, Walcot. 

28. SPOROBOLUS, R. Be. 1810. 

( Agrosticula, Raddi., 1823 ; Bennetia, Rafin., 1830 ; Cryptostachys, 
jStevd., 1855 ; Diachyriwn, Griseb., 1874 ; Heleochloa, Beauv., 1812 ; Sperma- 
chiton, Llanos, 1851 ; Triachyrum, Hochst, 1841 ; Vilfa, Beauv., 1812). 

Panicle narrow, spikeUke, continuous or interrupted, the short erect 
branches flowering frpm the base. — 3. S. virginicus. 

Panicle loosely pyramidal, the branches spreading in regular distant 
whorls. 

Spikelets loosely pedicellate, minute. — 2. S. pulchellus. 

Spikelets nearly sessile, crowded along the branches. — 1. S. actinocladus. 

1. S. actinocladus, F.v.M. — Sturt's Creek, P. v. Mueller. A good sheep, 
grass. 

2. S. pulchellus, £?-.— Newcastle Waters, G. P. Hill (No. 496), 7/7/1911. 
Tanumbirini, G. P. Hill (No. 825), 27/3/1912. 

Recorded. North Coast, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria River, P. v. Mueller ; 
Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 112) ; Escape Cliffs, Hulse. Good feed, probably 
does not last well. A good sheep grass. 

3. S. virginicus, Kunth.—Lake Woods, G. P. Hill (No. 487), 3/8/1911. 
Will grow on brackish land along the coast. 

Var. pallida, Benth. — Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Sturt's 
Creek, P. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 645, 749, 760). 

S. Lindleyi, Benth. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Austraha. 

29. ERIACHNB, R. Be. 1810. 

(Achneria, Beauv, 1812 ; Megalachne, Theo., 1864). 
Most species good for pasture. 

Awns much longer than the glumes. Panicle dense. Spikelets sessile or 
nearly so. 

Palea produced into two fine awnhke points. 

Outer glumes glabrous, nearly 4 lines long. Awn above 1 in. 

long. — 14. E. stipacea. 
Outer glumes hairy, 2 to 2| hnes long. Awn scarcely 1 in. — 3. E. 
Armitii. 
Palea-point short, entire or minutely notched. 

Nodes densely bearded. Outer glumes hairy, nearly 4 lines long. 

Awn about 1 in. — 14. E. squarrosa. 
Nodes glabrous. Outer glumes hairy, about 2 lines long. Awn 
under | in. — 8. E. glauca. 
Awns much longer than the glumes. Panicle loose, with few pedicellate 
spikelets. Leaves narrow, hispid, with spreading hairs. — 1. E. agrostidea. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 43 

Awns not longer than the glumes. Panicle loose. Spikelets pedicellate, 
usually few. 

Leaves narrow, hispid, with spreading hairs. Small slender plants. 
Outer glumes 1 J lines, glabrous. — 6. E. cihata. 
Outer glumes, 2 to 2| hnes, shortly hairy. — 13. E. setacea. 
Leaves glabrous. 

Leaves subulate. Outer glumes glabrous, about 4 hnes long. 

Flowering glumes ciliate only. — 4. E. avenacea. 
Leaves flat. Outer glumes hairy, about 4 hnes long. 
Flowering glume hairy all over. — 2. E. aristidea. 
Panicle narrow, rather more dense, Outer glumes glabrous, 
about 3 lines long. — 7. E. festucacea. 
Awn none or reduced to a very small point. 

Panicle narrow. Spikelets pedicellate. Outer glumes about 3 hnes 
long. _ 

Low plant, with filiform hispid leaves. — 9. E. mehcacea. 
TaU plant, with glabrous fiat leaves. — 11. E. pallida. 
Panicle loose or reduced to two or three spikelets. Outer glumes 
not above 2 lines long. 
Leaves short, spreading, pungent-pointed, the sheaths covering 

the short branching stems. — 12. E. scleranthoides. 
Leaves not pungent, the upper ones distant. Spikelets about 2 

lines long. — 10. E. obtusa. 
Leaves very fine, hirsute. Small plant. Spikelets Agrostis- 
hke, about 1 hne long. — 5. E. capiUaris. 
Panicle, dense ovate or oblong. 

Outer glumes 14-19-nerved. — 17. E. nervosa. • 

Outer glumes fewer nerved, plants smaller. — 16. E. ovata. 

1. E. agrosiidea, F. v. M. — Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 143) ; North Coast 
of Amhem's Land, K'Kinlay. 

2. E. aristidea, F. v. if.— Camp III., Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 322), 
10/6/1911. 

Recorded. Charlotte Waters, GUes. 

3. E. Armitii, F. v. M. — Gilbert River, Armit. ; Norman River, GulHver. 

4. E. avenacea, R. Br. — ^Near Darwin, G. F. Hill (2nd Series, No. 94), 
26/7/1913. 

Recorded. Cavern Island, R. Brown ; Victoria River and M'Adam 
Range, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz, (No. 350) ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong. 

5. E. capiUaris, B. Br. — Arnhem Land, N. Coast, R. Brown. 

6. E. ciliata, R. 5r.— Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 710), 13/1/1912. 
Recorded. Arnhem Land, R. Brown ; M'Kinlay ; Port Darwin, Schultz ; 

Escape CUfEs, Hulse ; Between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, GuUiver. 

7. E. festucacea, F. v. M. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Upper Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

8. E. glauca, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

9. E. melicacea, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

10. E. obtusa, R. Br.— Five-mile Bar, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill 
(No. 734a), 28/1/1912. 

Northern Territory, Gilntth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 



44 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHERN TEBEITOEY. 

Tanumbirini, G. F. Hill (No. 824), 27/3/1 912. Gives good feed for stock. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henna ; Upper 
Victoria River and Sea Range, F. v. Mueller ; Cambridge Gulf and Cygnet 
Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 800). 

Var. major, Ewart and Davits. — Much taller and more robust than type. 
Up to or exceeding 3 ft. Edges of leaves rougher with stiff hairs. 

Five-mile Bar, MacArthur River (No. 704), G. F. Hill, 30/12/11. 

11. E. pallida, F. v. M. — Dampier's Archipelago, Walcot. 

12. E. scleranihoides, F. v. M.—35 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill 
(No. 250), 7/6/1911. 

Alice Springs, G. F. Hill (No. 129), 24/4/1911. On hills. 
60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 294), 7/6/1911. 

13. E. setacea, Benth. — N. Coast of Arnhem's Land, M'Kinlay. 

14. E. squarrosa, R. Br. — Victoria River, Elsey. • 

15. E. stipacea, F. v. M. Var. Schultziana, Benth. — Port Darwin, 
Schultz (Nos. 159, 183). 

16. E. ovata, Nees. — Recorded in Mueller's Census from North Australia. 
The variety pallida of this species was collected at Lake Eyre by Andrews, and 
at Charlotte Waters by Giles. 

17. E. nervosa, Ewart and Cookson. (Plate III.) 

A stiff grass, erect stems about 2 ft. high, arising from a woolly horizontal 
rhizome. Glabrous in all parts except spikelets. Leaves narrow, subulate. 

Panicle dense from 4|- to 5^ inches long. Spikelets pedicellate, lateral 
spikelets on short pedicels, terminal spikelet on a pedicel about as long as the 
glwmes. Outer glumes persistent, firm, acute, 14 to 19-nerved, deeply concave, 
with sUghtly scarious edges. Outer and inner glumes of approximately equal 
length, being 3 to 4 lines long. Flowering glumes longer than outer glumes, 
densely hairy to about the middle, tapering to a short awn-hke point. Palea 
slightly shorter than flowering glume, minutely bifid with a few hairs on back. 
Two large lodicules are situated at the base of the ovary. 

The nearest affinit}' is to Eriachne ovata var. pallida, but Eriachne nervosa 
is a much larger plant, and the outer glumes are more rigid and have 14-19 
nerves. 

10 miles West of Eva Downs, G. F. Hill (No. 523), 19/8/11. 

30. MICROCHLOA, R. Be. 
1. M. setacea, E. Br. — Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown. 

31. CYNODON, Rich., 1805. 
{Gapriola, Adans., 11 Q3 ; Dactilon, Vill., ll^T! ; Fibichia, Koel, 1802). 

Flowering glume pubescent. Palea with 2 prominent distant nerves. — 
3. C. tenellus. 

Flowering glume ciUate with long hairs on the keel and margins. Palea 
very narrow, the two nerves closely contiguous, forming a ciliate keel. — 2. C. 
convergens. 

Flowering glume with a horizontal ring of long spreading hairs below the 
point. Palea rather broad, with two distant nerves, and a ring of hairs like 
the flowering glume. — 1. C. ciliaris. 

1. C. ciliaris, Benth. — Charlotte Waters, Giles. 



THE FLOEA OW THE NOETHEEN TBEEITOEY. 45 

2. C. convergens, F. v. M. — Borroloola to Tamimbirini, G. P. Hill (No. 
819), 26/3/1912. 

Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. Very good stock grass. 

3. G. tenellus, R. Br. — Amhem S. Bay, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller. 

32. CHLORIS, Sw. 1788. 

(Chlorides, Fisch., 1863 ; Eustachys, Desv., 1800 ; Heterolepis, Ehrenb., 
1881 ; Macrostachya, Hochst, 1851 ; Phacellaria, Willd., 1840 ; Schultesia, 
Spreng., 1815). 

Usually good pasture grasses. 

Spikes digitate, slender. Spikelets acute. Flowering glume usually with 
a tooth, lobe or short awn on each side of the terminal one. 

Spikes few, about 1 in. long. Lobes of the flowering glume awned. — 

4. C. pumiho. 
Spikes numerous, 2 to 3 inches long. Spikelets closely approximate 
and regularly pectinate. Flowering glume 2-fid, una^viaied, 
usually scabrous. — 3. C. pectinata. 
Spikes 6 to 12 or more, 3 to 6 inches long; 

Spikelets rather crowded, 2 hnes long. Flowering glume with a 
fine tooth or point on each side of the awn. — 2. C. divaricata. 
Spikelets distant, 3 lines long. Flowering glume tapering into the 
awn or very minutely toothed. — 1. C. acicularis. 
Spikes digitate, dense, 1 to 2 inches long. — 5. C. scariosa. 

1 . G. acicularis, Lindl— 66 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 289a) 
7/6/1911. 

Idracowra Station, Finke River, G. F. HiU (No. 30), 5/3/1911. 

15 mUes E. of Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 101), 21/3/1911. 

2. G. divaricata, R. Br. — Sturt's Greek, F. v. Mueller. Star Grass. . 

3. G. pectinata, Benth. — Charlotte Waters, Giles. An excellent pasture 
grass. 

4. C. pumilio, R. Br. — ^Islands off the N. Coast, R. Brown ; Norman 
River, Gulhver. 

5. C. scariosa, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. MuUer. 

G. barbata, Sw., C. pallida, Hack, are recorded in National Herbarium 
Census from North AustraUa. 

33. ASTREBLA, F. v. M. 1876. 

Spikelets closely imbricate on one side of a second spike of 2 to 3 in. Awn 
about as long as the lateral lobes. — 1. A. pectinata. 

Awn much longer than the lateral lobes, straight or, hooked. 

Spikelets at some distance, almost erect in a secund .spike of 3 to 6 

inches.^ — 2. A. triticoides. 
Spikelets in the notches of the indented axis. — 3. A. elymoides. 

1. A. pectinata, F. v. M.—ZQ miles S.E. of Newcastle Waters. G. F. Hill 
(No. 501), 9/8/1911. 

Northern Territory, G. F. HUl (No. 466), 1911. 

Common Mitchell grass. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

2. A. triticoides, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 



46 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEERITOEY. 

3. A. elymoides. — This species was ascribed by Bailey (Grasses of 
Queensland) to Baron von. Mueller. No published description is to be found 
apart from that given by Bailey. Only one specimen of it existed in the 
National Herbarium from Darr River ; this was first named Danthonia lappacea 
var., and subsequently labelled D. elymoides, ]?. v.M., n.sp., but no description 
of it made under either Danthonia or Astrebla. As the description given by 
Bailey is incomplete and the figure a photograph only, the following amended 
description with plate showing the structure is given. It is one of the grasses 
commonly known as MitcheU grass in N. Austraha. (Plate IV.) 

A grass about 2 ft. high with erect branching stems arising from a rhizomic 
base. All parts glabrous, except spikelets. Leaves with long sheathing bases 
and broad flat blades, which taper to long points. 

Inflorescence a spike from 5.5 to 13 inches long. First two spikelets in- 
serted on the somewhat twisted raohis at some distance from one another. 
Spikelets sessile in the alternate notches of the rachis of spike, 6-8 inches long, 
with two or more hermaphrodite flowers, the raohis of the spikelet hairy round 
flowering glumes and terminating, above the fertile flowers, in a small hyaline, 
empty glume. Outer glumes two ,glabrous, acute, of very unequal size. Lowest 
glume small, about 2 lines long, varying in shape, thin and hyaHne with one 
prominent central nerve. Second glume thin, 6-7 hnes long, 9-11 nerved with a 
•wide hyaline margin. Flowering glume flrm, deeply concave with scarious 
edges, entire part about 2J lines long, with three lobes, middle one produced 
into a short straight awn, two lateral ones smaller, rigid, narrow, tapering to 
sharp points, 3-nerved, somewhat spreading. Palea flat, acute, with two 
prominent cihate nerves. Grain oblong, 2 to 3 lines long, with an oval hUum. 

30 miles S.E. Newcastle Waters, (G. F. Hill (No. 502), 9/8/11. 

34. ELEUSINE, Gaeetn. 1778. 
{Acrachne, Wright and Am., 1836; Dactylocternium, Willd., 1809). 

Spikes digitate, short. Spikelets very, closely packed, the glumes very 
pointed, the second outer one almost awned. — 1. E. segyptiaca. 

Spikes 6 to 12, scattered or the upper ones digitate. Glumes pointed, the 
flowering ones with a small tooth on each side of the point. — 2. E. verticillata. 

1. E. aegyptiaca, Pers. Desf. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill 
(No. 110), 21/3/1911. 

gj Five-mile Bar, MacArthur River, G. F. HiU (No. 729), 27/1/1912. 
I Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, GuUiver ; Sir Charles Hardy's 
Island, Henne ; Port Essington, Armstrong; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller; 
Dampier's Archipelago, Walcot. Button grass. 

2. H. verticillata, Roxh. — Dampier's Archipelago and Exmouth Gulf, 
Walcot. 

35. LEPTOCHLOA, Beauv. 1812. 

(Leptostachys, D. F.W., Mey., 1818; Oxydenia, Nutt., 1818; Rabdochloa, 
Beauv., 1812). 

Spikelets, 5 or 6- flowered. Flowering glume rather obtuse. — 2. L. 
subdigitata. 

Spikelets 1- flowered. Flowering glumes acute. Spikes slender, scattered 
along the long slender rachis. — 1. L. polystachya. 

I. L. polystachya, Benth. — Near MacArthur River, edge of swamps, 
G. F. Hill (No. 588), 17/9/1911. With rust on leaves. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Victoria River, 
F. v.f^Mueller ; Etheridge and Gilbert Rivers, Sullivan. 



THE FLOBA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 47 

2. L. subdigitata, Trin., ex. Stetid. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. 
HiU (No. 73), 11/3/1911. Borroloola, G. F. HiU (No. 606), 9/10/1911. A 
papery layer of wax on the older stems of No. 73. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Upper MurcMson and Warren 
Rivers, Walcot. Cane grass. 

36. PAPPOPHORUM, Schreb. 1791. 

(Enneapogon, Desf., 1812 ; Euraphis, Trin., 1847 ; Polyraphis, Lindl., 
1847). 

Outer glumes 1 to 2 lines long, 5 to 9-nerved. — 2. P. nigricans. 
Outer glumes 3 lines long, 11 to 21-nerved. — 1. P. avenaceum. 

1. P. avenaceum, Lindl. — Betweeen Alice Springs and Charlotte Waters, 
Giles. 

2. P. nigricans, B. Br. — About 30 miles N.W. of Twitchera Gap, Macdon- 
nell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 158), 10/5/1911. 

Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (Nos. 55 and 81), 11 and 12/3/1911. 

35 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 247), 7/6/1911. 

60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 247), 7/6/1911. 

35 miles S.W. of Newcastle Waters, G. F. HiU (No. 465), 9/7/1911. 

Newcastle Waters, G. P. Hill (No. 490), 7/7/1911. 

Henbury Station, G. F. Hill (No. 51), 10/3/1911 

Providence Knoll, Gilruth and Spencer, Julv- August, 1911. 

Tanumbirini, G. F. HiU (No. 823), 27/3/1912". 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; Vic- 
toria River, Elsey, F. v. MueUer ; Niohol Bay, and Dampier's Archipelago, 
Walcot. Good feed, but does not last well. 

Var. compacta, Ewart and Davies. — Hugh River, MacdonneU]Ranges, G. F. 
HiU (No. 149), 6/5/1911. 

Spike ovoid and very dense, | to 1 in. long, broader at base than at the tip. 
Bracts still conceal the rachis after the seed has faUen. Leaves to about 6 in. 
high. Flowering stems over 1 ft. high. 

Other specimens in the National Herbarium from : — Rockhampton, 
Gladstone, TownsviUe, Finke River, Macdomiell Ranges. 

Hermansburg, Finke River, G. P. Hill (No. 69), 11/3/1911. 

37. TRIRAPHIS, R. Br. 1910. 

Panicle soft and dense. Flowering glumes hairy, with a pointed lobe or 
short a'vm on each side of the central awn. — 2. T. molhs. 

Panicle loose. Flowering glumes coriaceous, with three entire awned 
lobes. 

Stems and leaves glabrous. Outer glumes under 2 lines long. Flowering 
glumes shortly, silky, pubescent. — 3. T. pungens. 

Stem and leaves glabrous. Outer glumes 5 to 6 hues long. Flowering 
glumes fringed on the keel with a double row of short hairs. — 1. T. bromoides. 

1. T. bromoides, F. v. M. — Sandstone Ranges, near Borroloola, G. F. 
HiU (No. 717), 13/1/1912. 

2. T. mollis, B. fir.— Batchelor Farm, G. F. HiU (2nd Series, No. 104), 
26/7/1913. 

Everywhere, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 
160 miles N. of Camp IV., G. F. HUl (No. 424), 3/7/1911. 
Near Hugh River, MacdonneU Ranges, G. F. HiU (No. 137), 4/5/1911. 
Recorded, Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller ; Dampier's Archipelago, Walcot. 
A good pasture grass. 



48 THE FLOEA OF THE NOBTHBRN TBRBITOEY. 

3. T. x)ungens, R. Br.—4Q miles S.W. of Newcastle Waters. G. P. Hill 
(No. 456), 8/7/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Victoria River 
and Sea Range, P. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz. 

38. ELYTHROPHORUS, Beatjv. 1812. 
(Echinalysium, Trin., 1820). 
1 . E. articulatus, Beauv. — CuUen Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August 
1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, P. v. Mueller ; between Norman and Gilbert 
Rivers, GuUiver. 

39. TRIODIA, R. Be. 

Leaves very pungent, the sheaths usually viscid. Plowering glumes silky 
ciliate, divided nearly to the middle into three lobes. 

Panicle narrow and dense. Spikelets pale coloured, 3 to 4 lines long, 

about 6- flowered. — 4. T. pungens. 
Panicle long, narrow and dense. Spikelets pale coloured, very numer- 
ous, under 3 hues long, about 3- flowered. — 1. T. Cunninghamii. 
Leaves not pungent. Plowering glumes glabrous or nearly so, with three 
short 1 -nerved acute teeth. Panicle very long. 

Spikelets 3 to 2-|- hues long, about 4- flowered. Plowering glume 

almost nerveless belov/ the teeth. — 3. T. procera. 
Spikelets IJ to 2J hnes long, 3 or 4-flowered. Nerves of the 
flowering glume continued below the teeth or to the base. — 2. 
T. microstachya. 

1. T. Cunninghamii, Benth. — Cambridge Gulf, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham. 

Var. major Ewart and Davits. — 15 miles W. of Hugh River, Macdonnell 
Ranges, G. P. HiU (No. 136), 6/5/1911. Alt. 3000 ft. 

Specimen without flowers. Seed fallen. Seems near T. Cunninghamii, 
Benth ; but with outer glumes narrow and more acute, and panicle 14 to 15 in. 
long. Placed provisionally as a new variety of T. Cunninghamii, but possibly 
an undescribed species. 

2. T. microstachya, R. Br. — Islands off Amhem's Land, R. Brown ; 
N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Upper Victoria River, P. v. Mueller. 

3. T. procera, R. Br. — Arnhem S. Bay, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria 
Pi.iver, Hooker and Sturt's Creeks, P. v. Mueller, 

4. T. pungens, R. Br.— 35 miles N.E. Camp II., G. P. Hill, (No. 254), 
7/6/11. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; N.\A . 
Coast, A. Cunningham. 

T. MitchelU, Benth. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Australia. 

40. DIPLACHNE, Beattv. 1812. 

Spike slender, simple. — 2. D. loliiformis. 
Spikes numerous in a simple panicle. 

Spikelets pale-coloured, 5-8 lines long, 8-12 flowered. Rachis with a 

tuft of long hairs under the glumes. — 3. D. Muelleri. 
Spikelets usually dark-coloured, 4 hnes long or rather more, with more 

than 6 flowers, rachis glabrous or nearly so. — 1 . D. fusca. 
Spikelets Ught-coloured, scarcely 3 lines long, with usually 5 or 6 
flowers. — 4. D. parvi flora. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 49 

1. D.fusca, Beauv.—90 miles W. of Camp III., G. P. Hill (No. 353), 
15/6/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

A good pasture grass with good succulent feed. Will grow near brackish 
water. 

2. D. loliiformis, F. v. M. — Between Alice Springs and Charlotte Waters, 
Giles. 

3. D. Muelleri, Benth.—Stmt'a Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

4. D. parviflora, Benth. — Arnhem S. Bay, R. Brown ; N.W. Coast, 
Hughan. 

41. ERAGROSTIS, Host. 1809. 

{Codachyrum, Nees, 1842; Erochlae Rafin, 1825; Exagrostis, Steud., 
1840 ; Harpachne, Hochst, 1841 ; Macroblepharus, Ohil., 1857-8 ; Megastachya, 
Beauv., 1812). 

Love Grasses. Generally good pasture grasses. 

Section I. Spikelets somewhat flattened, the glumes rather distant, 
loosely imbricate, overlapping the rachis at the base so as not to leave a longi- 
tudinal furrow, usually very thin with the lateral nerve on each side faint or 
marginal. 

Spikelets usually 3 or 4- flowered, pedicellate, in a spreading panicle. — 
14.— E. tenella. 

Spikelets Unear, more than 6- flowered. 

Spikelets numerous, pale-coloured, sliining, shortly pedicellate and crowded 
on the long branches of a narrow panicle. — 9. E. leptocarpa. 

Spikelets numerous, very narrow linear, shortly pedicellate and distant 
along the capUlary erect branches of the panicle. — 10. E. pilosa. 

Section II. — Spikelets when mature very flat. Glumes closely imbricate 
in two distinct rows, leaving a longitudinal furrow or depression between them 
on each side of the spikelet, the lateral nerve usually prominent in the middle of 
each side of the glume. 

Base of the stems glabrous, not at all or scarcely thickened. 

Spikelets narrow, about 3 hnes long, crowded secund and spreading 
or re flexed on the short clustered branches of a simple panicle. 
Glumes very acute. — 11. E. Schultzii. 
Spikelets under 3 hnes, sessUe in small dense globular or oblong 
clustes sessile along a simple rachis. Stamens usually 2. — 4. 
E. diandra. 
Spikelets 3 to 6 hnes, rather narrow, usually sessile and erect, scattered 
or clustered, rarely shortly pedicellate and spreading, in a simple 
or branched panicle. Stamens usually 3. — 1. E. Brownii. 
Spikelets 3 to 6 hnes long, broad sessile and crowded on a short, 
almost simple, rachis. Palea-keels cihate with long rigid hairs. — 
3. E. concinna. 
Spikelets narrow, clustered along the long erect branches of a narrow 
panicle. Palea narrow, truncate, glabrous, not above a third 
as long as the glume. — 12. E. speciosa. 
Base of the stem and short sheath of radical leaves thickened Into an ahnost 
bulbous wooUy-hairy base. 

Spikelets shortly pedicellate, nearly 2 lines broad, the base of the 
flowering glumes woolly-hairy. — 8. E. laniflora. 



50 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHBRN TEEEITOEY. 

Spikelets sessile, scattered, glabrous, above 1 line broad. — 5. E. 

eriopoda. 
Spikelets shortly pedicellate, glabrous, about |-line broad. — 2. E. 

chaetophylla. 

Section III. — Spikelets very narrow, terete or nearly so. Glume closely 
appressed. 

Spikelets 10 to 30, flowered, rather obtuse, shortly pedicellate in a small 
panicle. — 7. E. lacunaria. 

Spikelets 12 to 50-flowered, obtuse, sessile, usually clustered, often in- 
curved. — 6. E. falcata. 

Spikelets 8 to 10- flowered, rather acute, nearly sessile, divaricate, on the 
spreading branches of the panicle. — 13. E. stenostachya. 

1. E. Brownii, Nees. — Hugh River, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill 
(No. 136), 4/5/1911. 

CuUen Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, Julv-August, 1911. 

60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 290), 7/6/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the' Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; Vic- 
toria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Dampier's Archipelago, Walcot ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 210, 312, 453). 

Common Love Grass. Excellent for pasture. 

Var. interrupta, Benth. — Cullen and Edith Creeks, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July-August, 1911. 

2. E. chcetophylla, Stevd. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 
57), 11/3/1911. 

90 miles N. ^ W. of Camp III., G. F. Hill (No. 352), 15/6/1911. 
Recorded. Cygnet Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

3. E. concinna, Steud. — ^Edith Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 
1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

4. E. diandra, Stevd. — ^Near Haast's Blufl^, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. 
Hill (No. 197), 22/5/1911. 

10 mUes W. of Hugh River, G. F. Hill (154a), 6/5/1911. 
Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 585), 12/9/1911. On river banks. 
Recorded. Upper Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

5. E. eriopoda, Benth.— 110 miles N. of Camp IV., G. F. Hill (No. 407), 
1/7/1911. 

■ Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 80), 12/3/1911. 
Recorded. Cygnet Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Dampier's Archi- 
pelago, Walcot. 

6. E. falcata, Oaud. — ^Near Hugh River, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill 
(No. 139), 4/5/1911. Stunted specimens. 

7. E. lacunaria, F. v. iif .— 35 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 252), 
7/6/1911. 

8. E. laniflora, Benth. — Charlotte Waters towards West Australia, Giles. 

9. E. leptocarpa, Benth.— 35 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 253), 
7/6/1911 ; 10 miles W. of Hugh River, MacdonneU Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 
154), 6/5/1911. Alt., 2500 ft. Recorded. Charlotte Waters, Giles. 

10. E. pilosa, Beauv. — Near Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. 
Hill, (No. 198), 22/5/1911. 

Weeping Love Grass. Weed in Queensland gardens, but good pasture 
grass. 



THE FLOBA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 51 

11. .27. Schultzii, Benth. — Port Darwin, Sohultz (No. 81). 

12. E. speciosa, Steud (E. Brownii).—-QO miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. 
HiU, 7/6/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 
One of the best fodder grasses in the tropics. 

13. E. stenostachya, Steud (var. floribunda, Benth.). — ^Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 802). 

14. E. teneUa, Bea/uv. — ^Upper Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. 
Mueller ; Gulf of Carpentaria, Landsborough, Gulliver. 

42. ECTROSIA, R. Br. 

All good pasture grasses. 

Panicle compact and dense, with short erect branches. 

Flowering glume 2 lines long, entire, awn short. — 4. E. Schultzii. 

Flowering glume 1 hne long, thin, notched, awn 1 hue. — 3. E. leporina. 

Panicle slender, loose, the short branches spreading. 

Flowering glume ^ line long. — 1. E. agrostoides. 

Flowering glume 1 hne. — 2. E. Gulliverii. 

1. E. agrostoides, Benth. — ^Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. E. Gulliveri, F. v. M. — Between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, GuUiver. 

3. E^. leporina, R. Br. — Cullen Creek, and near Darwin, Gilruth and 
Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

80 miles W. of Powell's Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 442), 6/7/1911. 

Recorded. Coen River, Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Cleveland Bay, 
A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; 
Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 281) ; . between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, 
Gulhver. 

4. E. Schultzii, Benth. — Cullen Creek and Providence Knoll, Gilruth and 
Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Five-mile Bar, MacArthur River, G. F. HiU (No. 700), 30/12/1911. 
Recorded. Between Maurice and Victoria Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz (No. 287). 

43. HETERACHNE, Benth. 

Spikelets ovate, 2| to 3 J hnes long, with more than six upper empty glumes, 
in one or two heads, sessile in the leaf -sheaths or the upper one shortly pedun- 
culate. — 1. H. Brownii. 

Spikelets orbicular, scarcely 1| lines diameter, with less than six upper 
empty glumes, in several globular small heads forming a pedunculate inter- 
rupted spike. — 2. H. Gulhveri. 

1. H. Brownii, Benth. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Carron Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz, (No. 302). A good pasture 
grass. 

2. H. Gulliveri, Benth. — Between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, Gulliver. 
A good pasture grass. 

44. POA, Linn. 

1. P. Billardieri, Steud. — Cygnet Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 
P. ramigera, F. v. M., recorded in National Herbarium Census from N. 
Austraha. 

C 



52 THE JLOEA or THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

45. LEPTURUS, R. Be. 

1. L. repens, R. Br. — Arnhem, N. Bay, and Islands of the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria, R. Brown ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 227). 

Stipa eleganlissima, Labill. ; Amphipogon strictus, R. Br. ; Arundo Rox- 
burghii, F. v. M. ; Bambusa arnhemica, F. v. M. ; recorded in National 
Herbarium Census from North Australia. 

Tricholcena rosea, Nees (Introd.). — Darwin, G. P. Hill (2nd Series, No. 58), 
25/5/1913. 

The flowering stems are hairy, with a pink to violet tinge, and when dry 
are used for dry bouquets. The plant is a native of S. Africa. 

CYPERACEa:. 

Tribe I. — Spikelets solitary clustered capitate or umbellate, with several 
often numerous hermaphrodite flowers rarely (except in Kyllinga) reduced to 
two or one. Empty glumes at the base usually only one or two. Hypogynous 
bristles or scales when present fihform or flat. 

(Empty glumes 3 or 4 and flowers 2 or 3 in Fimbristylis oyperoides). 

Spikelets clustered or spicate, the clusters or spikes sohtary or in simple or 
compound umbels. Glumes distichous. Style not bulbous. No hypogynous 
bristles. — 2. Cyperus. 

Spikelet solitary. Glumes imbricate all round. Hypogynous bristle 
usually present. Nut crowned by the persistent dilated base of the style. — 
5. Heleocharis. 

Spikelets solitary clustered or umbellate. Glumes imbricate all round or 
distichous. No hypogynous bristles. Style thickened or bulbous at the base 
but articulate on the nut. — 6. Fimbristylis. 

Spikelets solitary or clustered, often lateral, or in a compound umbel. 
Glumes imbricate all round. Style continuous with the nut. Hypogynous 
bristles present or not. — 4. Soirpus. 

Spikelets in a terminal head or cluster. Glumes imbricate all round. 
Hypogynous scales 2, flat and parallel with the glume. — 1. Lipocarpha. 

Spikelets clustered, the clusters usually paniculate. — Glumes imbricate 
all round. H5rpogynous scales 3, flat. — 3. Fuirena. 

{Schoenus has sometimes very nearly the characters of Cyperus). 

Spikelets small, with one flower or rarely two, two inner glumes adhering 
to the nut. — 7. Kyllingia. 

Tribe II. — Spikelets capitate, spicate or paniculate, rarely sohtary or 
umbellate, with one, rarely two (in Schoenus, two to six) hermaphrodite fertile 
flowers, and sometimes one or more male or sterile flowers above or below. 
Empty glumes at the base often more than two. Hypogynous bristles or scales 
when present filifonn or flat. 

(Flowers sometimes unisexual by abortion in Caustis). 

Glumes imbricate all round. Style-branches two. Nut crowned by the 
thickened persistent base of the style. — 12, Rhynchospora. 

Glumes distinctly distichous. Style branches 3, rarely 4. — 8. Schoenus. 

Glumes imbricate all round, or when few obscurely distichous. Style- 
branches, 3, rarely 4 or 8. 

Spikes paniculate, when 2- flowered the lowest fertile, its glumes as long as 
the outer empty ones. Stamens 3. — 11. Cladium. 

Spikelets paniculate, when 2- flowered the lowest sterile ; flowering glumes 
obtuse and shorter than the outer empty ones. Stamens 3 to 6. — 13. Gahnia. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHEEN TERRITORY. 53 

Spikelets solitary or clustered in an irregularly branched inflorescence, 
when 2- flowered the lowest sterile, and often unisexual. Stamens 3 to 6. 
Nut crowned by the ovoid or oblong base of the style. — 14. Caustis. 

Spikelets in a small terminal head. Stamens or staminodia 6. — 10. 
ArthrostyUs. 

Tribe III. — Flowers strictly unisexual, in unisexual or androgynous 
spikelets. No utricle enclosing the females. Ovary and nut seated on a disk.^ 
15. Scleria. 

1. LIPOCARPHA, R. Br. 

1. L. microcephala, Kunth. — Cullen Creek, Spencer and GUruth, Julv- 
August, 1911. 

Recorded. Arnhem S. Bay, R. Brown ; between Norman and Gilbert 
Rivers, Gulhver ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 78). 

2. CYPERUS, Linn. 1735. 

(Ano8por^(m, Nees, 1834; Atomostylis, Steud., 1850; Bobartia, Linn, 
1747 ; Borabora, Steud., 1855 ; Hydroschoenus, Zoll. and Mor., 1846 ; Opetiola, 
Oaertn., 1788 ; Papyrus, Willd., 1812-13 ; Pterocyperus, Opiz., 1852 ; Soro- 
stachys, Stevd., 1850 ; Torreya, Eafin., 1819 ; Torulinium, Desv., 1825 ; 
TrentepoMia, Bolck, 1858). 

Section I. — Spikelets flat with na^dcular keeled glumes. Styles usually 
2-cleft. Nut more or less flattened, with one edge next the rachis. 

Nut oblong, not exceeding half the length of the glume. Spikelets narrow, 
very numerous, in a dense sessile compound cluster, rarely with 2 or 3 elongated 
umbel-rays. — 19. C. polystachyus. 

Nut broad, almost as long as the glume. Tall perennial. Spikelets 
loosely spicate and distichous along the rays of a large compound umbel. — 
12. C. flavicomus. 

Section II. — Spikelets flattened but usually thick. Style 2-cleft or rarely 
3-cleft. Nut ovate or broad, with a flat or concave face next the axis, the back 
convex or with a raised central angle. — 21. C. pygmaeus. 

Section III. — Spikelets flat, the rachis not winged or rarely with an ex- 
ceedingly narrow border. Style 3-cleft. Nut equally triquetrous. 

Spikelets numerous, in a single small dense globular head, with an in- 
volucre of long slender bracts. — 20. C. pulchellus. 

Spikelets numerous, clustered or capitate, the clusters or heads solitary or 
in an umbel of few rays. Glumes with a prominent straight or recurved point. 
Small annuals (Squarrosi). — 25. C. squarrosus. 

Spikelets dark-coloured, clustered or capitate in an umbel of few rays or the 
clusters rarely, solitary. Nuts broad, as long as the glume (Nigricantes). — 
8. C. difformis. 

Spikelets pale or brown, clustered, capitate or sohtary on the rays of a 
umbel. Nuts broad, not above half the glume. (Compressi). 

Involucral bracts few, unequal, one or two longer than the inflores- 
cence or aU short. 

Umbel-rays few. Stems weak. Spikelets oblong. Glumes 
acutely keeled, with one nerve in the middle of each side. — 
28. C. trinervis. 
Umbel-rays numerous. — 16. C. Haspan. 
Involucral bracts about 6, nearly equal rigid, erect or spreading. 
Umbel many-rayed or reduced to a dense cluster. Stem leafless. 
— 29. C. vaginatus. 

02 



54 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Spikelets pale or dark brown, clustered on the rays of an umbel. Nut 
narrow, nearly or quite as long as the glume (Fulvi). 

Spikelets small and few- flowered, in little globular clusters in a compound 
umbel. — 17. C. holoschcenus. 

Spikelets very flat, long and narrow linear, clustered in a compound umbel. 
Glumes mostly obtuse. — 6. C. dactylotes. 

Spikelets very flat, linear, clustered in a simple umbel or compound cluster. 
Glumes tipped with fine points. — 14. C. Gilesii. 

Spikelets rather thick, oblong or lanceolate. Glumes obtuse or scarcely 
acute. Stems obtusely triquetrous. 

Spikelets 8 to 12- flowered. Glumes imbricate though rather loose. — 

13. C. fulvus. 
Spikelets 10 to 30 -flowered. Glumes spreading scarcely imbricate. — 
4. C. carinatus. 
Spikelets usually numerous in loose spikes along the rays of a simple or 
compound umbel (Ornati). 

Spikelets flat, pale brown or yellowish green, very irregularly 

spicate. Glumes very obtuse, loosely imbricate.^-18. C. Iria. 
Spikelets flat, pale, densely spicate. Glumes loosely imbricate, the 
keel produced into a short point. — 10. C. eleusinoides. 
Section IV. — Spikelets flat or terete, the rachis bordered by scarious wings, 
either persistent or at length more or less detached as small scales. Glumes 
imbricate. Style 3-cleft. Nut equally triquetrous. 

Spikelets shortly spicate or clustered on the rays of a simple or compound 
umbel. Nut not exceeding half the length of the glume. (Corymbosi). 
Stems leafless or the sheath bearing a very short lamina. 

Glumes concave, not at all or scarcely keeled. Nut more or less 

dorsally flattened. — 21. C. malaccensis. 
Glumes keeled. Nut equally triquetrous. 

Stems transversely septate. — 3. C. articulatus. 
Stems continuous. — 9. C. diphyllus. 
Stems leafy at the base. 

Spikelets rather flat, usually acute, shortly and rather 

loosely spicate or clustered. 22. — C. rotundus. 
Spikelets very narrow, scarcely flattened, in dense 
clusters. Stem obtusely triquetrous. Leaves very 
narrow. — 26. C. subulatus. 
Spikelets clustered or shortly spicate on the rays of a simple or compound 
umbel. Nut usually nearly as long as the glume. (Lucidi). 

Spikelets small, 5 to 8- flowered, in little globular clusters. Stems 

obtusely triquetrous. — 24. C. sporobolus. 
Spikelets linear, scarcely flattened, 10 to 20- flowered, in close 

clusters or heads. — 1. C. angustatus. 
Spikelets flat, of a rich bro\s'n. 15. C. Gunnii. 
Spikelets in lengthened spikes along the rays of a compound or rarely 
simple umbel. 

Spikelets flat. Glumes loosely imbricate. Nut more than half the 

length of the ghime. — 10. C. eleusinoides. 
Spikelets flat. Glumes closely imbricate. Nut less than half the 
length of the glume. (Exaltati). — 11. C. exaltatus. 
Section V. — Spikelets narrow, terete or nearly so, often fle.\uose sometimes 
1- flowered, the rachis bordered by hyaline wings embracing the nuts. Flower- 
ing glumes distant, narrow, closely oppressed to the rachis. Style 3-cleft. 
Nuts triquetrous. — 23. C. scaber. 



THE TLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 55 

Section VI. — Spikeleta small, numerous, terete or scarcely flattened, 1 or 
2- flowered, the short enclosed rachis bordered by hyaline wings. Flowering 
glumes imbricate when more than 1. Style 3-cleft. Nut triquetrous. 

Spikelet usually with 2 perfect flowers, in small globular clusters in a 
compound umbel of many rays. — 7 . C. decompositus. 

Spikelets with 1 or rarely 2 perfect flowers, in loose cylindrical spikes in a 
compound umbel. — 2. C. Ajmstrongii. 

Spikelets usually with 1 perfect flower, in dense ovoid or 3-lobed heads in a 
simple umbel. — 5. C. conicus. 

1. C. angustatus, R. Br. — ^North Coast, R. Brown ; Port Darwin, Schultz 
(No. 259). 

2. G. Armstrongii. Benth. — Port Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 731). 

3. C. articulatus, Linn. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

4. C. carinatus, E. Br. — North Coast, R. Brown ; M'Adam Range, F. v. 
Mueller ; between Norinan and Gilbert Rivers, Gulliver. 

5. C. conicus, Boeckel.—La,ndeT Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 299), 10/6/1911. 
Edith Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 603, 709.) 

6. C. dacUjloles, Benth.— Launder Creek, G. F. HiU (No. 318), 10/6/1911. 
Recorded. Attack Creek, M'Douall Stuart. 

7. C. decompositus, F. v. M. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown 

8. C. difformis, Linn.— Lake Woods, G. F. Hill, (No. 488), 2/8/11. 
Recorded. Charlotte Waters, Giles. 

9. C. diphyllvs, Retz. (C. corymbosus, Retz.). — Port Essington, Arm- 
strong. 

10. C. elevsionides, Kunth. — ^Nebo, Gulliver. 

11. C. exaltatus, Retz. — ^North Coast, R. Brown ; Albert River, Henne ; 
Flinders River, F. v. Mueller. 

12. C. flavicomus, Mich. — (C. Hochstetteri, Nees). — Head of Sturt's 
Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Arnhem's Land, M'Kinlay. 

13. C. fulvu^, R. Br. — Charlotte Waters, Giles. 

14. C. Gilesii, Benth. — Charlotte Waters, Giles. 

15. G. Qunnii, Fooyfc.— Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 298), 10/6/11. 
Recorded. Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cuimingham, Walcot. 

16. C. Haspdn, Linn. — Brunswick Bay, A. Cunningham ; Upper Vic- 
toria River and M'Adam Range, F. v. MueUer ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 310) ; 
Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

17. C. Holoschoenus, R. Br. — Edith Creek, Spencer and Gilruth, July- 
August, 1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Amhem Land 
and Upper Victoria River. 

18. G. Iria, iinw.— Darwin, C. E. F. Allen, (No. 20,), January, 1914. 
Recorded. Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

19. G. polystachyus, Rottb. {var. laxiflora, Benth). — Amhem Land, F. v. 
MueUer. 

20. C. pukhdlus, R. Br. {G. leucocephalus, Retz.). — Arnhem Bay, R. 
Brown ; GuK of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 



56 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHERN TERRITORY. 

21. C. pygmceus, Bottb. — Upper Victoria River and Flinders River, ¥. v. 
Mueller ; Charlotte Waters, GUes. 

2. C. rotundus, Linn. — Fifteen miles W. of Hugh R. McDonnell Ranges, 
G. F. Hill (No. 153), 6/5/1911 ; 10 miles N. of Eva Downs, G. F. HiU (No. 519), 
19/8/11. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Arnhem Land, 
F. V. Mueller ; 

Nut grassier nut sedge, a noxious weed, useless in pastures, and trouble- 
some in cultivation paddocks. 

23. C. scaber, Benth. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

24. G. sporobolus, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
N.W. Coast, Hughan ; Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 791) ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

25. C. squarrosus, Linn. — Dampier's Archipelago, Walcot ; Gulf of 
Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

26. — C. subulatus, R. Br. — ^Alice Springs, Giles. 

27. C. malaccensis, Lam. (C. tegetiformis, Benth). — Lower Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller. 

28. 0. trinervis, B. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
M'Adam Range and Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz, 
(No. 313) ; between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, Gulliver. 

29. G. vaginatus, B. Br. — ^Nichol Bay, F. v. Mueller ; lagoons Flinders 
River, F. v. Mueller. 

G. tenuiflorus, Bott. ; C. lucidiis, B. Br. ; C. pennatus, Lam. ; G. 
stoloniferus, Betz. ; recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
AustraUa. G. castaneits, Willd. (see Hamilton, appendix I.). 

3. FUIRENA, l;iNN. 

Leaves glabrous. Glumes shortly pointed. Hypogynous scales contracted 
at the base, but sessile or nearly so, without bristles. — 2. F. umbellata. 

Leaves pubescent or at least ciliate. Glume points long, often recurved. 
Hypogynous scales cordate at the base, stipitate, usually alternating with 
bristles. — 1. F. glomerata. 

1. F. glomerata, Linn. — Darwin, C. E. F. Allen (No. 171), March, 1914 ; 
Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 302), 10/6/1911 ; Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 610), 
9/10/11. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River and Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller ; 
Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 266, 282) ; between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, 
Gulhver. 

2. F. umbellata, i?o«6.— Batchelor Farm, C. E. F. Allen (No. 218), 
August, 1914. 

Recorded. Providence Hill and sources of the Bright River, F. v. Mueller. 

4, SCIRPUS, Linn. 

Section I. Isolepis. — No hypogynous bristles. Small or slender plants 
(except S. articulatus). 

Spikelets small, in numerous dense heads, almost radical in a tuft of grass 
like filiform involucral bracts. — 3. S. huraillimus. 

Spikelets solitary or clustered, small (1 to 2 lines), ovoid or ovoid-oblong, 
terminal or nearly so. Style-branches 3, rarely 2.- — 5. S. squarrosus. 



THE FLOBA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 57 

Spikelets clustered, above 2 lines long, oblong or narrow. Style branches 
3. — 1. S. articulatus. 

Section TI. Euscirpus. — Hypogynous bristles 3 to 8. Plants mostly 
tall and stout. 

Spikelets in sessile lateral clusters. — 2. S. debilis. 

Spikelets in terminal or nearly terminal simple or compound irregular 
umbel or cluster. — 4. S. litoralis. 

1. S. articulatus, Linn. — Abrahams' Lagoon, Spencer and Gilruth, 
July- August, 1911. 

Recorded. Mouth of Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. S. debilis, Pursh. — Upper Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. 
Mueller. 

3. S. Jmmillimus, Benth. — South Alligator River, Arnhem Land, F. v. 
Mueller. 

4. S. litoralis, Schrad. — Culf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, F. v. Mueller ; 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Roper River, GulUver. 

5. S. squarrosus, Linn. — In the interior, lat. 70 degrees, 50 minutes, 
M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

5. HBLEOCHARLS, R. Br. 

Spike-Rush. 

Section I. Limnocharis. — Spikelets cylindrical. Glumes obtuse, not at 
all or very obscurely keeled, rather rigid, with a hyaline border. Persistent 
base of the style forming a conical usually flat beak to the nut. 

Stems terete, appearing articulate from the transverse septa dividing the 
internal pith. — 5. H. sphacelata. 

Stems continuous, obtusely triquetrous or terete. — 6. H. variegata. 

Section II. Scirpidium. — Spikelet cylindrical or tapering upwards, 
usually smaller than in Limnocharis. Glumes with a distinct green centre or 
prominent keel. Per,sistent base of the style shortly conical. 

3 to 7 bristles arising below the base of each ovary. — 1 . H. acuta. 

No bristles around the ovary. — 2. H. atricha. 

Section III. Heleogenus. — Spikelets ovoid ; conical or small and few- 
flowered. Glumes keeled. Persistent base of the style short and depressed. 
Leaf -sheath oblique at the orifice, often soarious. 

Spike dense, many- flowered, pale-coloured. Stems mostly above 6 in. 
high. Glumes broad, with a green centre. 4. H. capitata. 

Spike loose, dark-coloured, the glumes not very numerous, prominently 
keeled. Stems under 3 in. — 2. H. atropurpurea. 

1. H. acuta, B. Br.— Lake Woods, G. F. Hill (No. 489), 2/8/1911. 

2. H. atricha, R. Br. — Between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, Gulliver. 

3. H. atropurpurea, Kunfh. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

4. H. capitata, R. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Sea Range and 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

5. H. sphacelata, R. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Arnhem Land, 
F. V. Mueller. 

6. H. variegata, Kunth (H. compacta, R. Br.). — Arnhem N. Bay, R. 
Brown ; Lower Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

H. spiralis, R. Br. ; recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Australia. 



58 THE JLOEA OF THE NOBTHBEN TEEEITOEY. 

6. FIMBRISTYLIS, Vahl. 

Section I. Heliocharoides. — Spikelet solitary, terminal. Glumes im- 
bricate aU round. 

Nut biconvex, with transverse raised lines or wrinkles. Style-branches 
2 or rarely 3. 

Spikelet erect, usually whitish. 

One or two lower glumes empty. — 1. F. acicularis. 
About four lower glumes empty, all broad and obtuse. — 20. F. 
leucostachya. 
Spikelet nodding, usually brown. — 27. F. nutans. 
Nut 3-angled or biconvex, smooth striate granular or tuberculate. Style- 
branches 3 or sometimes 2. 

Spikelet oblong, lanceolate. Style-branches 3. 

Spikelet about half a hne broad. Leaves few or none. No invo- 

lucral bract. Nut tuberculate. — 30. F. pauciflora. 
Spikelet about 1|^ lines broad. Leaves fihform. No involucral 

bract. Nut minutely tuberculate. — 8. F. cardiocarpa. 
Spikelets about 1 line broad. Leaves setaceous. Involucral 
bract often as long as the spikelet. — 19. F. leucocolea. 
Spikelet ovate or oblong. Style-branches 2. 

Spikelet 1 to 1 J lines broad. Nut tuberculate. 

Leaves numerous, filiform. Flowers all hermaphrodite. — 

31. F. polytrichoides. 
Stems leafless. Upper flower female. — 3. F. androgyna. 
Spikelet 3 lines broad. Nut narrow-oblong, striate and cancel- 
late. Stems leafless. — 43. F. tetragona- 
Spikelet ovate, erect. Style-branches 3. Nut tuberculate. Leaves 
numerous. 

Nut broad, 3-furrowed, on a long stipes. — 44. F. trigastrocarya. 
Nut 3-ribbed, on a short stipes. — 25. F. monandra. 
Spikelet globular, erect. Style-branches 3. Leaves numerous. 

Spikelet white, 2 to 3 Unes dianeter. Nut flattened, often sur- 
rounded by a hyaline wing. — 32. F. pterygosperma. 
Spikelet brown, 1 to 1|^ lines diameter. — 38. F. sphaerocephala. 
Spikelet nodding, brown, ovoid or cylindrical, 3 lines diameter. 
Leaves long and flat. — 46. F. xyridis. 
(See also 39, F. spiralis, which has sometimes solitary spikelets.) 

Section II. — Abildgaardia. — Spikelets solitary or few, flat with distichous 
glumes, or narrow and spiral in 2 or rarely 3 rows. Style-branches usually 3. 
Spikelets solitary, narrow, usually^ spiral. Glumes long, cartilaginous or 
scarious. 

Glumes scarious, acuminate, with erect points. — 29. F. oxystachya. 
Glumes rigid, opaque, acute, closely appressed. — 21. F. macrantha. 
Glumes rigid with long recurved points. — 41. F. squarrulosa. 
Spikelets often several, very flat, regularly distichous or slightly spiral. — 
57. F. Brownii. 

Section III. — Dichelostylis. — Spikelets several usually numerous. Glumes 
imbricate all round. Style-branches 2. Nut biconvex. 
Tufted annuals, leafy at the base. Stems under 1 ft. 

Nut smooth or very minutely striate or cancellate. 

Style-bulb ciliate at the base, the hairs spreading or re flexed over 

the nut. — 45. F. velata. 
Style-bulb glabrous. — 2. F. aestivalis. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 59 

Nut ^\ith distinct longitudiaal striae or ribs and transversely cancellate. 
Spikelets numerous, under 2 lines long. — 15. F. dichotoma. 
Spikelets about 5 or fewer, above 2 lines long. — 14. F. depau- 
perata. Perennials, often above 1 ft. high. 
Nut with distinct longitudinal striae or ribs and transversely rugose. Style 
flat, ciUate. Leaves often numerous. 

Spikelets pale coloured, about 4 Hnes long. Leaf-sheaths hairy. — 40. 

F. spirostachya. 
Spikelets usually brown, about 3 hnes. Leaves glabrous. — 16. F. 
diphylla. 
Nut smooth or rugose. 

Style distinctly cihate. 

Stems leafless or with few leaves. Spikelets ovate-lanceolate, 

1^ to 2 lines broad. Nuts smooth. — 18. F. ferruginea. 
Stems leafless. Spikelets ovate or at length oblong, 1 line broad. 
Nuts usually rugose. — 13. F. denudata. 
Style slender, nearly glabrous. Nut minute, smooth. 

Stem leafless. Spikelets lanceolate or oblong, 4 to 6 hnes long. — 
17. F. elata. 
Leaves fUiform, often numerous, Spikelets ovate, 2 to 3 lines 
long. — 6. F. csespitosa. 

Section IV. Trichelostylis. — Spikelets several, usually numerous (rarely 
solitary in F. spiralis). Glumes imbricate all round. Style-branches 3 
(except rarely in some Glomeratce). Nut various. 

Series I. — Oligostachyce. — Spikelets few, not clustered, occasionally solit- 
ary, above 2 Lines long. 

Small annuals. Leaves numerous. 

Leaves setaceous. Spikelets narrow. Nuts tuberculate. — 39. F. 

spiralis. 
Leaves Unear. Spikelets ovate, aristate. Nuts granular. — 42. F. 
subaristata. 
Stems long, leafless. Spikelets narrow. Nuts tuberculate. — 12. F. debihs. 

Series II. Polystachyce. — Spikelets usually numerous in more or less 
compound umbels, not clustered on the raj^s. 
Spikelets ovate, about 3 Hnes long or more. 

Nuts ovoid-clavate, smooth. Leaves and involucral bracts long. — 9. 

F. corjTiocarya. 
Nuts tuberculate. Leave few. Involucral bracts short. 

Style glabrous or nearly so. Nut narrow. — 37. F. soMifoha. 
Style cUiate. Nut broad. — 21. F. obtusangula. 
Spikelets rarely 2 hnes long, globular ovate or lanceolate. 

Spikelets globular, f to IJ hnes diameter. Stamen usually 1. — 24. 

F. mihacea. 
Spikelets globular, IJ to 2 hnes diam. Stamens usually 3. — 34. F. rara. 
Spikelets ovate or lanceolate, very numerous, under 2 hnes. Stamens 
1, rarely 2 or 3. 
Spikelets narrow-lanceolate. 
Leaves fairly large. — ^23. F. microcarya. 
Leaves 5-7 cm. and 1 mm. broad. — 23a. F. Allenii. 
Spikelets ovate or oblong. — 38. F. quinquangularis. 

Spikelets narrow, acute, 2 to 4- flowered (flowers more than 6 in aU the 
preceding species). — 11. F. cjnperoides. 



60 THE FLOBA 01" THE NOETHERN TERRITORY. 

Series III. — Glomeratce. — Spikelets more or less clustered on the rays of 
the umbel, and always a central cluster of 2 or more in Ueu of the single central 
sessile spikelet. Leaves usually numerous. 

Spikelets not above 2 lines long in clusters of 2 or 3, interspersed usually 
with a few solitary ones. — 10. F. cymosa. • 

Spikelets in clusters of 3 to 10. 

Leaves long, rather glaucous. Spikelets 1 to 1| lines long. — 26. P. 
multifolia. 

Leaves and inflorescence silky-hairy. Spikelets 2 lines long. 36. — F. 
macrostachya. 

Series IV. Capitatce. — Spikelets collected in a single terminal head. 
Glumes obtuse, membraneous. Involucral bracts concealed under the 
head or rarely 1 one prominent. 

Nut tuberculate. — 7. F. capitata. 
Nut large. — 7a. F. compacta. 
Glumes mucronate. Involucral bracts spreading, 1 to 3 longer than the 
head. Nut smooth or nearly so. — 35. F. Schultzii. 

Section V. Oncostylis. — Style bulbs persistent after the style has fallen, 
but articulate on the nut and often at length deciduous. — 4. F. barbata. 

1. F. acicularis, R. £r.— Darwin, C. E. F. Allen (No. 165), March, 1914. 
Recorded. Arnhem Land, F. v. MueUer ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 79). 

2. F. cestivalis, Vahl. — ^Near M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

3. F. androgyna, R. Br. — N. Coast, prob. Arnhem Land, R. Brown. 

4. F. barbata, Benth.—Hxigh. R., G. F. HiU (No. 135), 4/5/11 ; Pine 
Creek, C. E. F. AUen (No. 83), Feb., 1914. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Dampier's Archipelago, 
Walcot ; Depot Creek, Upper Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 170, 211). 

5. F. Brownii, Benth. — Islands off the North Coast, of Arnhem Land, 
R. Brown. 

6. F. cmspitosa, R. Br. — Arnhem Land and GuU of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

7. F. capitata, R. Br. — Upper Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. 
MueUer. 

7a. F. compacta. — ^TurrUl, Darwin, C. F. Allen. 

8. F. cardiocarpa, F. v. M. — Darwin, C. E. F. Allen (No. 21), January, 
1914. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

9. F. corynocarya, F. v. M. — Depot Creek, Upper Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

10. F. cymosa, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria and Prince 
of Wales Island, R. Brown ; Escape CUffs, Hulse. 

11. F. cyperoides, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. BrowTi ; 
Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 658). 

12. F. debilis, F. v. M. — Depot Creek, Upper Victoria River, F. v. MueUer. 

13. F. denudata, R. Br. — Arnhem Land, N. Coast, R. Brown ; Victoria 
River, F. v. MueUer ; between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, GulUver. 

14. F. depauperata, R. Br. — Arnhem Land, N. Coast, R. Brown. 

15. F. dichotoma, Vahl. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 



THE FLORA 0¥ THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 61 

16. F. diphylla, Vahl. (F. communis, Kunth). — Twelve m. west of Hugh 
River, G. P. ffill (No. 151), 6/5/11 ; Batehelor Farm, C. E. F. Allen (No. 25), 
January, 1914. 

Recorded. Arnhem Land and Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz (No. 34, 178) ; Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

17. F. elata, R. Br. — Arnhem Land, North Coast, R. Brown. 

18. F. ferruginea, Vahl. — Near Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller. 

19. F. leucocolea, Benth. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

20. F. leucostachya, Boeck. — Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 320.) 

21. F. macraniha, Boeck. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (Nos. 789, 814). 

22. F. macrostachya, Boeck. — ^Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 664). 

23. F. microcarya, F. v. iif.— Batehelor Farm, C. E. F. Allen (No. 22), 
January, 1914. 

Recorded. Sturt's and Depot Creeks, Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; 
between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, GulHver. 

23a. F. Allenii, Twrra.— Darwin, C. E. F. Allen, 1914. 

24. F. miliacea, Vahl. — Darwin to Pine Creek, C. E. F. Allen, (No. 82), 
February, 1914. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River and near M'Adam Range, P. v. Mueller ; 
between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, Gulliver. 

25. F. monandra, F. v. M. — Depot Creek, Upper Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

26. F. multifolia, Boeck. — Cygnet Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 147, 799). 

27. F. nutans, Vahl.—Da.Twin, C. E. F. Allen (No. 100), February, 1914. 
Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

28. F. obtusangula, F. v. M. — Depot Creek, Upper Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

29. F. oxystachya, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

30. F. pauciflora, R. fir.— Batehelor Farm, C. E. F. Allen (No. 48) 
January, 1914. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; near M'Adam 
Range, F. v. Mueller ; Regent's and Hunter's Rivers, A. Cunningham. 

31. F. polytrichoides, R. Br. — Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown. 

32. F. pterygosperma, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; S. Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Sturt's Creek, Upper Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Arnhem Land, N. Coast, M'Kinlay ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 790, 812). 

33. F. quinquangularis, Kunth. — Upper Victorisi River, F. v. Mueller. 

34. F. rara, R. Br. — Arnhem Land, N. Coast, R. Brown ; Depot Creek, 
Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

35. F. Schultzii, Boeck. — Batehelor Farm, C. E. F. Allen (No. 44), June, 
1914 ; Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 96, 92). 

36. F. sericea, R. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 602). 

37. F. solidifoUa, F. v. if .—Sturt's Creek, F. v. MueUer. 



62 THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

38. F. sphcerocephala, Benth. — ^Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Camden 
Harbour, Martin. 

39. F. spiralis, E. Broivn.'—Ainhem Bay, R. Brown. 

40. F. spirostachya, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

41. F. squarrulosa, F. v. M. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller. 

42. F. subaristata, Benth. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

43. F. tetragona, E. 5r.— Darwin, C. E. F. Allen (No. 153), March, 1914. 
Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Providence Hill and Depot 

Creek, Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

44. F. trigastrocarya, F. v. M. — Depot Creek, Upper Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller. 

45. F. vdata, E. 5r.— Lander Creek, G. F. HiU (No. 300), 10/6/1911 
Arnhem Land, F. v. Mueller. 

46. F. xyridis, E. Br. — Islands and mainland of Gulf of Carpentaria, 
R. Brown ; Arnhem Land, N. Coast, M'Kinlay ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 
16, 177, 813); between Norman and Gilbert Rivers, Gulliver. 

F. acuminata Vahl. ; F. rhyticarya, F. v. M. ; F. monostachya, Hass. ; 
F. capillaris, A. .Gray (in National Herbarium Census) ; and F. lanceolata, 
Clark ; (in Kew Bulletin, 1908, p. 24) ; recorded from North Australia. 

7. KYLLINGIA, Rottb. 

Kyllingia triceps, Eottb., — Pine Creek, C. E. F. Allen (No. 102), Feb., 
1914. 

8. SCHOENUS, Linn. 1737. 

{ChcBotspora, E. Br., 1810 ; Cyclocampe, Steud., 1855 ; Cyclocarpa, Miq., 
1855 ; Helothrix, Nees, 1814 ; Isoschoenus, Nees, 1841 ; Streblidia, Link, 
1827). 

Panicle, loose but narrow. Leaf-sheaths bearded, with short or subulate 
points. Hjrpogynous bristles none or fine and rare. — 3. S. sparteus. 
Panicle loose and much branched with very numerous spikelets. 
Stem leafy, the lower leaves very long. No hypogynoue bristles. 

Leaves nearly 2 lines broad at the base, tapering into long points. 

Spikelets 4 to 6 fines. — 1. S. falcatus. 
Leaves subulate from the base. Spikelets 2 fines. — 2. S. punctatus. 

1. S. falcatus, R. Br. — Pine Creek, Gikuth and Spencer, July- August, 
1911. 

2. S. punctatus, E. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. S. sparteus, E. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

9. TRICOSTULARIA, Nebs. 

1. T. fimbristyloides, Benth. — ^Near Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong. 

10. ARTHROSTYLES, R, Be. 

1. A. aphylla, E. Br. — Croker's Island, A. Cunningham ; near Provid- 
ence Hill, F. V. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Leichhardt ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz (No. 655). 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHBRN TEERITOBY. 63 

11. CLADIUM, R. Br. 

1. C. glomeratum, R. Br. — Newcastle Range and Gilbert River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

0. juncea, F.v. M. ; C. maniscus, R. Br. ; recorded in National Herbarium 
Census from North Australia. 

12. RHYNCHOSPORA, Vahl. 

Hjrpogynous bristles shorter than the nut. Nut smooth, broadly obovoid, 
with a very short beak. Stem usually above 1 ft. — 3. R. WaUichiana. 

Three at least of the bristles much longer than the nut. Nut oblong. 
Stem usually under 1 ft. 

Spikelets 4 to 5 lines long. Nut tuberculate or hispid, the beak 
closely sessile and often as long as the nut. Leaves shorter than 
the stem. — 1. R. longisetis. 
Spikelets about 3 lines. Nut smooth or nearly so, the beak short and 
constricted at the base. Leaves often as long as the stem. — 2. 
R. tenuifolia. 

1 . R. longisetis, R. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria, mainland and Groote Island, 
R. Brown ; Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; between Norman and Gilbert 
Rivers, Gulhver. 

2. R. tenuifolia, Benth. — Victoria River, Elsey. 

3. R. WaUichiana, Kunth. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

R. marginata, Clarke ; R. exserta, Clarke ; recorded in Kew Bulletin from 
North Australia. 

13. GAHNIA, FoEST. 

1. O. aspera, Spreng. — ^Taylor's Range, F. v. Mueller. 

14. CAUSTIS, R. Br. 

1. C.flexuosa, R. Br. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

15. SCLERIA, Berg. 

Series I. Axillares. — Small annuals. Spikelets small, strictly unisexual, 
in httle axillary or terminal sessile clusters, the males with 3 flowers. — 
8. S. pygmaea. 

Series II. Laxce. — Weak plants under 1 ft., probably annual. Spikelets 
strictly unisexual, in axillary clusters or few in loose spikes, the males with 
several flowers. 

Spikelets in axillary clusters. Outer persistent disk broadly cupular, inner 
adnate, very shortly 3-lobed. — 9. S. rugosa. 

Spikelets few, small, in loose spikes. Outer disk scarcely prominent, inner 
adnate, shortly 3-lobed. — ^5. S. laxa. 

Series III. S-ubspicatcB. — Perennials. Inflorescence scarcely branched. 
Fertile spikelets more or less androgynous or at least with empty glumes above 
the female flower. 

Nut tuberculate. Disk-lobes broad, membranous spreading. — 1. S. 
Brownii. 

Nut smooth and shining. Outer persistent disk cupular, entire ; inner 
obsolete. — 6. S. hthosperma. 

Series IV. Polysfachyce. — Perennials. Panicles branched axillary and 
terminal. 

Spikelets unisexual, or the fertile ones androgynous. 



64 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHERN TERRITORY. 

Leaf -sheaths with acute angles scarcely or not at all winged. 

Nut rugose disk-lobes denticulate. — 2. S. Grseffeana. 

Nut smooth, shining, disk-lofces entire. — 3. S. margaritifera. 
Leaf-sheaths distinctly winged on the angles. — 4. S. hebecarpa. 

Series V. Macrostachyce. — Panicle single, large, loose and very compound, 
on a long terminal peduncle. — 7. S. oryzoides. 

1. S. Brownii, Kunth. — Amhem, S. Bay, R. Brown; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (Nos. 37, 782). 

2. 8. Graeffeana, Boeck. — ^Near Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller. 

3. S. margaritifera, Tf*7M.— Darwin, C. E. F. Allen (No. 19), Jan., 1914. 

4. S. hebecarpa, Nees. — Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 816). 
6. S. laxa, R. Br. — North Coast, R. Brown. 

6. S. lithosperma, Willd. — Arnhem, S. Bay, R. Brown ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (Nos. 6, 171, 266, 817). 

7. S. oryzoides, Presl. — Between M'Adam Range and Providence Hill, 
F. V. Mueller. 

8. S. pygmcea, R. 5r.— Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 260). 

9. 8. rugosa, R. Br. — Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 80) ; Upper Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller. 

PALMffi. 

Erect palms, with a terminal crown of simple pinnate leaves. Flowers 
monoecious. Outer perianth segments imbricate. — 2. Kentia. 

Erect palms, with a terminal crown of fan-shaped leaves. Flowers her- 
maphrodite. Perianth-lobes or segments all valvate. Stamens, 6. 

Embryo dorsal. — 1. Livistona. 

1. LIVISTONA, R. Br. 1810. 

{8aribus Blume, 1836). 

Petiole more or less aculeate on the edges. Outer perianth-lobes rather 
obtuse. — 2. L. Marise. 

Petiole entirely unarmed. Outer perianth-lobes acute. — 1. L. inermis. 

1. L. inermis, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. L. Uarice, F.v. M. {L. humilis, R. Br). — ^Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. 
HiU (No. 95a), 16/3/1911. Fruits only. 

Recorded. Arnhem's Land, R. Brown ; Adam River, M'Adam Range, 
F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 372) ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; 
Liverpool River, and Wood Island, Gulliver. 

L. Alfredi, F. v. M. — Recorded in Vict. Nat. , 1892, from North Austraha. 

2. KENTIA, Blume. 
1. K. Wendlandiana, F. v. M. — Liverpool River, Gulliver. 
K. acuminata. Mend. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Australia. 

ARACE.ffi. 

A number of neutral filiform organs immediately above the female flowers 
and a bare interval separating them from 'the males. Ovary with one erect 
ovule. Leaves entire or 3-lobed. — 2. Typhonium. 

Male 'flowers immediately above the females. Ovary 2-oelled, with one 
erect ovule in each cell. Leaves compound. — 1. Amorphophallus. 



THE JTLOBA OF THE NORTHBBN TBBB-ITOEY. 65 

1. AMORPHOPHALLUS, Blume 
(Brachyspatha, Schott). 

1. A. variabilis, Blume. — N. Coast, R. Brown; Port Darwin, Schultz 
(No. 562). 

2. TYPHONIUM, Schott. 

1. T. liliifolium, Schott. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

T. Brownii, Schott. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Australia. , 

Colocasia antiquorum, Schott ; Bhaphidophora pertusa, Schott ; Recorded 
in National Herbarium Census from North AustraUa. 

FLAGELLARIACEa;. 

1. FLAGELLARIA, Linn. 1747. 

1 . F. indica, Linn. — ^Roper River and near Darwin. Gilruth and Spencer, 
July -August, 1911. 

Recorded. Port Essiagton, Armstrong ; Point Pearce, F. v. Mueller ; 
Escape Cliffs, and Adam's Bay, Hulse. 

Supplejack. 

RESTIONACE.ffi. 

Ovary 2 or S-celled. Styles or style-branches 2 or 3. — 1. Restio. 

Ovary 1-ceUed with a single ovule. Sytles or style-branches 3. — 2. Lep- 
tocarpus. 

1. RESTIO, Linn. 1767. 

{Baloslcion, Rafin, 1836; Chondropetalon, Bafin, 1836; Craspedolepis, 
Stevd, 1855 ; Ischyrolepis, Stevd, 1850 ; Megalotheca, F. M., 1873 ; Bhodoco, 
Nees, 1836). 

1. B. tropicus, B. Br. — North Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, G. F. Hill 
(No. 621), 20/10/1911. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. LEPTOCARPUS, R. Bb. 

Spikelets very densely clustered along the short branches^pf a .long dense 
panicle. 1. L. elatior. ''^ 

Spikelets clustered along the few narrow branches of the panicle.^ Perianth 
segments glabrous. 

Stem glabrous. — 3. L. spathaceus. 
Stem cottony-viUous. — 2. L. Sohultzii. 

1. L. elatior, B. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria and N. Coast (Arnhem's Land?), 
R. Brown. 

2. L. Schultzii, Benth. — ^Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 309). 

3. L. spathaceus, B. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Br. ; sources of the 
Roper River, F. v. Mueller. 

CENTROLEProACE.ffi. 

1. CENTROLEPIS, Latill. 1804. 

( Alepyrum, B. Br., 1810 ; Centrosepis, B. Hedw., 1806 ; Devauxia, B. Br., 
1810). 

Bristlewort. 

Spikes ovate or broad, containing more than four flowers, the outer bracts 
glabrous or rarelj^ ^^-ith a few hairs erect or spreading, and 1, 2 or 3 scales under 
each flower, usually very prominent. — 1. C. Banksii. 



66 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Spikes usually ovate or broad, the outer bracts hispid, with long spreading 
hairs. Inner scales prominent. — 2. C. exserta. 

1. G. Banksii, Boem and Schult. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. C. exserta, Roem. and Schult. — Melville Island, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July-August, 1911. 

Recorded. Providence Hill and M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

XYRrDACE.a;. 

1. XYRIS, Linn. 

Leaf-tufts on a perennial stock, with rigid sheathing bases. Staminodia 
densely penicillate. — 1. X. complanata. 

Leaf-tufts annual. Leaves grass-hke. Staminodia very slender, with few 
hairs or scarcely any. — 2. X. pauciflora. 

1. X. complanata, R.Br. {X. elongata, Rudge). — Islands of the Gulf of 
Carpentatia, R. Brown ; Bathurst Island, A. Cunningham ; Sea Range and 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 128). 

Hatpin grass. 

2. X. pauciflora, Willd. — ^M'Adam Range and Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

ERIOCAULACE.ffi. 

1. ERIOCAULON, Linn. 1742. 

{Chaetodiscus, Steud., 1855; Electrosperma, F. v. M., 1854; Lasuolepis, 
Boeck., 1873 ; Leucocephala, Roxb., 1832 ; Nasmyihia, Huds., 1862 ; Bandalia, 
Beauv., 1828 ; SpTiaerochloa, Beauv., 1828). 

Series I. Flowers 3-merous or rarely partially 2-merous by abortion, 
especially the females. 

Submerged stems elongated, densely covered with filiform leaves. Flower 
heads pubescent, at least at first. — 10. E. setaceum. 

Scapes and radical leaves under 6 in. and often much less, glabrous. 

Flower-heads glabrous. Bracts with their tips incurved and appressed. 
Outer female perianth segments linear, 3 or fewer or none. 

Outer male perianth segments united in a spatha-like scale. 

— 1. E. cinereum. 
Outer male perianth segments linear or oblong-spathulate, 
free or nearly so. 
Outer female perianth segments hnear, inner none. — 7. 

E. nigricans. 
Outer female perianth segments linear, inner perianth 
segments narrow-linear. — 4. E. graphitinum. 
Outer female perianth segments 2, complicate and winged. 
Inner female perianth segments 3, oblong. Ovary 3- 

merous. — 5. E. lividum. 
Inner female perianth segments 2, linear-oblong. Ovary 
2-merous. — 2. E. concretum. 
Flower-heads glabrous. Bracts with spreading tips. 

Bracts pale-coloured, obtuse qr obtusely-acuminate. Female 

perianth-segments 6, nearly similar. — ^9. E. Schultzii. 
Bracts dark-coloured, cuneate with a rigid spreading point. 
Receptacle villous. — 12. E. tortuosum. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHEBN TERKITOEY. 67 

Series II. Flowers all 2-merous. 

Outer female perianth-segments linear or spathulate, very deciduous, not 
winged. 

Scapes filiform, 2 to 4 in. high. Leaves very narrow, fine pointed. 

Heads 1 to 1 J lines diameter. — 6. E. monoscapum. 
Scapes 4 to 6 in. high. Leaves broadly linear, many-nerved. Heads 
near 3 lines diameter. — 11. E. spectabile. 
Outer female perianth-segments complicated with a broad dorsal wing. 
Heads at length globular, with the outer bracts re flexed and empty. 

All the female flowers with outer perianths. — 8. E. scariosum. 
Heads broad. Outer bracts rigid, all flowering. Inner female flowers 
without outer perianths. — 3. E. depressum. 

1 . E. cinereum, B. Br. — Cullen Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 
1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; South Goulbui'n 
Island, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, E. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz 
(No. 368). 

2. E. concretum, F. v. M. Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

3. E. depressum, B. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
near M'Adam Range, Eitzmaurice River, E. v. Mueller. 

4. E. graphitinum {F. v. M. and Tate), Ewart and Cookson. Plate VI. — 
A small glabrous herb with tufted leaves and small fibrous root, plants varying 
in size, when in flower from 3 to 13.2 cms. Leaves radical, sessile, linear .5 to 
1.8 cms. long, and .1 to .4 cms. wide, tapering to a short, sharp point. Scapes 
slender, twisted 2 to 12 cms. long. Flower heads glabrous, globular. Long 
fine hairs arise from the elongated receptacle, between the flowers, but are not 
seen on the outer surface of the head. Outer empty bracts thin and oblong. 
Flowering bracts linear-spathulate, with a blunt point. 

Male Flower. Outer perianth segments 3, linear with an obtuse apex 
inserted near the base of the flower stalk. Inner perianth segments none, 
represented by 3 small black glands at centre of flower. Stamens 6, anthers 
large, dehiscing longitudinally. 

Female flower. Outer perianth segments 3, somewhat acuminate. Irmer 
segments 3, narrow-linear longer than segments of outer perianth with a few 
short hair-like outgrowths from the obtuse apex. Ovary consists of 3, 1-seeded 
carpels which open by two valves when seeds are ripe. Style single with 3 long 
stigmas. 

Collected in 1889 by Col. Tietkens from west end of MacdonneU Ranges, 
and also from 12 miles from McKinley River. Named by Baron von Mueller 
and Professor Tate, who recorded it as a new species in Trans. Roy. Soc, S.A., 
Vol. XIIL, 1890, and Vol. XIX., 1895, and in Report of Horn Exped., III. 
No description was given and plant was recorded as a nomzn nudum in Kew 
Index. Additional material was supplied by Professor Osborne from the 
Adelaide Herbarium, and it has actually proved to be a valid species, hence the 
above description has been made with figures illustrating its structure which 
appear on Plate VI. 

5. E. lividum, F. v. M. — York Sound, A. Cunningham ; near M'Adam 
Range, F. v. Mueller. 

6. E. monoscapum, F. v. M. — Margins of water-courses towards M'Adam 
Range, F. v. Mueller. 

7. E. nigricans, B. Br. — Carron Creek, Carpentaria, Gulliver. 



68 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

8. E. scariosum, R. Br. — N. Coast, R. Brown ; Port Darwin, Schultz 
(No. 261). 

9. E. Schultzii, Benth.— Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 288) 

10. E. setaceum, Linn. — ^Near M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 75, 369). 

11. E. spectabile, F. v. M. — Sources of the Limmen Bight River, Gulf of 
Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

12. E. tcrrtuosum, F. v. M. — ^Victoria River, F. v. Mileller. 

E. quinquangulare, Linn. Recorded in National Herbarium Census, from 
North Australia. 

COMMELINACEa:. 

Flowers enclosed in a folded, cordate-turbinate or falcate spatha or leafy- 
bract, or within short loose leaf-sheaths. 

Perianth-segments united in two series. Stamens all perfect. — 3. 
Cyanotis. 

Perianth-segments free. Half the stamens reduced to staminodia. — 1 
Commelina. 

No spatha. Bracts small. Flov/ers paniculate. — 2. Aneilema. 

No spatha. Flowers spicate. Outer segments herbaceous. Stamens 
all perfect. Ovary 3-celled. — 4. Cartonema 

1. COMMELINA, Blume. 1735. ' 
( Amanihopus, Rafin, 1817 ; Disecocarpus , Hassk., 1866 ; Erxlebia, 
Medic, 1790 ; Heterocarpus, Wight, 1853 ; Lechea, Lowe, 1790 ; Allosperma, 
Rafin, 1836). 

Spatha not cordate, closed at the base, forming an obhque turbinate 
inverted cone open at the top only. — 3. C. ensifoUa. 

Spatha cordate at the base, with rounded auricles closely appressed but 
not connate. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate or rarely narrow, contracted above the sheath. 
Spatha acute. Peduncles short. Seeds pitted. — 1. C. cyanea. 
Spatha tapering to a long point. Peduncles long. — 2. C. acuminata. 
Leaves very narrow, but contracted above the sheath. 
Spatha with a long point. Seeds srnooth or slightly rugose. — 4. C. 
lanceolata. 

1. C. cyanea, R. Br. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. C acuminata, Ewart and M' LenTMn. Plate VII. — Erect glabrous 
herb, leaves Unear, varying in length from 2 to 7 inches without any contrac- 
tion at the base above the leaf sheath. Spathas on long peduncles from 2\ to 
3| inches broad, strongly acuminate, cordate at the base not connate, length 
from li to If in. 

Peduncles two, enclosed in spatha, the pedicels of the flowers protruding 
beyond. A male flower is borne on one peduncle and three hermaphrodite 
flowers by the second. Outer perianth segments about 3 lines long, the inner 
about 6 lines and blue in colour. 

Perfect stamens 3, the filaments of two being equal in length, and as long 
as the inner perianth segments, the third being shorter and bearing a larger 
anther. Petaloid staminodia three with short filaments and bright yellow in 
colour. Ovary 3-celled, single style and terminal stigma. 

The nearest affinity is with Com.melina cyanea, from which it differs in 
having long linear leaves, spathas which taper to a long fine point and which 
are borne on long pedimcles, and larger flowers with longer outer perianth 
segments. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHERN TERRITORY. 69 

Near Red JJlj Lagoon, G. F. Hill (No, 833), 6/4/1912. ; and also by F. 
V. Mueller, at Sturt's Creek. 

3. C. ensifoUa, R. Br.— Camp III., Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 323), 
10/6/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; Port 
Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 70, 161) ; Upper Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Camden Harbour, Walter ; Central Australia, M'Douall 
Stuart's Expedition and Gosse's Expedition. 

4. C. lanceolata, R. Br. — Duck Island Camp, MacArthur River, G. F. 
Hill (No. 674), 8/11/1911. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek, Albert and Roper Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 
C. agrostophylla, F. v. M. Recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North Australia. 

2. ANEILEMA, R. Br. 1810. 

( Amelina, C. B. Clarke, 1874 ; Anilema, Kunih, 1843 ; Aphylax, Salisb., 
1812 ; Bauschia, Seub., 1872 ; DicJioespermum, Wight., 1853 ; Dilasia, Rafin, 
1836 ; Lamprodithyros, Hassk., 1863 ; Murdannia, Royle., 1839 ; Talipnlia, 
Rafin, 1836). 

Filaments all glabrous. Ovary with only two perfect cells. Stems weak 
ascending. — 3. A. siliculosum. 

Filaments all or some of them bearded. Ovary 3-celled. Stems erect. 
Radical leaves hnear, tufted. 

Filaments all bearded. Panicle irregular, the pedicels distant along 

the branches. — 2. A. gramineum. 
Filaments of the perfect stamens bearded, of the staminodia glabrous. 
Pedicels close together along the branches, leaving a thickened 
denticulate rachis. — 1. A. giganteum. 

1. A. giganteum, R. Br. — ^Islands off the N. Coast, R. Brown ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz (No. 642). 

2. A. gramineum, R. Br.—Okej Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 764), 10/2/1912. 
North Coast, and Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, ; Victoria 

River and Sea Range, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 88). 

3. A. siliculosum, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 
A. vaginatum, R. Br. ; Port Darwin (?) 

3. CYANOTIS, Don. (ZYGOMENES, Samsb.) 

G. axillaris, Roem and Schult. — Port Darwin, M. Holtze, 1884; Sturt's 
Creek, F. Mueller. 

4. CARTONEMA, R. Br, 

Spikes dense. Outer perianth-segments 6 to 7 lines long. Filaments 
narrow. Anthers narrow, oblong. — 2. C. spicatum. 

Spikes elongated the flowers all distant. Outer perianth-segments 3 to 4 
lines long. Filaments shorter than the anthers. — 1. C. parviflorum. 

1. O. parviflorum, Hassk. — Islands of the N. Coast, R. Brown ; Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Glenelg district, Martin ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz (No. 280) ; Liverpool River, Gulhver. 

2. 0. spicatum, R. Br. — Arnhem S. Bay, R. Brown ; N. Goulburn Island, 
A. Cunningham ; Escape cliffs, Hulse ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 25). 

G. trigonospermum, Clarke ; C. tenue, Benth. ; recorded in National 
Herbarium Census from North Australia. 



70 THE FLOBA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

PONTEDERACEaJ. 

1. MONOCHORIA, Prbsl. 

1. M. cyanea, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Gilbert 
River, Gulliver. 

PHILYDRACE.a). 

1. PHILYDRUM, Banks. 1788. 

(GARCIANA, Lour. 1790). 

1. P. lanuginosum, Banks.— BottoIooI&, (J. F. HUl (No. 613), 9/10/1911. 
Edith Creek, Gilruth and Spencer,' July- August, 1911. 
Recorded. Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 444). 

ROXBUEGHIACEffi. 

1. STEMONA, LoTTR. 
(ROXBURGHIA, Jones). 
1. S.javanica, Kunih. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

LILIACEa;. 

Series I. Fruit succulent or fleshy, indehiscent or rarely opening tardily 
in 3 valves. 

Tribe I. Smilacece. — Perianth-segments distinct, spreading. Anthers 
erect. Style deeply divided into three stigmatic branches. Embryo distant 
from the hilum. Albumen hard. Branching climbers. Leaves with distant 
primary veins, and transverse veinlets. — 11. Smilax. 

Tribe II. Asparagece. — Perianth-segments distinct spreading. Style 
undivided. 

Perianth persistent. Filaments abruptly thickened under the anther. 
Anthers erect, opening in terminal pores. — 6. Dianella. 

Perianth deciduous. Filaments not thickened. Anthers opening in 
longitudinal slits. Leafy stems elongated and branched. — 10. Asparagus. 

Tribe III. DracaenecB. — Perianth gamophyllous, at least at the base, 
deciduous, Anthers versatile. Style undivided. Stems woody, sometimes 
arborescent. Flowers paniculate. — 9. Dracaena. 

Series II. Fruit dry, capsular or rarely of 1 to 3 indehiscent 1 -seeded 

nutlets. 

Tribe IV. Melanthacece. — Perianth- segments free or shortly united at the 
base, rarely to the middle. St^'le more or less divided into three stigmatic 
branches or short distinct styles. Stock not at all or scarcely bulbous. Anthers 
frequently turned outwards. — 1. Iphigenia. 

Tribe V. Anthericece. — Perianth-segments free or very shortly united 
at the base. Style undivided with a, sm all terminal entire or slightly 3-lobed 
stigma. Stock not bulbous. Flowers racemose, paniculate or umbellate, 
rarely solitary. Bracts thinly soarious usually hyaline or none, not glumelike. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 71 

Perianth spirally twisted over the ovary, afterflowering at length deciduous. 
Capsule, 3-valved. Filaments glabrous. 

Anthers 6 or 3, the cells opening longitudinally, but the outer 
valve produced beyond the inner. Inner perianth-segments 
fringed, enclosing the inner stamens in the bud. Umbels 
usually 2 or more- flowered. — 2. Thysanotus. 
Anthers 6, free, opening in slits. — 4. Csesia. 
Nutlets 1-seeded, indehiscent. Anthers 6, opening in slits. — 5. Cory- 
notheca. 
Perianth not twisted, pers'stent round the fruit, unchanged or withering. 
Flowers loosely racemose, cymose, or paniculate. Anthers 6, opening 

in slits. — 3. Chlorophytum. 
Flowers numerous, in umbels, with numerous scarious imbricate 
bracts. — . Sowerbaea. 

Tribe VI. Perianth small, usually dry, scarious, or hyaline, at least in the 
females, rarely almost petal-Uke. Anthers versatile, attached at the back 
between the basal lobes. Ovary 3-ceUed, with one laterally attached ovule in 
each cell . — 8 . Lomandra . 

1. ^'HIGENIA, KuNTH. 

1 . /. indica, Kunth. — Arnh -m N. Bay and Islands of the Coast, R. Brown ; 
Sea Range, F. v. Mueller. 

2. THYSANOTUS, R. Br. 

Stock densely tufted, with numerous radical leaves. No tubers. 

Umbels single. — 1. T. chrysantherus. 

Stock usually tufted, with several radical leaves often rather long. Roots 
often tuberous. Scape paniculate at the end, with several few- flowered 
umbels. — 2. T. tuberosus. 

1 . T. chrysantherus, F. v. M. — Foot of M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. T. tuberosus, R. Br. — ^Islands off the N. Coast (Arnhem's Land), 
R. Brown ; Arnhem's Land, M'Kinlay ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

Fringe Violet. 

3. CHLOROPHYTUM, Ker. 

1 . C. laxum, R. Br. — Arnhem S. Bay, R Brown ; Sea Range, F. v. 
Mueller. 

4. C^SIA, R. Br. 

Perianth-segnients 3 to 4 lines long. Leaves rather broad, not surrounded 
by filaments. — 2. C. vittata. 

Perianth-segments under 3 hnes long. Leaves very narrow, surrounded 
at the base by long filaments, the remains of old sheaths. — 1. C. setifera. 

' 1. C. setifera. Baker. — ^Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 638). 

2. C. vittata, R. Br. ( Var. chlwardha, Benth). — Sturt's Creek, F. v, 
Mueller. 

5. CORYNOTHECA., F. v. M. 

L C. lateriflora, F. v. M. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Shores of the Gulf, F. v. Mueller ; Curlew River, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 



72 THE FLORA OT THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

6. DIANELLA, Lam. 
Blueberry plants. 

1. D. caerulea, Sims. — Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 163, 354) 
D. ensifolia, DO. ; recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Australia. 

7. SOWERBAEA, Sm. 

1. S. alUacea, F. v. M. — ^Liverpool River, Amhem's Land, Gulliver. 

8. LOMANDRA, Labill. 1804. 

(XEROXES, R. Br. 1810. 

Series I. Fasciculatce. — Male flowers numerous in sessile clusters, but on 
pedicels exceeding the bracts. — 2. L. multiflora 

Series II. Sparsiflorce. — Male flowers pedicellate or rarely sessile, singly 
scattered in simple racemes or loose panicles, rarely here and there 2 or 3 to- 
gether. — 1. L. leucocephala. 

1. L. Leucocephala, Labill— QO miles N. of Camp IV., G. F. Hill (No. 402). 
30/6/1911. On sand-hills. 

2. L. multiflora, J. Britt. — Islands off the N. Coast, R. Brown. 

L. longiflora, Labill. Recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Australia. 

9. DRAC^NA, Linn. 

1. D. angustifolia, Roxb. — Port Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darmn, 
Schultz (No. 857) ; Castlereagh River, Gulliver. 

10. ASPARAGUS, Linn. 

1. A. racemosus, Willd. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Mouth of Victoria River, E. v. Mueller ; Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; 
King's Sound and ColUer Bay, Chapman ; Glenelg District, Martin ; Liverpool 
River, Gulhver ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 169). 

11. SMILAX, Linn. 

1. S. australis, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria , R. Brown ; 
Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 737) ; Liverpool 
River, Gulliver. 

Elachanthera Sewellice, F.v. M. ; Anguillafria dioica, R.Br. — (In National 
Herbarium Census), and Xanthorrhma Thorntoni, F. v. M. (in Horn's Ex- 
pedition), recorded from North Australia. 

HiEMODORACEffi. 

1. H^MODORUM, Sm. 1798. 

Flowers in dense globular or oblong heads on dwarf stems (under 6 in.) 
Leaves nearly terete. — 1. H. brevicaule. 

Flowers (dark red, livid or black) above 3 lines long, very numerous, in 
dense terminal corymbose cymes. Leaves flat or terete. — 2. H. corymbosum. 

Flowers about 2 lines long, green or yellow, in panicles or spikes^ the inner 



THE I'LOBA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 73 

segments broader, but not longer than the outer. Tropical or Eastern sub- 
tropical species. 

Leaves long, flat, flaccid. Flowers densely cymose in a corymbose 

panicle. — 6. H. subvirens. 
Leaves flat, rigid, and glaucous. Flowers loosely racemose along the- 
branches of a spreading panicle. — 3. H. ensifolium. 
Leaves slender, terete. 
Flowers very shortly pediceUate along the branches of a spreading 

panicle. — 5. H. parviflorum. 
Flowers nearly sessile along a simple rachis. — 4. H. leptosta- 
chynm. 

1. H. brevicaule, F. v. M. — Sea Flange, and dry plains towards M'Adam 
Range, F. v. M.; Liverpool River, Gulliver. 

2. H. corymhosum, Yahl. {H. coccineum, B. Br.). — Borroloola, G. F.. 
HiU (No. 709), 13/1/1912. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Henne, Gulliver ;. 
Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

An Australian species of Hsemodorum is poisonous according to Greshoff. 
Principle unknown. Reported as poisonous to horses. (Ql., Ag., Jl. V., 1899 ; 
41, pi., 118). 

3. H. ensifolium, F. v. M. — M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin„ 
Sohultz (No. 522). 

4. H. leptxistachyum, Benth. — Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 659). 

5. H. parviflorum, Benth. — Brunswick Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning-^ 
ham ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 723). 

6. H. subvirens, F. v. M. — Rocky Hills, Upper Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

AMARYLLIDACEa;. 

Tribe I. Perianth hairy or rarely glabrous. Stigmas or stigmatic lobes 
large, free or connate. Ovules many, in two rows in each cell. Seeds with a 
crustaceous testa, the hilum produced into a hooked beak. Leaves horizont- 
ally flattened, channelled or terete. Flowers in a simple spike, or raceme, or 
solitary. 

Flowers sessUe within sheathing or imbricate bracts in a dense spike. 
Perianth usually with a long tube. — 3. Curcuhgo. 

Flowers solitary or few in a loose pedunculate raceme. Perianth divided 
to the ovary into spreading segments. — 4. Hypoxis. 

Tribe II Perianth glabrous. Stigmas small. Bulbous plants. Leaves 
horizontally flat, channelled or terete. Flowers umbellate or rarely solitary on 
leafless scapes. — 1. Crinum. 

1. CRINUM, Linn. 1737. 

(Crinopsis, Herb., 1837 ; Erigona, Salisb., 1866 ; Liriamus, Rafin, 1836 ; 
Scandianus, Rafin., 1833 ; Taenais, Salist, 1856 ; Tanghekolli, Adans., 1763). 

Probably more or less poisonous to stock. 

Filaments not one-quarter as long as the perianth-lobes. Umbels few- 
flowered. Ovary usually beaked. — 3. C. venosum. 

Filaments more than tvi® -thirds as long as the lobes. 

Umbels many- flowered. Ovary usually beaked. — 1. C. angustfolium. 
Umbels 1 or 2- flowered. Ovary not beaked. — 2. C. uniflorum. 



74 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHBEN TEEEITOEY. 

1. C. angustifolium, R. Br. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 5, 600, 696); Adams Bay, Hulls. 

2. C. uniflorum, F. v. If .—Five-mile Bar, Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 697), 
20/12/1911. 

Coen River, Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

3. C. venosum, R. Br. — Coen River, Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Sweers Island, Henne. 

C. flaccidum, Herh. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Australia. 

2. CALOSTEMMA, R. Be. 
1. C. album, R. Br. — ^Turtle Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. CURCULIGO, Gaeetn. 

1. C. ensifolia, R. Br. ( Var. longifolia, Benth.) — Port Darwin, Schultz 
(No. 781). 

4. HYPOXIS, Linn. 

1. H. marginata, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

H. hygrometrica, Labill. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North Australia. 

TACCACEffi. 
1. TACCA, FoEST. 

1. T. pinnatifida, Forst. — Islands of the C4ulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
Swe6rs ; King's Sound, N.W. Coast, Hughan ; Sea Range and Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller ; Melville Island, Fraser ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 169, 195, 
810, 832) ; Escape Cliffs, Hulse. 

DIOSCOREACEffi. 

1. DIOSCOREA, Linn. 
1. D. sativa, Linn. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown; 
Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Melville Island, Fraser ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 173) ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

D. transvera, R. Br. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North Australia. 

BURMANOTACEiE. 

1. Burmannia, Linn. — Radical leaves lanceolate. Flowers several in a 
once-forked cyme. Perianth at least twice as long as broad. — 1. B. distieha. 

Leaves Hnear-setaceous, very small. Flowers solitary or few. Perianth 
with the wings as broad as long. — 2. B. juncea. 

1. B. distieha, Linn. — ^Liverpool River, Gulliver. 

2. B. juncea, Soland. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

ORCHIDACE.a;. 

Tribe I. — Anther lid-like, incumbent, usually deciduous. Pollen-masses 
waxy, 2, 4, or rarely 8, without caudicles or gland. Epiphytes or rarely 
terrestial with a creeping rhizome. — 5. Dendrobium. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOKTHERN TERRITORY. 75 

Tribe II. — Anther M-like, incumbent, usually deciduous. PoUen-masses 
waxy, 4 in pairs, on a single or double caudicle attached to a gland. Epiphytes 
or terrestial with creeping rhizomes. — 

Epithytes. Caudicle single. — 8. Vanda. 

Terrestial with short creeping rhizomes. Caudicle single. 

Sepals and petals erect. LabeUum scarcely saccate at the base, the 

disk with longitudinal raised hues. — 3. Geodorum. 
Sepals and petals spreading. LabeUum with a short pouch or spur at 
the base, marked with cristate or bearded veins. — 4. Eulophia. 
Terrestial with short creeping rhizomes. Caudicle bipartite. 
LabeUum gibbous and adnate to the column at its base. — 6. Dipodium. 

Tribe III. Anther lid-like, incumbent, usually deciduous. Pollen-masses 
waxy, 4 or 8, tapering at the base, separately attached and sessile on short 
eaudicles, or on a short dichotomous caudicle. ' Terrestial with creeping or 
rarely tuberous rhizomes or rarely epiphytes. Sepals and petals nearly equal, 
free and spreading. Flowers often large. — 7. Cymbidium. 

Tribe IV. — ^Anther erect or bent forward, persistent but free from the ros- 
tellum. Pollen granular or mealy. Terrestial herbs with simple stems bearing 
one or more leaves or rarely leafless, and a single spike raceme or single flower. — 
2. Pterostylis. 

Tribe VI. Anther adnate to the toft of the column over the stigma, the 
cells usually forming two lobes. PoUeh-masses 2, granular, attached by 
eaudicles to 1 or 2 glands or pouches over the stigma. Terrestial herbs, rhizomes 
with annually renewed tubers. Stems simple leafy. Flowers spicate. — 1. 
Habenaria. 

L HABENARIA, R. Bb! 

Stem leafy with broad leaves. Petals 2-partite. LabeUum with 3 narrow- 
linear lobes. Anther connective as high as the cells. — 4. H. trinervis. 

Leaves narrow, near the base of the stem. Petals divided. Anther con- 
nective, very much shorter than the ceUs. 

Lateral lobes of the labellum long and very narrow-Knear like the 
middle lobe. 
Leaves narrow-oblong. Spur of the labeUum above I in. long. — 

1. H. elongata. 
Leaves Unear. Spur of the labeUum under J-in. long. — 2. H. 
graminea. 
Lateral lobes of the labeUum lanceolate-falcate ; middle lobe linear. 
Spur longer than the sepals. — 3. H. ochroleuca. 

1. H. elongata, B. Bt. — ^Arnhem S. Bay, and islands ofi the coast of 
Arnhem's Land, R. Brown. 

2. H. graminea, Lindl. — ( Var. arnhemica, Benth). Port Darwin, Schultz 
(Nos. 162, 188) ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

3. H. ochroleuca, R. Br. — Islands of the N. Coast, R. Brown. 

4. H. trinervis, Wight. — ^Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 828). 
H. Holtzei, F. v. if.— Port Darwin, M. Holtze (No. 1056). 

2. PTEROSTYLIS, R. Br. 
Nun- flower or Parson-in-the-pulpit. 

1. P. recurva, Benth. — ^N.A., Drummond ; Upper Hay River, Miss 
Warburton. 



76 THE FLORA OF THE KOBTHBEN TBEBITORY. 

3. GEODORUM,- Jacks. 
1. G. pictum, Lindl.—N. Coast, R. Brown ; Port Darwin, Sohultz (No. 
728) ; Escape Cliffs, Hulse. 

4. EULOPHIA, R. Be. 

1. E. venosa, Beichb. — ^Providence Hill and Macadam Range, F. v. M. 

E. Holtzei, F. v. M. — ^Near Port Darwin, M . Holtze. In Gard. chron. 
1891 (p. 552) ; given as Pachystoma Holtzei, F. v. M. 
Australia. 

5. DENDROBIUM, Swaetz. 

1. D. dicuphum, F. v. M. — ^Liverpool River, Gulliver ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 412). 

D. bigibbum, Lindl. ; D. Foelschei, F. v. M. — Recorded in National 
Herbarium Census from North Australia. 

6. DIPODIUM, R. Be. 
1. D. punctatum, R. Br. — Port Darmn, Schultz (No. 623). 

7. CYMBIDIUM, Sw. 1799. 

(Aplectra, Rafin, 1824; Tridorchis, Blume, 1858; Trichorhiza, Lindl., 
1841). 

1. C. canaliculatum, B. Br. — Five-mile Bar, Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 
«94), 15/12/1911. 

Epiphyte on Eucalyptus (No. 688). 

Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

8. VANDA, R. Be. 
1. V. Hindsii, Lindl. — Arnhem's Land, F. v. M. 

Didymoplexis pollens, Griff. ; Pogonia flabelliformis, Lindl. — Recorded 
in National Herbarium Census from North Australia. 

CASUARINACE^. 

1. CASUARINA, Linn. 1759. 

Queensland Oaks. Sheokes. 

Section I. Whorls 7-16-merous, rarely 6-merous. Cone-valves usually 
prominent, thickened and keeled or angled on the back or with a short broad 
and smooth dorsal protuberance. — 2. C. equisetifolia. 

Section II. Whorls 4 or 5-merous. Cone-valves rarely prominent beyond 
the thick broad obtuse dorsal protuberances, which are very rugose or divided 
into tubercles (nearly smooth in C. Decaisneana). , 

Male-spikes and branchlets slender. — 1. C. Decaisneana. 

1. G. Decaisneana, F. v. M. — 6 miles S.E. of Old Henbury Station, 
Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 26), 3/3/1911. 

On sand-hills. Up to 50 ft. 

Recorded. Desert interior, near Mount Mueller, F. v. Mueller. 

2. G. equisetifolia, Linn. — Head of Kilgour River, G. F. Hill (No. 555). 
'2/9/1911. Large trees near coast. 

Recorded. N. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Island of the Gulf of Carpentaria 
Henna ; Escape Chffs, Hulse ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 9, 225). 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 77 

Bark said to be an excellent astringent, and to be used advantageously 
in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery. Bark is used in tanning. Furnishes a 
hard wood known as Iron Wood. 

ULMACEa:. 

Flowers polygamous, the fertile ones frequently hermaphrodite. 

Perianth-segments imbricate in the bud. Style-branches (or styles) 
linear-oblong or dilated, truncate or 2-lobed. — 1. Celtis. 

Flowers polygamous, the fertile ones frequently hermaphrodite. 

Male perianth-segments induplicate-valvate. Style branches (or styles) 
short, involute and persistent on the small fruit. — 2. Trema. 

1. CELTIS, TouBM. 1737. 

(Merteusia, H. B., and K., 1817 ; Momisia, F. G. Dietr., 1819 ; Sauro- 
broma, Rafin., 1838 ; Solenostigma, Endl., 1883.) 

Leaves broad, strongly 3-nerved, scarcely acuminate. Cotyledons flat 
or nearly so. — 2. C. phiHppinensis. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, the lateral nerves scarcelyprominent. Cotyledons 
conduplicate. — 1. C. paniculata. 

1. C. paniculata, Blanco. — ^Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, Hemie. 
Investigator-tree . 

2. C. phiHppinensis, Blanco. — Near Head of Kilgour River, G. F. Hill 
(No. 556), 2/9/1911. 

North Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, G. F. Hill (No. 635), 20/10/1911. 

Recorded. Clermont, Vansittart, and Careening Bays, N.W. Coast, A. 
Cunningham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; King's Sound, Hughan ; Islands 
of the Gulf of Carpentaria and opposite mainland, R. Brown and others ; Port 
Essington, A. Cunningham. 

2. TREMA, Lour. 1790. 
(SPONIA, CoMM. 1790). 

Leaves green and scabrous on both sides, sprinkled with scattered hairs or 
nearly glabrous. — 2. T. aspera. 

Leaves softly pubescent above, densely velvety-pubescent or hirsute 
underneath. — 1. T. amboinensis. 

1. T. amboinensis, Blume. — ^North Coast, A. Brown. 

2. T. aspera, Bl. — Simpson's Gap, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 
131), 30/4/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

Peach-leaved Poison Tree. Poisonous according to Maiden Principle 
unknown. 

MORACE^. 

Tribe I. Flowers unisexual in dense spikes or heads, or crowded on or 
enclosed in a fleshy receptacle. Stamens erect or shghtly incurved in the bud. 
Sytles undivided or 2-branched. Ovule pendulous or laterally attached. 
Embryo curved or straight. Trees or shrubs, with a mUky juice. 

Flowers enclosed in a globular ovoid or pear-shaped receptacle enclosed at 
the small orifice by small bracts. — 4. Ficus. 

Male flowers densely crowded on a broad receptacle, females solitary. 
Fruit an ovoid mass consisting of the consohdated involucre and pericarp, the 
tips of the bracts alone free. — 3. Antiaris. 



78 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITORY. 

Tribe II. Flowers unisexual in dense spikes or heads. Stamens inflected 
in the bud. Styles usually 2-branhoed. Ovule pendulous or laterally attached. 
Embryo incurved or involute. Trees or shrubs very rarely herbs. 

Male flowers in dense spikes. Females in globular heads, their perianths 
urceloate with a small orifice. Style-branches elongated. — 2. Malaisia. 

Flowers in globular androgynous heads. Style elongated with a small 
branch or tooth at the base. Stem herbaceous. — 1. Fatoua. 

1. FATOUA, Gaud. 
1. F. pilosa, Oaud. — ^Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. MAILAISIA, Blanco. 

1. M. tortuosa, Blanco. — ^Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 395, 745). Wood 
hard and very tough. 

3. ANTIARIS, Lesch. 

1. A. macrophylla, R. Br. — Shores of Company's Island, opposite Arn- 
hem's Land, R. Brown. Probably poisonous. 

4. FICUS, TouRN. 1735. 

(Ca/prificus, Gasp., 184,4: ; Erosma, Booth., 1849 ; Erythrogyne, Vis., 1845; 
Gonosuke, Rafin., 1838 ; Pharmacosycea, Miq., 1848 ; Plagiostrema, Zucc, 1845 
Many yield Caoutchouc. 

Section I. Male perianth 3-merous, rarely 6-merous. Stamen 1 ; anther- 
cells distinct or confluent. Female perianth 4-6-merous, Stigma (in the Aus- 
trahan species) elongated, acute. Leaves alternate, entire, usually coriaceous. 
Receptacles usually axillary. 

Leaves with rather distinct principal primary veins and numerous trans- 
verse reticulations, with a few smaller fine primary veins between the principal 
ones. 

Receptacles sessile or on a peduncle of 1 line, not exceeding 5 lines 

diameter .^ — 7. P. nesophila. 
Receptacles on peduncles of 2 lines, | to | in. diameter. — 5. F. 
Henneana. 
Leaves with numerous parallel primary transverse veins all equal or every 
third or fourth more prominent. 

Leaves thinly coriaceous, mostly under 3 in. 

Petioles under 3 lines. Leaves usually broad and very obtuse. 

Recepttacles |-in. diameter — 11. F. retusa. 
Petioles J to J in. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or elliptical, scarcely 
acuminate. Receptacles J-in. diameter. — 3. F. eugenioides. 
Leaves more coriaceous, obtuse or shortly and obtusely acuminate, 
rarely under 3 in. long. 

Receptacles pedunculate. 

Leaves softly pubescent underneath. Receptacles villous, 

scarcely umbonate. — 16. F. leucotricha. 
Leaves glabrous. Receptacles glabrous, prominently um- 
bonate. — 11. F. puberula. 
Receptacles sessile or on very thick short peduncles. — 10. F. 
platypoda. 

Section II. Male perianth of 5 or 6 lobes or segments, rarely reduced to 1 . 
Stamens 1, 2 or more ; anther-cells distinct. Female perianth 4-6-merous. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 79 

Stigma (in the Australian species) undivided, peltate, oblique or oblong. 
Leaves alternate, or opposite, entire, toothed or lobed, often deciduous. Re- 
ceptacles axillary or on the old wood. 

Leaves smooth, at least on the upper side, or scarcely scabrous. — 2. F. 
coronulata. 

Leaves very scabrous. 

Leaves all alternate, pubescent or villous underneath. Receptacles 
villous, the orifice broad with exserted bracts. — 13. F. scabra. 

Leaves frequently opposite. Receptacles globular, glabrous or rarely 
pubescent. 

Branches glabrous. — 9. F. orbicularis. 
Branches hirsute or pubescent. — 1. F. aculeata. 

Leaves entire or sinuate-crenulate, not aculeate. — 14. F. scobina. 

Section III. Male perianth of 3 or 4 broad segments enveloping each other, 
enclosing 1 large anther with distinct cells. Female perianth very small or more 
rarely exceeding the stipes of the ovary. Style glabrous, short, -with a peltate 
or oblique stigma. Leaves usually large. Stipular scar prominent. Re- 
ceptacles chiefly on the old wood. 

Leaves all opposite. Receptacles |- to 1 in. diameter, not ribbed. — 6. F. 
hispida. 

Leaves all alternate, glabrous and smooth. Receptacles 1 to 1|^ in. 
diameter; not ribbed. Stigma oblique. — 4. F. glomerata.' 

1. F. aculeata, A. Cunn. — Near Head of Kilgour River, G. F. Hill (No. 
554), 2/9/1911. 

Providence Knoll to Roper River, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 
Recorded. S. Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Nichol Bay, Ridley's 
Expedition ; King's Sound and Collier Bay, Chapman. 

2. F. coronulata, F. v. M. — Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. M 
Mueller. 

3. F. eugenioides, F. v. M. ( Var. puherula, Benth.). — York Sound, N.W. 
Coast, A. Cunningham. 

4. F. glomerata, Willd. — Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

Cluster Fig. In Bombay the sap is a popular remedy which is locally 
applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements. 

5. F. Henneana, Miq. — Maria Island and Caledon Bay, GuUiver. 
Yields a fruit suitable for preserving. 

6. F, hispida, Linn. — Brunswick Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

7. F. leucotricha, Miq. — Sandstone Range, Borroloola, G. F. HiU (No. 
597), 2/10/1911. 

Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Sea Range, F. v. Mueller. 

8. F. nesophila, Miq. — Cambridge GuK and Enderby's Island, N.W. Coast, 
A. Cunningham ; Nichol Bay, Gregory's Expedition ; King's Sound and Col- 
lier Bay, Chapman ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, GuUiver ; 
Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 652, 882, 887). 

9. F. orbicularis, A. Cunn. — Near Darwin, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Recorded. Cadeening Bay, Enderby Island and Dampier's Archipelago, 
N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; King's Sound, Hughan ; Nichol Bay, Gregory's 
Expedition ; Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 407). 



80 THE FLORA OI" THE NOETHBRN TERRITORY. 

10. F. paltypoda, A. Cunn. — ^Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 121), 
23/3/1911. Grows on rocky HU-sides. 

Recorded. York Sound and Vansittart's Bay, A. Cunningham. 

11. F. puberula, A. Cunn. — York Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Port Walcot, C. Harper ; Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

12. F. retusa, Linn. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

13. F. scabra, Forst. (F. aspera, Forst). — Roper River, Gilruth and 
Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Rough or Purple Fig. 

14. F. scobina, Benth. — Lizard Island, A. Cunningham ; Port Essing- 
ton, Leichhardt ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 6, 410, 499). 

F. glabella, Bl. (in National Herbarium Census), F. virginea, Banks and 
Sol. (in Journ. of Bot., 1901), recorded from North Australia. 

URTICACEffi. 

Stigma hnear, deciduous. Male perianth-lobes or segments concave or 
abruptly inflected at the top. Leaves entire. Bracts very small. — 1. 
Pouzolsia. 

Stigma tufted. Male-perianth segments nearly fiat. Leaves entire. 
Bracts united at. the base into an involucre. — 2. Parietaria. 

1. POUZOLSIA, Gaud. 

1. P. indica, Gaud. — Sea Range, Wilson ; Sunday Island, A. Cunning- 
ham. 

P. quinquenervis, Benn. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North Australia. 

2. PARIETARIA, Linn. 

1. P. debilis, Forst. — Sea Range, F. v. Mueller. 

PROTEACEa:. 

The trees of the order furnish very handsome cabinet and building woods. 
Sub-order I. Nucamentacece. — Fruit an indehiscent nut or drupe. 
Flowers usually solitary within each bract. — 1. Persoonia. 

Sub-order II. Folliculares. — Fruit dehiscent, folhcular or 2-valved, 
rarely (in the first 2 genera), drupaceous and indehiscent. Flowers usually 
in pairs with a single bract to each pair, rarely (in Stenocarpus), the inflorescence 
anomalous. 

Tribe I. Ovules 2 or 4, collateral. Seeds without anj^ intervening sub- 
stance or separated by a thin lamina or mealy substance. Flowers in racemes 
or clusters with deciduous or abortive bracts, with an involucre of imbricate 
bracts. 

Ovules 2. Perianth regular or nearly so, the anthers on short fila- 
ments attached below the laminse. Style cyhndrical or clavate at the end. — 
4. Helicia. 

Ovules 2. Perianth revolute in the bud or rarely straight and regular. 
Anthers short and sessile within the concave laminae. Leaves alternate. 

Seeds without wings short at both ends or annular. In florescence terminal, 
rarely also axillary.- — 2. Grevillea. 

Seeds winged, chiefly or entirely at the upper end. Inflorescence axillary 
Hakea. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOKTHEEN TERRITORY. 81 

Tribe II. Ovules several, imbricate in 2 rows. Seeds usually separated 
by thin laminae or a mealy substance. — 5. Stenocarpus. 

Tribe III. Ovules 2, collateral. Seeds separated either by a hard usually 
woody substance or by a membrane rarely wanting. Flowers in dense cones or 
heads. — 6. Banksia. 

1. PERSOONIA, Sm. 1798. 

{Linkia, Cav., 1797 ; Pentadadylon, Gaertn., 1805). 

1. P falcata, R. Br. — Bacon Swamp, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August,- 
1911. 

Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 683), 8/11/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; M'Adam 
Range, F. v. Mueller ; Escape Chffs, Hulse ; Victoria River, Bynoe ; Cj'^gnet 
Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

Wood hard and close-grained. 

2. GREVILLEA, R. Br. 1810. 

{Anadenia, B. Br., 1810; Fitchia, Meissn., 185.5; Lysanthe, Salish.. 
1837 ; Manglesia, Endl., 1839 ; Molloya, Meissn., 1855 ; Platiopoda, Spach., 
1841 ; Otychocarpa, Spach., 1841 ; Strangea, Meissn., 1855 ; Atylus, Salisb., 
1809). 

Section I. Racemes secund, and elongated, or few- flowered. Perianth- 
tube dilated below the middle and usually opening on the lower side, revolute 
under the Hmb. Torus small, straight or shghtly obKque. Stigmatic disc 
lateral. Leaves obtuse or mucronate, not pungent. 

Leaves mostly pinnate with narrow-Unear rigid segments doubly grooved 
underneath. — 8. G. eriostachya. 

Leaves pinnate with Hnear or lanceolate segments, glabrous above, sUky 
underneath. Perianth villous. — 3. G. chrysodendron. 

Section II. Racemes various. Perianth-tube dilated below the middle 
and usually opening on the lower side, revolute under the hmb. Torus very 
oblique, the gland side the shortest. Ovary villous except in a few axillary- 
fiowered species. Stigmatic disc very oblique or lateral. — 9. G. Goodii. 

Section III. Racemes secund, usually mam-- flowered. Perianth- tube 
more or less dilated below the middle and usually opening on the lower side, 
revolute under the hmb. Torus oblique, the gland-side the shortest. Ovary 
glabrous, stipitate. Species all tropical. 

Leaves undivided, ovate or lanceolate, angular or prickly-toothed. 
Leaves petiolate or tapering at the base. 

Leaves glabrous mostly sinuate-toothed. — 2. G. angulata. 
Leaves silky-pubescent at least when young, mostly angular. 
Racemes axillary. Perianth bearded inside with spreading 
or re flexed hairs. 
Perianth shghtly dilated at the base as in G. angulata. — 21. 

G. Wickhami. 
Perianth much dilated at the base as in G. Cunninghamii. 
— 1. G. agrifoUa. 
Leaves sessile, deeply cordate ■nith large stem-clasping auricles, 
sinuate and prickly -toothed. 4. G. Cunninghamii. 

Leaves sessile, deeply and regularly pinnatifid with rigid pungent-pointed 
lobes. — 17. G. pungens. 



82 



THE FLORA OI THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 



Leaves not toothed, entire or divided into long narrow segments. Ra- 
cemes usually paniculate. 

Leaves undivided, broadly falcate, longitudinally reticulate. — 6. 

G. dimidiata. 
Leaves mostly pinnate, the segments oblong-lanceolate or longitudi- 
nally reticulate. 

Leaves tapering at the base. — 10. G. heUosperma. 
Leaves decurrent. — 5. G. decurrens. 
Leaves mostly pinnate, the segments oblong-lanceolate or linear, 
penni-veined with numerous oblique parallel primary veins. — 
19. G. refracta. 
Leaf-segments numerous, liaear, obscurely veined above, 1-nerved 
underneath. Racemes long. Perianth above |-in. long. — 7. G. 
Dryandri. 
Leaf-segments not numerous, linear or lanceolate, obscurely veined 
above, 1-nerved underneath. Racemes dense. Perianth under 
J-in. long. — 16. G. polystachya. 
Section IV. Racemes dense, usually paniculate. Flowers small. Peri- 
anth-tube narrow, recurved or reflexed under the hmb. Torus straight. 
Ovary glabrous, stipitate. Fruit usually broad. Seeds winged all round. 
Tropical or sub-tropical species. 
Leaves mostly pinnate. 

Leaf-segments linear, very long and narrow. — 11. G. leucadendron. 
Leaf-segments Unear-cuneate, obtuse, under 5 in. long. — 18. G. 
pyramidalis. 
Leaves undivided, falcate, longitudinally reticulate and irregularly 
several- veined. — 12. G. mimosoides. 

Leaves undivided very narrow, with involute margins. — 13. Grevillea 
livea. 

Leaves undivided, very long, with 9 to 13 closely parallel veins. 10. G. 
striata. 

Section V. Racemes dense or rarely slender, short or cyUndrical. Flowers 

small. Perianth-tube slender, recurved under the hmb. Torus straight. 

Ovary stipitate. Style filiform with an erect stigmatic cone. — 15. G. poly- 
botrya. 

Section VI. Racemes short, dense, axillary. Flowers small. Perianth- 
tube straight, slender or fusiform ; limb erect. Torus straight. Ovary 
glabrous, stipitate. Style turgid in the middle or fusiform, constricted under 
the erect stigmatic cone. Western species. — 14. G. paniculata. 

1. G. agrifolia, A. Omww.— Camp II., G. F. Hill, 4/6/li911. 
Recorded. Cape Pond, Sim's Island, Lacrosse and Goulburn Islands, A. 

Cunningham ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition ; Gulf of Carpentaria, F„ v. 
Mueller ; in the interior, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

2. G. angulata, R. Br. — Sim's Island, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, 
Bynoe, F. v. Mueller ; Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

3. G. Chrysodendron, R. Br. — Hell Gate, Roper River, Gilruth and 
Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Near Darwin, and Melville Island. Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

Roper River, G. F. Hill (No. 841), 9/4/1912. 

Recorded. Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Victoria River; 
Bynoe, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darwin, Schultz , 
Melville Island, Fraser ; and other points of North Coast, A. Cunningham and 
others. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 83 

4. G. Cimninghami, B. Br. — Montague Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham. 

5. Q. decurrens, Ewart. — ^Racemes few- flowered forming a short terminal 
panicle, perianth glabrous externally and on inner surface ; torus oblique, gland 
elongated horse-shoe-shaped, stigmatic disk lateral, convex ; leaves divided 
with broad leaflets decurrent on the rachis. Glabrous but with slight 
pubescence at insertion of petioles. Leaf 28 cms. over aU, of which 
the petiole is about 7 cms., grooved above, pinnate between lowermost 
leaflets, but scarcely cleft to midrib between uppermost pairs, pinnae 7 in 
number, 10-12 cms. by 2-4 cms., oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, lower margin de- 
current on the rachis, with a longitudinal vein on either side of the midrib, 
and sometimes one or two intramarginal veins, with obhque reticulations be- 
tween all, conspicuous but more so on upper than on under side, which is 
paler. Racemes about 3 cms. pedunculate in the upper axils and termi- 
nal, few- flowered, the lowermost slightly branched, pedicels about 6 or 7 
mm., perianth-tube about 1.5 cm. long, somewhat larger, broader and 
more tapering at base than in G. heliosperma, almost glabrous on inner 
surface, but with an obhque torus, elongated horse-shoe gland and lateral 
convex stigmatic disk as in that of other species in this section ; ovary 
glabrous on a stipes of about 12 mm., style 20 mm. 

Northern Territory, N. of 15 degrees S. lat. W. S. Campbell, Sept., 1911. 

6. G. dimidiata, F. v. M. — Maude's Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Top Spring, G. F. Hill (No. 543), 31/8/1911. Tree 30 ft. high. 
Recorded. Careening Bay, A. Cunningham (leaves only) ; Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Roper River, M'DouaU Stuart's Expedition. 

7. G. Dryavdri, R. Sr.— Borroloola, F. G. HiU (No. 744), 11/2/1912. 
North of 15 degrees, W. S. Campbell (No. 20), 5/9/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the GuU of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Henne ; Upper 
Victoria River, F. v. M. ; Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong. 

8. G. eriostachya, Lindl. — 70 miles N.W. of Camp III., West of Lander 
Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 341), 14/6/1911. 

40 miles N.N.W. of Meyer's Hill, G. F. HUl (No. 232), 2/6/1912. Up to 
12 ft. 

35 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. HiU (No. 257), 7/6/1911, 7 ft. high. With 
fruit. 

N.A., G. F. Hill (No. 217), Fruits. 

Note by Dr. Morrison : — " In G. eriostachya the pedicels are very short, 
but in No. 341 they are seen f-in., and in No. 257 4 J- lines. Fruits in Nos. 257 
and 217 are f-in. long. 

9. G. Goodii, R. Br. — ^North Coast, R. Brown ; Port Essington, Arm- 
strong ; Point Pearce and Newcastle Range, F. v. Mueller. . 

10. G. heliosperma, R. Br. — Near Darwin, Melville Island, Driffielfl 
Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July -August, 1911. 

Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 656), 6/11/1911. 

Recorded. North Coast, R. Brown ; Port Raffles, A. Cunningham ; 
Melville Island, Eraser ; Point Pearce, M'Adam Range, Roper River, F. v. 
Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz ; Caledon Bay and Liverpool River, Guihver. 

11. G. Leucadendron, A. Gunn. — 20 miles S.W. of Borroloola, G. F. Hill 
(No. 572), 6/9/1191. 25 ft. high. 

D 



84 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Recorded. Cambridge Gulf and Enderby Island, Dampier's ArcHpelago, 
A. Cunningham ; Sea Range, Victoria River, and sources of the Roper, Wick- 
ham ; and Alhgator Rivers, Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

12. O. mimosoides, R. Br. — Cadeening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Victoria River, M'Adam Range, Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of 
the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne. 

13. G. Uvea, Ewart and Archer (Plate VIIl.). — Tall shrub, about 10-15 
ft. Stems, pubescent when young, glabrous when older. Leaves simple, entire, 
linear, tapering to a curved point. Very narrow margin recurved on the under 
surface, 7-9 in. long. 

Racemes 4-5 in. long, a number together forming a terminal leafless 
panicle. 

Flowers small and numerous, often two arising from the same point of the 
rachis. Pedicel l|-2 lines long. Torus slightly oblique, gland not prominent. 
Ovary glabrous on a short stipes, style long ; stigmatic disc lateral with a small 
cone elevation in the centre of the disc. 

Fruit small, compressed, |-in. by |-in., beaked, covered with a dark brown 
skin which rubs off when ripe leaving a rough light brown surface. Seeds 
winged all round. 

40 miles N.N.W. of Meyer's Hill, G. F. Hill (No. 231), 2/6/11. 

30 miles N.W. of Charlotte Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 20), 24/2/11. 

70 miles N. of Camp IV., G. F. Hill (No. 231«), 28/6/11. 

The nearest affinitj^ appears to be to G. mimosoides, from which it differs 
in the much narrower and involute leaves, shortly stalked ovary, smaller fruits, 
etc. 

14. G. paniculata, Meissn. — N. Australia, Drummond, (No. 105), Preis 
(No. 617), a. and b. ; Fitzgerald Flats, Maxwell. 

15. G. polybotrya, Meissn. — Glenelg River, N.W. Coast, Martin. 

16. G. polystachya, B. Br. — Providence Knoll and Eleven-Mile Creek, 
near Katharine, Gilruth and Spencer, July -August, 1911. 

Newcastle Waters, G. F. HiU (No. 496), 7/7/1911. 

20 miles S.W. of Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 569), 7/9/1911. 30 ft. high. 

Recorded. Macadam Range and S. Alligator River, F. v. Mueller. 

17. G. pungens, R. Br. — ^W. Coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
Leichhardt ; Maria Island, Gulliver. 

18. G. pyramidalis, A. Cunn. — Regent's River, N.W. Coast, A. Cumiing- 
ham. 

19. G. refracta, R. Br.—QO miles N. of N.T. Survey Camp III., G. F. Hill 
(No. 401), 30/6/1911. 

Grows to 15 ft. Slender bush on sandy plains. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Cambridge 
Gulf, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Cygnet Bay, Wiokham ; Victoria River, 
Bynoe, F. v. Mueller ; Sea Range and Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller ; Short's 
Range, Newcastle Waters, RiUiart's Springs, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

20. G. sirlaln, R. 5?-.— Henbury Station, Finke River, G. F. HiO (No 
50), 10/3/1911. Near Ranges. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, R. Brown. 

Resin may be used medicinally as a substitute for pitch. The foliage 
considered good fodder for stock in times of drought. Wood useful for staves 
and caliinet wood. 



THE FLORA 0¥ THE NOETHEBN TERRITORY. 85 

21, G. Wickhami, Meissn. — Usbome's Harbour, N.W. Coast, Wickham ; 
Roebuck Bay, Martin ; King's Sound and Collier Bay, Chapman ; Port Dar- 
win, Schultz ; Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

G. stenobotrya, F. v. M. ; G. longistyle, Hook ; G. juncifolia, Hook ; G. 
gibbosa, R. Br. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from North Aus- 
traUa. 

3. HAKEA, Schrad. 1797. 

(Gonchium, 8m., 1798 ; Mercklinia, Regel, 1857). 

Section I. Flowers in oblong or cj^Undrioal or rarely short racemes, 
without any involucre. Perianth much revolute. Stigmatic disc oblique or 
lateral, flat or broadly conical. Tropical or sub-tropical species. 
Leaves usually terete very long. 

Racemes as well as the whole plant quite glabrous. — 2. H. chordo- 

phylla. 
Racemes pubescent or villous. 

Leaves 8 to 12 in. long. Torus oblique. — 4. H. digjnia. 
Leaves mostly above 1 ft. long. Racemes 3 to 6 in. long. Peri- 
anth-tube 4 to 5 hnes. 

Torus very obHque. — 3. H. Cunninghamii. 
Torus scarcely obUque. — 7. H. lorea. 
Leaves under 6 in. long. — 5. H. intermedia. 

Leaves flat, linear, usually long. 

Seed-wing not at all or scarcely decurrent along the nucleus. 

Racemes 3 to 6 in. long. Perianth villous, 5 to 6 lines long. 

— 8. H. macrocarpa. 
Racemes under |-in. long, pedunculate. Perianth silky under 
2 hnes. — 1 . H. arborescens. 
Seed-wing decurrent on both sides round the base of the nucleus. — 9. 
H. stenophylla. 

Section II. Racemes usually short or reduced to sessile clusters, enclosed 
before their development in an involucre or bud of imbricate scales. Perianth 
revolute, at least under the hmb. Stigmatic disc oblique or lateral, flat or 
slightly convex, without any cone. — 6. H. leucoptera. 

1. H. arborescens, R. Br. — Lat. 19 degrees 16 min.. Survey route, G. F, 
Hill (No. 425), 4/7/1911. Specimen without flowers. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Henne ; Cope- 
land Island, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong. 

2. H. chordophylla, F. v. M.— Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Kekwick 
Springs, Waterhouse. 

3. H. Cunninghamii, R. Br. — Bay of Rest, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Nichol Bay, Gregory's Expedition ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

4. H. digyna, Ewart and Davies (Plate IX.). — ^Newcastle Waters, G. F 
Hill (No. 471), 17/7/1911. 

Tree 20 ft. high. Leaves terete, smooth, from 8 to 12 in. Racemes 
cyhndrical, from axils, 6 to 9 cms. long. Rachis glabrous, pedicels and 
perianths pubescent. Pedicels 8 mm. long. Torus obhque ; gland large, 
horse-shoe shaped. Ovary stipitate ; stigmatic disc broad, obhque, convex. 

Specimen without fruit. 

D 2 



86 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

The pedicels arise in pairs, and in the specimens here collected some have 
fused, resulting in the formation of flowers with two carpels on the one pedicel, 
as shown in Fig. VI. Kgs. VII., VIII., and IX. show transition stages in the 
fusion of the pedicels. Fig. VII. shows the complete fusion of the glands leaving 
only one gland. 

The species seems nearest H. chordophylla, F. v. M. ; but differs in the 
pubescent pedicels and perianths, and in the convex stigmatic disc. The 
tendency for the fusion of pedicels is probably also a specific characteristic. 

5. H. intermedia, Eivart and Daviea (Plate X.). — 60 miles N.E. of Camp 
II., G. F. Hill (287a), 7/6/1911. 

37 miles E. of Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 108), 21/3/1911. 
Up to 15 ft. 

Near Jay Gorge, Jay River, G. F. Hill (No. Ill), 21/3/1911. 

15 ft. high. Leaves terete, smooth, trifid or quadrifid. Whole leaf 
barely 11 cm. long. Racemes cyhndrical, in axils, and in terminal panicles. 
Racemes 7 to 8 cm. long ; rachis, pedicels, and perianths pubescent, the pedicels 
and perianths more so than the rachis. Pedicels 5 cm. long. Perianth tube 
8 to 10 cm. long. Gland prominent, horse-shoe shaped, with lengthened cusps. 
Torus obUque. Ovary shortly stipitate, glabrous. Stigmatic disc obhque, 
convex, with small prominent swelling. Fruit described from a second specimen 
without flowers. Fruit 4-^ by 1^ cm., obliquely ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, with 
mucronate point. Seed-wing not decurrent, convex over nucleus. The species 
most resembles H. lorea, R. Br. ; it differs in the size and shape of the leaf, and 
in the shape of the stigmatic disc, as that of H. lorea does not end in a prominent 
httle swelling hke H. intermedia. This difference is easily seen by comparing 
Figs. IV. and V. 

H. intermedia also closely resemble H. Ednieana, in general appearance, 
but the leaves and the whole plant of H. Ednieana are much smaller. The 
whole leaf of H. Ednieana measures about 3 cm., that of H. intermedia 11 cm. 
The stigrnatic discs are also quite different, that of H. Ednieana being somewhat 
sharply pointed (Fig. VI.). On the whole H. intermedia seems to be an inter- 
mediate species between H. Ednieana and H. lorea. 

6. H. leucoptera, R. £r.— Charlotte Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 16), 21/2/1911. 
Grows on dry plains and sandhills. 16 ft. high. 

7. H. lorea, R. Br. ( Var. suherea, 8p. le Moore). — Maodonnell Ranges, 
G. F. Hill (No. 94), 23/3/1911. 

Sandstone Country, G. F. Hill, 25/5/1911. Up to 25 ft. 
Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill. With rough corkhke bark. 
60 miles W. of Camp IV., G. F. Hill (No. 370), 22/6/1911. 8 in. diameter, 
30 ft. high. 

Recorded. Attack Creek, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 
Cat-o'-nine-tails. 

8. H. macrocarpa, A. Cunn. — 110 miles N. of N.T. Survey Camp IV., 
G. F. Hill (No. 406), 1/7/1911. 

Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 239), 4/3/1911. 

40 miles N.N.W. of Meyer's Hill, G. F. Hill, 2/6/1911. 

Top Spring, G. F. Hill (No. 545), 31/8/1911. Tree 25 ft. high. 

Recorded. Arid shores of Cygnet Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Roebuck Bay and Glenelg River, Martin ; remotest parts of Sturt's Creek, 
F. V. Mueller. 

9. H. stenophylla, A. Cunn. — H. rhombales, F. v. 31. ; H. multilineata, 
Meissn. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from North Australia. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TBERITORY. 0/ 

4. HELICIA, Lour. 

1. H. australasica, F. v: M. — Towards Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller ; 
Port Darwin, Schultz. 

5. STENOCARPUS, R. Br. 

1. S. Cunninghamii, R. Br. — Vansittart's Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning - 
ham ; sources of the Roper River, E. v. Mueller ; Liverpool River, Cadell's 
Expedition. 

6. BANKSIA, Linn. 178L 
{Isostylis, B. Br., 1840). 

1. B. dentaia, R. 5r.— Borroloola, G. F. HiU (No. 654), 8/11/1911 
Specimen with fruit. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpeataria, R. Brown; Port Hurd, 
opposite Melville Island, A. Cunningham ; Point Pearce, P. v. Mueller ; Glenelg 
River, N.W. Coast, Martin. 

Conospermum sphacelatum, Hook. — Recorded in National Herbarium 
Census from North Austraha. 

LOBANTHACE^. 

1. LORANTHUS, Linn. 1890. 
Mistletoes. 

Anthers adnate, linear. Petals united to the middle or higher up. Leaves 
alternate or opposite. Inflorescence axillary. , 

Flowers several, in racemes. — 8. L. longiflorus. 
Flowers several, in cymes. 

Flowers and inflorescence glabrous. Calyx-Umb truncate, much 

shorter than the adnate tube. — 3. L. dictyophlebus. 
Flowers and inflorescence hoary-tomentose. Calyx-Umb 5- 
toothed, nearly as long as the adnate tube. Cymes sessile, 
few- flowered. 9. L. odontocalyx. 
Flowers solitary or in pairs. 

Leaves mostly opposite, coriaceous. — 4. L. Exocarpi. 
Leaves all alternate,- thin. Pedicels slender. 1. — L. acacioides. 
Anthers adnate, hnear. Petals free. Leaves mostly opposite. 

Flowers in clusters of 3, the clusters in axillary racemes. — 13. L. 

signatus. 
Flowers in axiUary cymes (or umbels), the common peduncle with 2 
to 5 diverging or divaricate umbellate branches. 
Branches of the peduncle (usually 3 or 4) bearing each a siagle 

flower. — 12. L. sanguineus. 
Peduncle twice forked with 1 flower to each branch. — 2. L. 

bifurcatus. 
Branches of the peduncle usually 3 or 4, each bearing 3 flowers. 
Leaves terete. — 7. L. Unophyllus. 
Leaves flat. 

Lateral flower of the 3, or all 3, pedicellate. Plant 

glabrous. — 10. L. pendulus. 
Flowers all 3 closely sessile. Plant more or less hoary- 
tomentose, at least the calyx. — 11. L. Quandong. 
Branches of the peduncle 2, each with 2 pedicellate flowers. 
— 5. L. gibberulus. 
Flowers sessile on the dilated apex of the peduncle, between 2 large 
bracts or floral leaves. — 6. L. grandibracteus. 



88 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

1. L. acacioides, A. Gunn. — ^N.W. Coast, A. Cuimingham ; Victoria and 
Fitzmaurice Rivers, P. v. Mueller. 

2. L. bifurcatus, Benth.^Ca.m-p II., G. F. Hill (No. 242), 4/3/1911. 
Parasite on No. 341a. Eucalyptus oleosa or Eucalyptus setosa. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. L. dictyophlebus, F. v. M. — 160 miles N. of Survey Camp IV., G. F. 
Hill (No. 421). On Acacias (Nos. 358 and 236). 

Lander Creek, Camp III., G. F. Hill (No. 303), 10/6/1911. On Cassia 
Sturtii (No. 36), and Santalum lanceolatum (No. 243). 

Roper River, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. On Indiarubber 
Tree. 

4. L. JExocarpi, Behr.—m miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (Nos. 274 
and 375), 7/6/1911. On Acacia Nos. 10 and 244, Eremophila Duttoni (No. 244) 

At Black Rocks, MacArthtir River, G. F. Hill, (No. 637), 22/10/1911. 

Bacon Swamp, Gilruth and Spencer, July -August, 1911. On Eucalyptus. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of 
the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; M'Donnell Ranges, M'Douall 
Stuart's Expedition. 

5. L. gibberulus, Tate.— Camp II., G. P. Hill (No. 242a), 4/6/1911. 
Near Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 77), 12/3/1911. 

6. L. graTidibracteus , F. v. M. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; between Albert and Flinders Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

7. L. linophyllus, i^ewzL— Dalhousie Station, G. F. Hill (No. 8), 14/2/1911.- 
On No. 7. 

Idracowra Station, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 35), 6/3/1911. 
Recorded. Bay of Rest, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Sturt's Creek, 
F. V. Mueller. 

8. L. longiflorus, Desr. —N.T., G. F. Hill (No. 539), 1911. 
Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 579), 10/9/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria, R. Brown. 

Bark said to contain 10 per cent. Tannin. 

9. L. odontocalyx, F. v. M. — Towards M'Adam Range, and Providence 
Hill, F. V. Mueller. 

10. L. pendulus, ;Sie6.— Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 602), 2/10/1911 
On Box Gum. 

70 miles W. of Camp IV., on Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 372), 22/5/1911. 
Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; 
Gilbert River, F. v. Mueller. 

11. L. Quandang, Lindl. — 15 miles N.W. of Crown Point, Overland Tele- 
graph Line, G. F. Hill (No. 23), 1/3/1911. Parasitic on " Mulga." 

20 miles N.W. by N. of Meyer's HiU, Macdonnell Ranges, G.' F. Hill (No. 
220), 1/6/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Thomson 
River, A. C. Gregory ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne. 

12. L. sanguineus, F. v. M. — Camp III., Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 
319), 10/6/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria, R. Brown ; Bentinck's Island, and Albert River, Henne. 

13. L. signatus, F. v. M. — Near Darwin, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August 
1911. 



THE TLORA OF THE NOETHBEN TBREITOEY. 89 

Recorded. Arnhem S. Bay, and Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; N. Coast, F. v. Mueller ; Quail Island, Flood. 

Loranthus amplexifoliits, F. v. Mueller ; and Viscum angulalum, Heyne. — 
Recorded in Roy. Soc, S.A., 1895, from North Australia. 

SANTALACE^. 

Perianth-tube adnate at the base, with the upper campanulate, ovoid or 
cylindrical portion, superior.^ — 3. Santalum. 

Perianth inferior, the lobes divided to the broad base or dilated summit of 
the peduncle. 

Flowers dioecious, usually 3 or 4-merous, the females solitary, the males in 
clusters. Leaves alternate, linear-terete or minute and scale-like. — 1. Antho- 
bolus. 

Flowers polygamous, inflorescence and foliage of Leptomeria or the leaves 
developed and flat. — 2. Exocarpus. 

1. ANTHOBOLUS, R. Br. 

1. A. filifoUus, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. EXOCARPUS, Labill. 1798. 

(Canopus Presl., 1849; Sarcoccdyx, Zipp., 1830; Xynophylla, Montr., 
I860.). 

Leaves ovate, flat, 1 to 2 in. long. — 1. E. latifolius. 

Leaves linear-subulate, 1 to 2 lines long and deciduous, or rarely rather 
longer and persistent. — 2. E. spartea. 

1. E. latifolius, E. Br. — Sandstone Ranges, near Borroloola, G. F. Hill 
{No. 791), 23/2/1912. Edible. 12 ft. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne; Islands 
and Mainland, N. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Point Pearce and Upper Victoria 
lliver, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 358). 

A fragrant wood suitable for cabinet work. 

2. E. spartea, B. Br. — 20 miles N.N.W. of Meyer's Hill, Macdonnell 
Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 222), 1/6/1911. Up to 4 ft. 6 in. 

3. SANTALUM, Linn. 1742. 
(Sirium, Schreb., 1789 ; Fusanus ; Eu,carya). 

Flowers several in the panicle. Perianth 3 hnes long or more. — 1. S. 
lanceolatum. 

Flowers few (rarely above 3) on the peduncles. Perianth rarely 2 lines 
long. Fruit 3 to 4 lines diameter, the terminal scar enclosing a small area. — 
2. S. ovatum. 

1. S. lanceolatum, R. Br. — ^Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (61 and 
85), 11-13/3/1911. Drooping shrub, 8 ft. 

Dashwood Creek, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 172), 13/5/1911. 

35 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 243), 7/6/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 517). 



90 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Note on Herbarium specimen from Mt. Lyndhurst, collected by Max 
Koch :— 

" Cattle tree." Aboriginal name " Mandanorra." Blacks eat the fruit. 
Good fodder, ornamental, 12 ft. high. 

Sandalwood. The fragrant wood has been an article of export from 
Queensland for some time. 

2. S. ovatum, R. Br. — Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown ; Port Darwin, Schultz 
(Nos. 678, 714, 771). 

OLACACE.ffi. 

Tribe I. Olacece. — Stamens twice as many as petals, or fewer, or if the 
same number as petals, opposite to them. Ovar^r often 2 or 3-celIed at the base, 
1 -celled at least at the top ; placenta central, with 2 or 3 pendulous ovules. 

Calyx not enlarged after flowering. Stamens twice as manj' as petals ; 
anthers oblong or hnear. — 1. Ximenia. 

Calyx enlarged and enclosing the fruit. Stamens 3 ; staminodia (in the 
Australian species), 5 ; anthers short. — 2. Olax. 

Tribe II. Opiliem. — Stamens as many as petals and opposite to them. 
Ovary 1-celled, with 1 ovule. — 3. Opilia. 

1. XIMENIA Linn. 

1. X. americana, Linn. — Ranges of the Suttor and Mackenzie Rivers, F. 
V. Mueller. 

Contains Prussic Acid. The wood resembles English Box. 

2. OLAX, Linn. 

Staminodia undivided. — 1. 0. aphylla. 

Staminodia 2-oleft to the middle. — 2. 0. Benthamiana. 

1. 0. aphylla, JR. Br. — N. Coast, R. Brown ; barren stony ridges on the 
Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller ; Arnhem's Land, Leichhardt. 

2. 0. Benthamiana, Miq. — Bay of Rest, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

3. OPILIA, RoxB. 

1. 0. amentacea, Roxh. — York Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Victoria River, Bynoe, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Point 
Pearce, F. v. Mueller. 

Cansjera leptostachya, Benth. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census 
from North Australia. 



Birth wort. 



ARISTOLOCHIACEiE. 

ARISTOLOCHIA, Linn. 



1. A. Thozetfii, F. v. M. ( Var. angustissima, Benth). — Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 547). 

A. Holtzei, F.v.M. (in Vict. Nat., 1893) and A.indica, Linn, (in National 
Herbarium Census) recorded from North Australia. 

POLYGONACEZE. 

Perianth-segments 6, the 3 inner ones closing over the fruit. 
Stamens 6. Styles 3. Stigmas fringed. — 1. Rumex. 
Perianth-segments 5, nearly equal. Stamens 8 or fewer. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 91 

Flowers mostly hermaphrodite. Styles or style-branches 2 or 3. Stigmas 
entire. — 2. Polygonum. 

Flowers more or less dioecious. Styles or style-branches 3 ; Stigmas more 

or less fringed, or rarely entire. — 3. Muhlenbeckia. 

1. RUMEX, Linn. 
Docks. 

1. R. halophilus, F. v. M. {R. crystallinus, Lange). — ^Gulf of Carpentaria, 
F. V. Mueller. 

POLYGONUM, Linn. 1735. 

( Ampelygonum, Lindl., 1838 ; Antenoron, Rafin., 1817 ; Asicaria, Neck., 
1790 ; Bergeria, Koen., 1840 ; Bilderdykia, Dum., 1827 ; Bistorta, Tourn., 
1737 ; Chylocalyx, Hassk., 1842 ; Echinocaulon, Spach., 1841 ; Goniaticum 
Stokes, 1812 ; Helxine, Linn., 1735 ; Koenigia, Linn., 1767 ; Lagunea, Lour., 
1790 ; Persicaria, Linn., 1735 ; Pleuropterus, Turcz.,'12A2> ; Tephis, Adans., 
1763 ; Thysanella, A. Gr., 1847 ; Tiniaria, Reicht., 1837 ; Tovara, Adans., 
1763 ; Trachypyron, Ger., 1836.) 

1. P. attenuatum, R. ^r.— Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 469), 
17/7/1911. In waterholes. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria 
River, Sturt's Creek, Wentworth, Flinders and Macarthur Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

Note on Herbarium specimen : — Baked ia ashes and eaten by the natives. 
Camels fatten on this." 

P. plebeium, R. Br., P. barbatum, Linn. — Recorded in National Her- 
barium Census from North Australia. 

3. MUEHLENBECKIA, Meissn. 1840. 

{Calacinum, Raein., 1836; Conobea, Bert., 1840; Karkinetron, Rafin., 
1836 ; Sacogonum, G. Don., 1839). 

1. M. Cunninghami, F. v. M. — ^Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 478), 
17/7/1911. Wild scrub near creek. Lignum of some. 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

CHENOPODIACEiE. 

Tribe I. Branches continuous. Leaves flat, glabrous, mealy, scaly or 
glandular. Testa crustaceous. Embryo curved round a mealy albumen. 

Perianths equally 5 or 4-lobed, herbaceous, not much enlarged in fruit. 

Fruit a small succulent berry. — 2. Rhagodia. 

Fruit a dry nut enclosed in the perianth. — 3. Chenopodium. 

Male perianths small, equally 5- or 4-lobed, females much enlarged in 
fruit with 2 broad appressed segments enclosiag the fruit. — 4. Atriplex. 

Tribe II. Branches continuous. Leaves narrow, entire, flat or terete, 
glabrous, villous-tomentose or woolly. Testa membranous. Embryo curved 
round a mealy albumen. 

Fruiting-perianth globular or depressed, membranous, herbaceous or 
succulent, the lobes horizontally (or rarely conically) closing over the fruit. 
Seed horizontal or obhque. 

Fruiting-perianths without appendages, succulent or coriaceous, glabrous 
or the lobes slightly pubescent. — 7. Enchylsena. 

Fruiting-perianth surrounded by 3 or 5 distinct or by 1 continuous annular 
horizontal wings. — 6. Kochia. 



92 THE FLOEA OF THE NOBTHEEN TBRRITOKY. 

Fruiting-perianth membranous or herbaceous, enveloped in wool or long 
hairs, without any or with horn-like or spinescent dorsal appendages. — 5. 
Bassia (Chenolea). 

Fruiting-perianth hard, at least at the base, the lobes usually membranous 
and withering. — 5. Bassia. (ScleroljEna and Anisacantha.) 

Tribe III. Branches articulate, fleshy. Leaves none. Flowers more or 
less immersed. Testa various. Embryo curved or folded with httle or no 
albumen. Single genus. — 8. SaUcornia. 

Tribe IV. Branches continuous, Leaves narrow, flat or terete, entire. 
Testa various. Embryo spirally coiled, without albumen. — 9. Salsola. 

Tribe V. Branches continuous. Leaves entire, hnear, fleshy. Testa 
crustaceous. Embryo enclosing a mealy albumen. — 1. Hemichroa. 

1. HEMICHROA, R. Br. 1816. 

1. H. diandra, B. Br.— 10 miles W.S.W. of Stuart Range, G. F. Hill 
(No. 228), 2/6/1911. Near salt lakes. 

Recorded. Mchol Bay, N.W. Coast, F. v. Mueller. 

2. RHAGODIA, R. Br. 1810. 
Saltbiishes. 

Inflorescence nearly single or panicle not much branched. — 2. R. crassi- 
foha. 

Leaves flat, rather thin, mostly alternate broad and small. Plant spine- 
scent. — 3. R. spinescens. 

I Leaves thin, green, opposite or alternate. Plant usually slender or weak. — 
2. R. nutans. 

1. B. crassifolia, B. Br. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

2. B. nutans, B. Br.— Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 118), 23/3/191 1 . 

3. B. spinescens, B. Br. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 99), 
18/3/1911. 

A hardy perennial fodder-plant. Aboriginal name in the Dieyerie dialect 
of Central Australia, Yillaroo. 

B. Billiardieri, B. Br. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North Australia. 

3. CHENOPODIUM, Linn. 1735. 

{ Agathophytum, Moq., 1834; Ambrina, Spach., 1836; Anserina, Dum., 
1827 ; Blitum, Linn., 1737 ; Botrydium, Spach., 1836 ; Lipandra, Moq., 1840 ; 
Morocarpus, Adans, 1763 ; Oligandra, Less., 1834 ; Oliganihera, Endl., 1841 ; 
Orthospermum, Opiz., 1852 ; Orthosporum, Nees., 1835 ; Oxybasis, Ear., and 
Kir., 1841 ; Teloxys, Moq., 1834). 

Section I. Spinescent shrub. Flower-clusters in terminal spikes. Seeds 
vertical. — 10. C. nitrariaceum. 

Section II. Herbs mealy-white or glabrous. Flower-clusters in terminal 
or axillary spikes or panicles. Seeds all or mostly horizontal. — 4. C. aurico- 
mum. 

1. C. auricomum, Lindl. — Near Anthony's Lagoon, G. F. Hill (No. 528), 
21/8/1911. ' 

10 miles W. of Eva Downs, G. F. HiU (No. 516), 19/8/1911. 



THE ITiOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 93 

A tall undershrub (6 ft. high), with herbaceous stems of considerable fodder 
value, so much so that it has almost disappeared from the stocked portions of 
the interior. Aboriginal name of the Dieyerie tribe of Central Australians, 
Batha-oorroo. The natives eat the foUage. Bluebush. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River, and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Gulf 
of Carpentaria, Landsborough ; in the interior, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

2. C. nitrariaceum, F. v. M. — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

C. atriplicinum, F. v. M. ; C. carinatum, R. Br. ; Recorded in National 
Herbarium Census from North Australia. 

4. ATRIPLEX, Linn, 1735. 

{Endol&pis, 1'orr., 1860) ; Halimus, Walk., 1822 ; Obiorie, Gaertn., 1791 ; 
Phyllotheca, Nutt., 1849 ; Pterocarya, Nutt., 1849 ; Pterochiton, Ton., 1845 ; 
Schizotheca, Lindl., 1847 ; Thelophyton., Moq., 1849). 

Saltbushes. 

Series I. Dioecious or semidioecious scaly tomentose shrubs, the male 
clusters in more or less branched or paniculate dense or interrupted leafless 
spikes. 

Fruiting-perianths flat. — 4. A. Moquiniana. 

Fruiting-perianths with thick convex valves. — 5. A. nummularia. 

Series II. Monoecious, decumbent, procumbent, or spreading herbs, scaly- 
tomentose or very rarely green. Male flowers in globular clusters surrounded 
by a few females in the upper axils or rarely forming a short terminal spike, 
females clustered in the lower axils without males. Fruiting perianths more or 
less compressed, conspicuously 2-valved. 

Fruiting perianth flat, rhomboidal, the valves free almost or quite to the 
base, closing over the fruit. — 3. A. humiUs. 

Fruiting perianth with a compressed turbmate base half enclosing the fruit, 
shorter than or not longer than, the valves. 

Leaves nearly orbicular, about 1 in. diameter. Fruiting perianth 
stipitate, the valves more than twice as broad as the tube. — 1. 
A. angulata. 
Leaves narrow, usually green, J to 1 in. long. Fruiting perianth 
sessile, rhomboidal, the valves not broader than the tube. — 6. 
A. semibaocata. 
Fruiting perianth with a globular ovoid or sUghtly compressed tube 
enclosing the fruit, the valves shorter than the tube. 

Spreading (or erect). Leaves broad mostly toothed and 2 in. long 
or more. Fruiting perianth 1 to 1| lines diameter. — 29. A. 
varia. 
Diffuse. Leaves obovate or oblong, rarely above 2 lines long. 
Fruiting perianth 1 to 1 J lines diameter. — 2. A. elachophyUa. 
Series III. — Monoecious spreading or procumbent herbs or undershrubs 
scaly-tomentose or mealy. Flowers axillary. Fruiting perianths not com- 
pressed, enclosing the fruit, the orifice small closed by small erect appressed 
valves. — 7. A. spongiosa. 

1. A. angulata. Benth. — Henbury Station, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 
27), 7/3/1911. Good fodder. 

2. A. elachophyUa, F. v. M. — ^Desert of Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

3. A. humilis, F. v. M. — Subsaline banks of Flinder's River, Gulf of 
Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 



94 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

4. A. Moquiniana, Welb. — Bay of Rest, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

5. A. nummidaria, Lindl. — Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 28), 
23/3/1911. On flat country. 

Undunya Creek, Finke River, G. F. HiU (No. 27a), 3/3/1911. 
Old Man Saltbush. Good fodder. 

6. A. semibaccata, B. Br. — Near Hermansburg, Fiake River, G. F. Hill 
(No. 105), 20/3/1911. 

7. A. spongiosa, F. v. M. — Start's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

8. A. varia, Ewart and Davies (Plate XI.). — Henbury Station, Finke 
River, G. F. Hill (No. 42), 9/3/1911. 

60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. HiU (No. 284a), 7/6/1911. 

Stems about 20-25 cm. high ; woody at the base ; mealy-white, with scales 
and scale-hairs. Leaves petiolate, ovate, coarsely and irregularly sinuate- 
toothed or lobed, 15-20 cm. long. Flowers small, monoecious ; females alone 
in clusters in the lower axils ; males in clusters surrounded by females in the 
upper axils and a few of the males alone, forming a short terminal spike. Fruit- 
ing perianths sessile, 2-5 mm. long, 2-3 mm. broad, the lower half a triangular 
tube closed at the base ; the upper, flat, appressed, 5-toothed valves. On 
the exterior of the fruit are three prominent teeth (Fig. III.). Two types of 
fruit are seen in Fig. III., between these two extremes all intermediate stages 
may be found on the same specimen. Specimens resembling type A are by far 
more plentiful. The species is most closely alhed to A. Muelleri, Benth. It 
differs in the strongly toothed fruits and pistillate flowers. The male flowers 
were not ripe in either of the specimens. Good fodder. 

A. leptocarpa, F. v. M. ; A. limbata, Benth. ; A. Muelleri, Benth. ; A. 
vesicaria, Hew. ; A. halimoides, Lindl. ; (in National Herbarium Census), 
and A. lobativalve, F. v. M. (in Austrahan Salsol. VI.) recorded from North 
Austraha. 

5. BASSIA, All. 1766. 

{Chenolea, Thunb., 1781 ; Echinopsilon, Moq., 1834 ; Eriochiton, F.v. M., 
1854 ; Londesia, Fisch. and Mey., 1835 ; Willemetia, Maerkl., 1800 ; Sclero- 
laena, Anisacantha, Mentropsis, Dissocarpus, Osteocarpum, Coilocarpus, 
Enchylaena and Threlkeldia, partly). 

Section I. Fruiting perianth globular or depressed, membranous, her- 
baceous or succulent, the lobes horizontally (or rarely conically) closing over 
the fruit. Seed horizontal or obhque. 

Fruiting perianth with 3 long radiating soft woolly horns, obtuse and 
turned up at the end. — 1. B. tricornis. 

Fruiting perianth with 5 radiating spines or awns. Perianth without 
appendages above the spines. 

Perianth with 5 short radiating spines, enveloped in fulvous hairs not 
longer than the perianth. — 4. B. Muelleri. 

Perianth with 5 membranous notched or bifid appendages and 5 radiating 
spines lower down, enveloped in dense cottony wool. — 6. B. scleix)laenoides 

Section II. Fruiting -perianth hard, at least at the base, the lobes usually 
membranous and withering. 

Series I. Fruiting -perianth tomentose or woolly, with 2 opposite diverging 
dorsal spines, rarely wanting. Seed horizontal or oblique. 
Flowers solitary in the axils. ^ — 1. B. bicornis. 
Flowers several together united in a hard globular mass. 



THE FLORA QF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 95 

Spines small. — 5. B. paradoxa. 

Spines large and divided. — 7. B. spinosa.* 

Series II. Fruiting-perianth glabrous or slightly hairy, with 3 to 5 divari- 
cate dorsal spines. Seed vertical. 

Perianth-spines 3 ,rarely 4, one sometimes very small. — 3. B. glabra. 

Perianth-spines 5, short. Small diffuse undershrub. Perianth under 1 
line long. — 2. B. echinopsila. 

1. B. bicornis, F. v. M. {Sclerolaena bicornis, Lindl). — Henbury Station, 
Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 40), 7/3/1911. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek and Plains of Promise, F. v. Mueller. 

2. B. echinopsila, F. v. M. ( Anisacantha echinopsila, F. v. M.). — 60 miles 
N.E. of Camp II., G. P. Hill (No. 268), 7/6/1911. 

3. B. glabra, F. v. M. (Anisacantha glabra, F. v. M.). — Upper Victoria 
River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

4. B. Muelleri, F. v. M. {Ghenolea Muelleri, Benth). — Start's Creek 
F. V. Mueller. 

5. B. paradoxa, F. v. M. {Sclerolaena paradoxa, R. Br.). — Carrington's 
Landing, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 592), 20/9/1911. Specimens less 
hairy than usual. 

37 miles E. of Hermansburg, Finke Rivfer, G. F. Hill (No. 107), 21-3/1911. 
Dense bush up to 3 ft. 

Henbury Station. Finke River, G. F. HiU (No. 37), 7/3/1911. 

Near Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 106), 20/3/1911. 

10 miles W.S.W. of Stuart Range, G. F. Hill (No. 224), 2/6/1911. Near 
Salt Lakes. Good fodder. 

6. B. sclerolaenoides, F. v. M. (Ghenolea sclerolaenoides, F. v. 31.). — 
Hermansburg, Finke River, ; G. F. HUl (No. 104), 20/3/1911. 

7. B. spinosa, Ewart and Davies (Plate XII.). — Branched undershrub, 
densely tomentose. Leaves sessile, narrow, obtuse, soft and tomentose, about 
\-va.. long. Flowers in axillary clusters, not so many in a cluster as in B. 
paradoxa. Fruiting perianths connate into a hard mass of about |-in. diameter, 
each with 1 to 4 simple, bifid, or trifid, spines. Near to B. paradoxa, but ivith 
fewer flowers in the clusters and with the horns very much stronger and divided. 

90 miles N. by |-W. of N.T. Survey Camp III., G. F. Hill (No. 346), 15/6/11. 

6. KOCHIA, Roth. 1801. 

(Maireana, Moq., 1840 ; Sclerochlamys, F. v. M., 1858 ; Pentodon, 
Ehrenb., 1879). 

Horizontal wings all distinct. — 2. K. brevifoUa. 

Horizontal wings more or less perfectly united in a ring. 

Leaves mostly j to | in. long., linear or terete, tomentose or nearly glabrous 
(sometimes small and slender) spreading. Perianth glabrous or tomentose. — 
3. K. vUlosa. 

Leaves minute, distant. Branches spinescent. Perianth of K. villosa. — 
1. K. aphylla. 

1. K. aphylla, R. 5r.— 65 miles N.E. of Camp IL, G. F. Hill, 8/6/1911. 
Cotton Bush. 

2. K. brevifoUa, R. Br. — Hermansburg, Finke River G. F. Hill (No. 63) 
11/3/1911. Cotton Bush. 



96 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHERN TERRITORY. 

3. K. villosa, Lindl.—60 miles N.E. of Camp II. G. F. Hill (No. 264), 
7/6/1911. 

Recorded. Start's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

K. melanocoma, F. v. M. ; K. triptera, Benth. ; A', sedifolia, F. v. M. ; 
Eeeorded in National Herbarium Census from North Australia. 

7. ENCHYLAENA, R. Br. 1810. 
(ENCHYLAENA, Spreng. 1830). 

1. E. tomentosa, R. Br. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 62), 
11/3/1911. 

60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 267), 7/3/1911. 

Haasts Bluff, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 207), 26/5/1911. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek, F. y. Mueller. 

8. SALICORNIA, Tourn. 1737. 

(Sarcathria, Rafin, 1836 ; Halocnemum, Arthrocnemum, Tecticornia, 
Pachycornia). Glasswort. 

Section I. Perianths not dilated at the top, usually narrow. Spikes 
usually short. Flowers in threes, all or the central one hermaphrodite. 

Spikes ovoid or shortly oblong, with few articles, the margins forming 
opposite thick triangular-conical lobes. — 1. S. arbuscula. 

Spikes oblong-cyUndrioal, the articles numerous ; very short and closely 
imbricated the margins dilated into semi-circular opposite scarious scales. — 
2. S. cinerea. 

Section II. Perianths at length dilated into a flat transverse or obUque 
top. Spikes cylindrical, often elongated. — 3. S. leiostachya. 

1. ' 8. arbuscula, R. Br. — N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

2. S. cinerea, F. v. M. — Henbury Station, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 
39), 2/3/1911. Russian Thistle. Prickly Saltwort. Good camel feed. 

Recorded. Point Pearce and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

3. 8. leiostachya, Benth. — 10 miles W.S.W. of Stuart Ranges, G. F. Hill 
(No. 227), 2/6/1911. Near salt lakes. 

Carrington's Landing, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 593), 20/9/1911. 

Recorded. Sand flats about Providence HiU and between M'Adam Range 
and Point Pearce, F. v. Mueller ; Kyejeron Creek, Central Australia, M'Douall 
Stuart's Expedition. 

8. robusta, F. v. M. ; 8. australis, 8oland. — Recorded in National Her- 
barium Census from North Australia. 

9. SALSOLA, Linn. 1735. • 

{Garoxylon, Thunb., 1782 ; Halothamus,Jaub. and 8pach., 1846 ; Isgarum. 
Rafin., 1836 ; Kali, Tourn., 1763 ; Sarcomorphis, Boj. and Moq., 1849 ; Soda, 
Fourr., 1869). 

1. <S'. Kali, Linn.— 90 miles W. of Alice Springs, G. F. Hill (No. 38), 
9/5/1911. 

Henbury Station. Finke River, G; F. Hill, 7/3/1911. 

Russian Thistle. Prickly Saltwort. Good fodder. Favourite camel feed 
(Hill). Poisonous according to ' Greshoff. Anthelminthic. No poisonous 
principle has been extracted from it. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 97 

Dysphania Plantaginella, F. v. M. ; Dysphania litoralis, R. Br. ; Didy- 
manthus, Eoei, Endl. ; Babbagia dipterocarpa, F. v. M. ; Suaeda maritima, 
Dumort. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from North Australia. 

AMARANTACEffi. 

Tribe I. Anthers 2-celled. Ovary with a single ovule. Leaves alternate. 

Stamens free. Flowers in axUlary or terminal and paniculate cymes or 
clusters. Leaves flat. — 1. Amarantus. 

Stamens shortly united at the base. Flowers in dense single terminal 
spikes, often shortened into heads. 

Perianth-segments with the lamina more or less plumose with dorsal 
articulate hairs, the tips alone glabrous. — 2. PtUotus. 

Perianth-segments with the whole lamina scarious, coloured and glabrous. 
— 3. Trichinium. 

Leaves opposite. Stamens united in a cup at the base, with truncate 
teeth or lobes between the filaments. — 4. Achyranthes. 

Tribe II. Anthers 1-celled. Ovary with a single ovule. Leaves opposite. 

Stigma capitate. Spikes often shortened into heads axillary (rarely also 
terminal). — 5. Alternanthera. 

Stigma 2-lobed. Spikes often shortened into heads, terminal or rarely 
axillary. — 6. Gomphrena. 

1. AMARANTUS, Linn. 

Section I. Euamarantus. — ^Pericarp circumsciss. 

Perianth-segments mostly 4 or 5, erect or slightly dilated at the end. 
Clusters axillary and in a long loose terminal shortly-branched spike. — 2. A. 
leptostachyus. 

Perianth-segments mostly 5, with dilated scarious spreading laminae (when 
in fruit). Terminal spikes usually paniculate. — 3. A. palhdiflorus. 

Section II. Euxolus. — ^Pericarp membranous, indehiscent or bursting 
irregularly. — 1. A. interruptus. 

1. A. interruptus. R. Br. — Arnhem N. Bay and neighbouring parts of the 
N. Coast, R. Brown ; Sandy Islands, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; N. Coast, 
Landsborough. 

2. A. leptostach'jv^, Benth. — ^Port Darwin, Schultz. 

3. A. pallidiflorus, F. v. M. — ^Nichol Bay, Walcott ; Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller. 

2. PTILOTUS, R. Br. 1810. 

(Trichinium, R. Br., 1819, partly). 

Series I. Fohage hoary or white with a stellate tomentum (glabrous or 
with crisped or woolly or sUky hairs in all the other species). 

Spikes dense, globular ovoid or shortly cylindrical, not exceeding 1 in. 
Spikes 1^ to 1 in. diameter. Laminae of perianth-segments linear. 

Leaves mostly broad, rather thick and densely tomentose. 
Spikes globular or at length ovoid. Bracts glabrous or 
nearly so. — 19. P. obovatus. 
Leaves mostly narrow, thick and densely tomentose. Spikes 
ovoid, at length cyhndrical. Bracts wooUy. — 17. P. 
incanus. 
Spikes not above J-in. diameter. Laminae of perianth-segments, 
almost ovate. — 4. P. astrolasius. 



98 THE FLOBA OS THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Spikes cylindrical, above 2 in. long and 1| in. diameter. Leaves orbicular, 
very densely woolly. — 20. P. rotundifolius. 

Spikes elongated with distant flowers. Leaves oblong or lanceolate, the 
stellate hairs short and scattered. — IL P. dissitiflorus. 

Series II. Spikes cylindrical or elongated or rarely globular. I to 3 in. 
diameter. Flowers more or less yellow or greenish, not red. Inner segments 
without internal dense wool, but the stamens usually surrounded by a few long 
hairs. 

Spikes elongated with distant flowers. Leaves fiUforra. — 12. P. distans. 

Spikes dense, at length long and cyUndrical. — 2. P. alopecuroideus. 

Spikes globular or rarely ovoid. Perianth-segments rather broad, the 
dorsal hairs very short. — 9. P. corymbosus. 

Series III. Spikes globular ovoid or rarely cylindrical, 1 to 2 in. diameter, 
terminating simple or rarely branched stems. Perianth straight, pink or red, 
the inner segments woolly inside towards the base. 

Perianth-segments very rigid with short narrow tips. Stems erect. Spikes 
about 1 J in. diameter. — 13. P. exaltatus. 

Perianth-segments with conspicuous coloured obtuse glabrous tips. 

Spikes about 2 in. diameter. — 18. P. Manglesii. 

Series IV. Stems mostly branched or rarely some of them long decumbent 
and simple, glabrous or with crisped woolly hairs. Spikes mostly globular, 
I to 1 in. diameter. 

Inner jjerianth-segments very woolly inside towards the base (less so in P. 
helipteroides). Bracts rather loose. 

Leaves narrow. Stems more or less silky or woolly. — 16. P. 

helipteroides. 
Leaves broad. Stems glabrous or nearly so except the young 
shoots. — 6. P. axillaris. 
Inner perianth-segments nearly glabrous inside the wool proceeding 
chiefly from the staminal cup. Bracteoles closely embracing the perianth. — 
5. P. auriculifolius. 

Inner perianth-segments nearly glabrous inside. Staminal cup surrounded 
by long straight hairs. 

Perennial with a thick rootstock. Spikes about 1 in. diameter. — 14. P. 
fusiformis. 

Annual. Spikes about f-in. diameter. — 15. P. gracihs. 

Series V. Spikes globular or cyhndrical, | to 1| in. diameter. Staminal 
cup wdth transparent scale-like teeth or lobes between the filaments (wanting 
in all other series). Leaves narrow. — 8. P. calostachyus. 

Series VI. Spikes globular, ovoid or cylindrical, J to J-in. diameter. 
Stems erect, branching, glabrous or slightly hairy. Annual — 10. P. 
Cunninghamii. 

Perennials. Branches woolly or villous, at least when young. Spikes 
numerous, sessile or shortly pedunculate. 

Perianth surrounded by long wool concealing the bracts and 

segments. Spikes cylindrical. — 7. P. brachyanthus. 
Bracts and bracteoles nearly as long as the perianth and very 
conspicuous. 
Branches and foliage villous. Spikes narrow-cylindrical. — 3. 

P. astrolasius. 
Young shoots woolly. Leaves glabrous, broad. Spikes ovoid. 
Perianth-segments glabrous inside. — 1. P. servoides. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 99 

1. P. cervoides, F. v. M. — Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, F. Gregory's Expedi- 
tion. 

2. P. alopecuroideus, F. v. M.—90 miles N. J-W. of Camp III., G. F. Hill 
(No. 349), 15/6/1911. Specimen with pink flowers. 

Recorded. Water Island, Montague Sound, A. Cunningham ; Usbornes' 
Harbour. Beagle Voyage ; Glenelg District, Martin. 

3. P. arthrolasius, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

4. P. astrolasius, F. v. Jf.— Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; N.W. Coast, 
Hughan. 

5. P auriculifoUus, A. Cunn. — Dampier's Archipelago, N.W. Coast, 
A. Cunningham. 

6. P. axillare, F. v. M. — Nichol Bay., N.W. Coast, F. Gregory's Expedi- 
tion. 

7. P. brachyanthus, F. v. M. — 20 miles N.W. by N. of Meyer's Hill, 
Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 215), 1/6/1911. 

Recorded. North Australia, F. v. Mueller. 

8. P. calostachyus, F. v. M. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; Upper Victoria River, Hooker's and Sturt's creeks, F. v. Mueller ; 
Nichol Bay, Walcot ; Roebuck Bay, Martin. 

9. P. corymbosus, Gaud. {P. hemisterius, F.v.M.). — Hammersley Range, 
Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

10. P. Cunninghamii, Benth. — Point Cunningham, Cygnet Bay, N.W. 
Coast, A. Cunningham. 

11. P. dissitiflorus, F. v. M. — Near Hammersley Range, N.W. Coast, 
F. Gregory's Expedition. 

12. P distans Pair. — Arnhem S. Bay, R. Brown ; Victoria River, 
Macadam and Sea Ranges, P. v. Mueller ; S. Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham. - 

13. P. exaltatus, Nees. — Roper River, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 
1911. 

Recorded. Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Depuech 
Island, Bynoe ; Victoria River, F. y. Mueller ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. 

14. P. fusiformis, Poir. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Dampier's Archipelago, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

15. P gracilis, Poir. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

16. P- helipteroides, F. v. M. — Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, Gregory's Ex- 
pedition, sandy plains of the interior. M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

17. P. incanus, Poir. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 60), 
11/3/1911. Herbaceous near rocks. 

Haast's Bluff, G. F. HiU (No. 185), 17/6/1911. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, Baudin's Expedition ; Dampier's Archipelago, 
A. Cunningham ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition ; Sturt's Creek, F. v. 
Mueller. 

18. P- Manglesii, F. v. If.— Glenelg and Roebuck Bays, N.W. Coast, 
Martin. 



100 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

19. P. obovatus, F. v. M. — Finke River, 12 miles W. of Horseshoe Bend, 
G. F. Hill (No. 25), 2/3/1911. Herbaceous on flat country. 

Var. grandiflorum, 60 miles N.E. of Camp II. , G. P. Hill (No. 262), 7/6/191 1 . 

Note by Dr. Morrison : — ^In 262 venation of leaf indistinct on under side 
of leaf. 

Perianth f in. Spikes If in. diameter. 

Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 86), 18/3/1911. 

Note by Dr. Morrison : — Perianth |-in. long. Inner perianth segments 
densely woolly on inside. Spikes lengthening to 2 in. , 1^ in. broad, pedunculate. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; in the interior, M'Douall Stuart's Ex- 
pedition. 

20. P. rotundifolius, V. v. M. — Near Hammersley Range, N.W. Coast, 
F. Gregory's Expedition. 

P. parviflorus, F. v. M. ; P. divaricatus, F. v. M. ; P. striatus, F. v. M. ; 
P. Forrestii, F. v. M. ; P. psilotrichoides, F. v. M. — Recorded in National 
Herbarium Census from North Australia. 

3, TRICHINIUM, R. Br. 1810. 

( Arihrotrichium, F.v. M., 1863 ; Gomiotriche, Turcz., 1849; Hemisteirus 
F. V. M., 1852). 

Perianths glabrous outside except a few hairs round the base. Leaves 
linear. 

Spikes globular or scarcely ovate. 

Filaments dilated under the anthers. — 1. T. conioum. 
Filaments fihform except at the base. — 2. T. corymbosum. 
Spikes at first conical, at length cylindrical. — 5. T. spicatum. 
Perianth enveloped in dense white cottony wool proceeding from the lower 
half. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or obovate. 
Spikes sessile. — 4. T. Murrayi. 
Spikes pedunculate. — 3. T. gomphrenoides. 
Perianths enveloped in long dense articulate hairs proceeding from the 
lower half. Leaves narrow. — 6. T. villosiflorum. 

1. T. conicum, Spreng. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. T. corymbosum, Spreng. — 40 miles W. of Camp IV., Lander Creek, G. F. 
Hill (No. 369), 21/6/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; N.W. Coast, 
Bynoe ; Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 
Var. acutiflorum, Benth. — Arnhem's Land, M'Kinlay. 

3. T. gomphrerioides, F. v. M. — Hammersley Range, N.W. Coast, F. 
Gregory's Expedition. 

4. T. Murrayi, F. v. if .—20 miles N.W. by N. of Meyer's Hill, Macdon- 
nell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 515), 1/6/1911. 

5. T. spicatum, F. v. if .—Red Lily Lagoon, G. F. Hill (No. 837), 7/4/1912. 
Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

6. T. villosiflorum. — ^Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

T. Macleayi, F. v. M. ; T. latifolium, R. Br. ; T. macrotrichus, F. v. M. 
(in National Herbarium Census), and T. Whitei, Black (in Trans. Roy. Soc, 
S.A., 1914), recorded from North Australia. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TEREITOBY. 101 

4. ACHYRANTHES, Linn. 

1. A. aspera, Linn. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Goulburn Islands, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Escape 
Cliffs, Hulls ; Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast ; Ridley's Expedition ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz. 

Washerman's Plant of India. 

5. ALTERNANTHERA, Eoksk. 1775. 

( Allaganthera, Mart., 1814 ; Illecebrum, Spreng., 1817 ; Lithophila, 8w., 
1788; Pityranthus, Mart., 1817 ; Mogiphanes, Mart.; Telanthera, B. Br. 

Staminal cup without teeth between the filaments. 
Perianth perfectly glabrous. 

Plant glabrous or slightly pubescent at the nodes or in 2 decurrent 
lines. Leaves narrow. 

Perianth-segments and bracteoles (above 1| Unes long), with fine 
points. Spikes at length several together in dense globular 
clusters. — 6. A. nodi flora. 
Perianth-segments and bracteoles (1 line long or under), broad 
with short points. Spikes small, at length cyUndrical and 
scarcely clustered. — 2. A. denticulata. 
Plant more or less hairy or rarely glabrous. Leaves mostly broad. 
Rachis of the spire wooUy. — 5. A. nana. 
Perianth-segments enveloped in long wooUy hairs proceeding from the 
base (often concealed in the young spike by the bracteoles). 

Bracteoles shorter than the perianth. Perianth-segments all equal 

(about 1 line long) and glabrous inside. — 1. A. angustifolia. 
Perianth-segments 1| to 2 lines long, the inner ones smaller and 
woolly inside at the base. — 7. A. polycephala. 
Staminal cup with prominent teeth or lobes between the filaments. 

Spikes axillary, shortly pedunculate, ovoid. Lobes of the staminal 

cup much shorter than the filaments. — 3. A. leptophylla. 
Spikes on long peduncles, globular. Lobes of the staminal cup 
rather longer than the filaments. — 4. A. longipes. 

1. A. aTvgustifolia, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Sturt's Creek, P. v. Mueller. 

2. A. denticulata, R. Br. ( Var. micrantha, Benth). — Arnhem's Land, 
F. V. Mueller. 

3. A. leptophylla, Benth. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

4. A. longipes, Benth. — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

5. A. nana, R. Br. — Nicholson River, and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

6. A. nodiflora, R. Br. — Lower MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 679), 
8/11/1911. 

Edith Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 
Hugh River, Macdomiell Ranges, G. F. HiU (No. 134), 4/5/1911. 
Recorded. Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Victoria River, Flood ; in the 
interior, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition ; Albert River, Henne. 

7. A. polycephala, Benth. — Greville Island, Regent's Harbour, N.W. 
Coast, Bynoe. 



102 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

6. GOMPHRENA, Linn. 1737. 

(Bragantia, Vaud., 1771 ; Chnoanthus, Phil., 1862 ; Coluppa, Adans., 
1763 ; Ninanga, Bafin, 1863 ; Schultesia, Schrad., 1831 ; Wadapus, Rafin., 
1836 ; Xerosiphon, Turcz., 1843 ; Philoxerus.) 

Staminal tube longer than the ovary. Spikes globular or ovoid, usually 
large. Filaments flat. Leaves linear. 

Staminal tube with filiform teeth between the filaments. Spikes globular. 
Perianth-segments acute. Annual. 4. G. canescens. 

Staminal tube with flat bilobed segments. Perianth-segments blunt. — 
10. G. involucrata. 

Staminal tube without teeth or lobes between the filaments. 

Annual of 1 to 2 ft. Spikes at length ovoid or oblong. Perianth- 
segments obtuse. — 8. G. flaccida. 
Aimual under 1 ft. Spikes hemispherical or globular. Perianth- 
segments acute.-^l. G. affinis. 
Perennial under 1 ft. Spikes hemispherical or globular. Perianth- 
segments rather obtuse. — 9. G. humihs. 
Staminal tube shorter than the ovary. Spikes rarely above ^ in. diameter. 
Spikes hemispherical or globular. Perianth very woolly outside 
below the middle. 

Staminal tube with teeth or lobes between the filaments. 

Leaves linear. Bracts much shorter than the bracteoles. — 3. 

G. Brownii. 
Leaves lanceolate. Bracts nearly as long as the bracteoles. 

— 2. G. brachystyhs. 
Staminal tube without teeth or lobes between the filaments. 

Leaves broadly lanceolate. Filaments with a minute tooth 

at the top on each side. 11. G. leptoclada. 
Leaves narrow-lanceolate. Filaments filiform at the top 

without lateral teeth. 

Spikes ^-in. diameter or more. Perianth woolly to 
above the middle. Bracteoles shorter than the 
perianth. — 12. G. Maitlandi. 
Spikes 4 to 5 lines diameter. Perianth woolly only 
below the middle. Bracteoles longer than the 
perianth. — 14. G. pusilla. 
Leaves filiform. Spikes and perianth of G. pusilla. — 
15. G. tenella. 
Spikes ovoid or oblong-cylindrical. Perianth woolly below the middle. 
Spikes 5 lines diameter. Leaves all linear. Filaments broad 

and 2 or 3 toothed at the end. — 6. G. conica. 
Spikes 3 or 4 lines diameter, densely crowded with broadly 
lanceolate floral leaves. Filaments tapering at the end. — 5. 
G. conferta. 
Spikes at length narrow-cyhndrical. Perianth small, quite glabrous. 
Leaves hairy. Lanceolate or oblong. — 7. G. diffusa. 
Leaves glabrous or nearly so. Narrow linear. — 13. G. parvi flora. 

1. G. affinis, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. G. brachyslylis, F. v. M. — Hooker's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

3. G. Brownii, Moq. (G. kmata, B. Br.). — Islands of the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, R. Brown. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 103 

4. G. canescens, R. Br. — Lat. 18 degrees, 27 min. ; long. 132 degrees 
(about), G. F. Hill (No. 447), 6/7/1911. 

With reddish-purple heaxis. 

Herbert Bros. Station, near Darwin, G. F. Hill (2nd Series, No. 02). 
28/5/1913. 

Sterling Creek and everywhere, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; Depuech 
Island, N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Nichol Baj^ Gregory's Expedition and Ridley's 
Expedition ; Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Goulburn 
Islands, A. Cunningham ; Port Darwin and several other points along the 
coast, Schultz and others ; Attack Creek in the interior, M'Douall Stuart's 
Expedition. 

5. G. conferta, Benth. — Victoria River, Bynoe. 

6. G. conica, Spreng. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Upper Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Lara Station, Kennedy. 

7. G. diffusa, Spreng. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

8. G. flaccida, R. Br. — Melville Island, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Recorded. Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown ; Regent's River and Cambridge 
Gulf, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Usborne Harbour, Voyage of the Beagle ; 
Victoria River, Bynoe, P. v. Mueller ; Glenelg River, Martin ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong ; Port Darwin, Schultz. 

9. G. humilis, E. Br. — Roper River, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August,. 
1911. 

Recorded. Albert River, Henne. 

10. G. involucrata, Ewart. — Everywhere, Gilruth and Spencer, July-/ 
August, .1911. 

Recorded. Pine Creek, J. H. Niemarm. 

11. G. leptoclada, Benth. — Glenelg district, N.W. Coast, Martin. 

12. G. Maitlandi, F. v. M. — ^Dampier's Archipelago, N.W. Coast, A. 
Cunningham ; Pyramid Hill, Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

13. G. parviflora, Benth. — Regent River, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Port Darwin, Schultz. 

14. G. pusilla, Benth. — Foul Point, N.W. Coast, Voyage of the Beagle. 

15. G. temella, Benth. — Cygnet Bay, A. Cunningham ; Foul Point, N.W. 
Coast, Voyage of the Beagle. 

G. platandra, F. v. M. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North Australia. 

PHYTOLACCACE.aE. 

1. GYROSTEMON, Dbsf. 1820. 

(Cyclotheca, Moq.,18i9 ; Godonocarpvs, A. Cmwto., 1830 ; Hynienotheca, 

F. V. M.). 

Carpels, 4 to 20, separating at their maturity, and opening at the outer 
edge OT' at both outer and inner edges. Flowers axillary. 

Flowers sessile. Ovary of 8 to 15 carpels. Styles linear. 

Fruit nearly globular. Stamens 8 to 12 in a single ring. — 2. G. Cydotheca. 

Flowers shortly pedicellate. Ovary of 15 to above 20 carpels. 



104 THE TLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Styles shortly linear. Fruit obovoid or pear-shaped. Stamens 30 to 50 
covering the whole disc. — 3. G. ramulosus. 

Carpels from above 20 to 50, separating at their maturity and opening on 
the inner edge only. Flowers in spikes or racemes. — 1. G. cotinifolius. 

1. G. cotinifolius, Desf. {Codonocarpus cotinifolius, F. v. M.). — 8 miles 
N.E. of Meyer's Hill, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 211), 30/5/1911. 

In the interior, lat. 20 degrees, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

2. G. Cyclotheca, Benth.—ld miles N. of Camp IV., G. F. Hill (No. 397), 
29/6/1911. 

Sturt's Creek, near Mount Mueller, F. v. Mueller ; between Bonney River 
and Mount Morphett, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

3. G. ramulosus, Desf. — Bay of Rest, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Fincke River, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

Didymotheca cupressiformis, Walt, (in National Herbarium Census), and 
Didymotheca Tepperi, F. v. M. (in Eng., Bot. Jahrb., 1906). Recorded from 
North Australia. 

NYCTAGINACE.a:. 

Herbs with small flowers. Upper portion of the perianth deciduous. 

Stamens 1 to 4. Embryo folded. — 1. Boerhaavia. 

Trees, shrubs, or woody climbers. Limb of the perianth persistent on the 
fruit. Stamens usually 6 to 8. Embryo straight, cotyledons convoute. — 
2. Pisonia. 

1. BOERHAAVIA, Vaill. 1737. 

{Lenckenbergia, Schauer ; Lindernia and Tinantia, Mart., and Gal.). . 

1. B. diffusa, Linn. (B. repens, Linn).. — Five-mile Bar, Roper River, 
G. F. Hill (No. 721), 19/1/1912. 

Finke River, near Hermansburg, G. F. Hill (No. 75), 11/3/1911. 

About 30 miles N.W. of Twitohera Gap, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill 
(No. 163), 10/5/1911. 

Cullen Creek, and Eleven Mile Creek, near Katharine, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July -August, 1911. 

Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
Henne ; Adams Bay, Hulls ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz. 

Hogweed. May be used as an expectorant in cases of asthma. 

B. elegans, Chois. ; B. plantaginea, Cav. ; Recorded in National Herbarium 
Census from North Australia. 

2. PISONIA, Linn. 

1. P. inermis, Forst. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

F. aculeata, Linn. Recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Austraha. 

AIZOACE.ffi]. 
(FICOIDEZE). 

Tribe I. Calyx free, but with a distinct tube bearing the stamens. Petals 
none. 

Capsule opening in valves. — 4. Aizoon. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 105 

Capsule circumsciss. 

Styles and ovary-cells 3 to 5. — 3. Sesuvium. 
Styles and ovary-cells 2 or 1. — 2. Trianthema. 

Tribe II. Calyx divided to the base. Petals 5 or fewer or none. — 1. 
Mollugo. 

1. MOLLUGO, Linn. 1737. 

(Doosera, Roxh., 1834 ; Olirnts, Loefl., 1753 ; Paulo-Wilhelmia, Hochst., 
1844 ; Physa, Thou., 1806 ; Plenchia, Rafin, 1814 ; Rolofa, Adans, 1763 ; 
Trigastrotheca, F. v. M., 1857 ; Cerviana, Minuart). 

Section I. Seeds strophiolate, with a filiform appendage (resembHng a 
funicle) more or less encircling them. 

Softly tomentose. Flowers rather large in axillary clusters. Stamens 
about 10 to 15. — 1. M. hirta. 

Glabrous or slightly pubescent. Flowers rather small, in axillary clusters. 
Stamens under 10. — 2. M. spergula. 

Section II. Seeds without any strophiola. — 3. M. trigastrotheca. 

1. M. hirta, Thunb. {M. glinus, A. Rich.). — Near Anthony's Lagoon, 
G. F. Hill (No. 529), 21/8/1911. 

Charlotte Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 11), 21/2/1911. 

Herbaceous. Growing in bed of dry creek. 

Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

Poisonous according to Greshoff and Maiden. Principle unknown. 

2. M. spergula, iiww.— Camp III., Lander Creek, G. P. Hill (No. 304), 
10/6/1911. 

Victoria River and towards M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

3. M. trigastrotheca, F. v. if.— 35 miles N.W. of Lander Creek, G. F. 
Hill (No. 377), 24/6/1911. 

Depuech Island, N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Hearson Island, Nichol Bay. 
Walcot ; Sturt's Creek and Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

M. Cerviana, Ser. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Australia. 

2. TRIANTHEMA, Sauv. 1751. 

( Ancistrostigma, Fenzl., 1838; Diplochonium, Fenzl., 1839; Papularia, 
Forsk., 1775 ; Portulacastrum, Juss., 1789 ; Reme, Adans., 1763 ; Rocama, 
Forsk., 1775 ; Zaleya, Burnt., 1768). 

Ovary and fruit 2-celled, truncate or concave at the top. Styles 2. 
Flowers clustered. — 2. T. decandra. 

Ovary and fruit 1 -celled, with 1 style. 

Ovary and fruit truncate or concave at the top. 
Flowers clustered. 

Glabrous or slightly pubescent. Stamens 5. Capsule short and 

broad. — 1. T. crystalhna. 
Hirsute with long hairs. Stamens about 20. Capsule with 
a narrow beak. — 4. T. pilosa. 
Ovary and fruit acute or tapering into the style, or rounded at the top. 
Glabrous or sparingly pubescent. Flowers solitary, pedicellate, 

not very small. 3. T. oxycalyptra. 
Hirsute, small and densely tufted. Flowers sohtary in the 
axils, but crowded on the plant, small. — 5. T. rhynchoca- 
lyptra. 



106 THE FLORA or THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

1. T. crystallina, Fa/iZ.— Lat. 19 deg., 5 min., N.T. Survey, G. F. Hill. 
{No. 426), 4/7/1911. 

Henbury Station, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 41a), 7/5/1911. 
Lower Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; in the interior, M'Douall Stuart. 

2. T. decandra, Linn. — N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham, Bynoe. 

3. T. oxycalyptra, F. v. M. — Start's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

4. T. pilosa, F. v. M.—L&t. 19 degrees, long. 132 degrees, G. F. Hill 
<No. 437), 4/7/1911. 

N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Cygnet Bay, A. Cunningham ; Niohol Bay and 
De Grey River, 'Ridley's Expedition ; desert between Hooker',? and Sturt's 
Creeks, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

According to Greshoff an Austrahan species of Trianthema is poisonous, 
■containing saponin. 

5. T. rhynchocalyptra, F. v. M. — Sandy stony hills and plains, Victoria 
R.iver, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brov/n. 

T. turgidifolia, F. v. M. ; T. cypseloides, Benth. ; (in National Herbarium 
■Census), and T. Cussackiana, F. v. M. (in Chemist and Druggist of Aust., 
1895), recorded from North Australia. 

3. SESUVIUM, Linn. 
1. S. portulacastrum, Linn. — Recorded. Albert River, Henne. 

4. AIZOON, Linn. 1737. 

{Aizoum, Ounniopsis, Vestingia, Heist., 1748). 

1. A. zygophylloides, F. v. M. — Carrington's Landing, MacArthur River, 
G. F. Hill (No. 591), 20/9/1911. 

Mesembrianthemum aequilaterale, Haw. ; Mesembrianthemum . atistrale, 
Poland. ; Tetragonia diptera, F. v. M. ; Tetragonia implexicoma, J. Hook. ; 
Macarthuria apetala, Haw. ; Recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North AustraUa. 

PORTULACACE.aE. 

Ovary half-inferior. Petals and stamens perigynous. — 2. Portulaca. 
Ovary superior. Petals and stamens hypogynous. — 1. Calandrinia. 

1. CALANDRINIA, H. B. and K. 1823. 

[Baitaria, Ruiz, and Pafv., 1794 ; Gistanihe, Spach., 1833 ; Cosmia, Domb., 
1789 ; Duiazia, Phil., 1830 ; Gensia, Mac. and Sesse., 1828 ; Phacosperma, 
Havj., 1827 ; Khodopsis, Lilja., 1840 ; Tegneria, Lilja., 1839). 
Stamens numerous (20 to 100). 

Scapes leafless, 1-flowered. Leaves radical, narrow-hnear. — 5. 

C. uni flora. 
Stems more or less leafy, several- flowered. — 3. C. quadrivalvis. 
Stamens few. Capsule ovoid or oblong, very readily dehiscent. 
Stamens mostly 8 to 10. Seeds pitted. — 2. C. graciUs. 
Stamens mostly 3 to 5. Seeds very smooth and shining. — 
1. C. calyptrata. 
Stamens few. Capsule globular or shortly ovoid, very smooth and shining, 
and scarcely dehiscent. — 4. C. spergularina. 

1. G. calyptrata. Hook. — 50 miles W. of Camp IV., Lander Creek, G. F. 
Hill, 21/6/1911. 



THE FLORA OS THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 107 

2. C. gracilis, Benth. — Port Essirigton, Armstrong. 

3. G. quadrivalvis, F. v. M. — Sandy places along the Victoria River and 
in the Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

4. C. spergularina, F. v. M. — Sandy bed of Nicholson River, Gulf of 
Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

5. C. uniflora, F. v. M. — Victoria River, near the main camp, F. v. Mueller. 

C. ptychosperma, F. v. M. ; C. stropMolata, F. v. M. ; C. balonensis, F. v. 
M. ; C. polyandra, F. v. M. ; C. pumila, F. v. M. ; (in National Herbarium 
Census), recorded from North Australia. 

2. PORTULACA, Linn. 
Leaves mostlj' alternate. 

Stipular hairs minute or none. 

Leaves oblong-cuneate. Root slender. Capsule closely sessile. 

— 6. P. oleraoea. 
Leaves linear-terete. Root usually tuberous. Capsule narrowed 
into a short stipe.— 5. P. napiformis. 
Stipular hairs numerous and conspicuous. 

Leaves thick and short. — 1. P. australis. 

Leaves linear-terete, almost filiform. 4. P. fihfolia. 

Leaves all opposite. 

Stipular hairs short, but conspicuous. Flowers usually 3, within 

the floral leaves, and shortly pedicellate. Style-lobes subulate. 

^3. P. digyna. 
No stipular hairs. Flowers solitary and sessile, within 4 bract-like 

floral leaves. Style-lobes flat and transparent. Leaves 

lanceolate or linear. 7. P. oligosperma. 
Leaves orbicular. — 2. P. bicolor. 

1 . P. australis, Endl. — Gulf of Carpentaria, Bauer. 

2. P. bicolor, F. v. M. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. Heart-plant. 

3. P. digyna, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, Hooker's Creek, and Sturt'.s 
Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

4. P filifolia, F. v. M. — Sandy deserts on Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

5. P. napiformis, F. v. M. — Victoria River and Beagle Valley, F. v. 
Mueller ; N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

6. P. oleracea, Linn. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

7. P oligosperma F. v. M. — ^Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. 
Mueller. 

P. Armitii, F. v. M. (in National Herbarium Census), and P. cyclophylla, 
F. V. M. (in Proc, Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1890), and P. dubia, Tepper (in Trans. 
Roy. Soc., S.A., 1893), recorded from North AustraUa. 

CARYOPHYLLACEiE. 

1. POLYCARPAEA, Lour. 

Section I. Planchonia. — Petals and stamens united in a cup or tube, 
without staminodia. 



108 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Stems hard and almost woody at the base, the radical leaves soon dis- 
appearing. Leaves all narrow. Flowers 3 to 4 lines. 

Stem tall, pubescent. Corolla-tube shorter than the free part. 
Stamens the length of the petals. Capsule short, obtuse. — 4. 
P. longi flora. 
Stems short, glabrous. Corolla-tube longer than the free part. 
Stamens much longer than the petals. Capsule oblong, tapering 
at the top. — 6. P. spirostyles. 
Stems herbaceous, several from a rosette of oblong or obovate radical 
leaves. Stem leaves narrow. Flowers 1| to 3 lines. 
Ovary sessile. — 8. P. synandra. 

Ovary stalked. Capsule 3-valved. — 9. P. brevianthera. 
Ovary stalked. Capsule 4-valved. — 10. P. triloba. 
Section II. Aylmeria. — Petals and stamens free or nearly so, with 5 
short staminodia inside the petals and opposite to them. 

Sepals purple, glabrous, nearly 3 lines long. Stamens and petals shghtly 
perigynous. — 11. P. violacea. 

Sepals white or yellowish, hairy, about 2 Unes long. 
• Stamens and petals very perigynous. — 7. P. staminodina. 
Section III. Polycarpia. — Petals and stamens free or united in a ring at 
the base, without staminodia. 

Stems simple or hard and woody at the base. Radical leaves soon dis- 
appearing. 

Stamens 5, sepals pointed. 

Flowers IJ lines. Petals rounded and very obtuse. Capsule 

much shorter than the sepals. — 2. P. corymbosa. 
Flowers less than 1 Une. Petals oval-oblong, acute, or toothed 
at the top. Capsule rather shorter or longer than the 
sepals. — 1. P. breviflora. 
Stamens 3, sepals obtuse and bi-lobed.' — 12. P. Holtzei. 
Stems herbaceous, several from a rosette of oblong or obovate radical 
■eaves. 

Flower-heads pedunculate, with scarious bracts. — 5. P. spicata. 
Flower-heads closely sessile, surrounded by herbaceous floral 
leaves. — 3. P. involucrata. 

1. P. breviflora, F. v. M. — Bacon Swamp, Spencer and Gilruth, 1911. 
N. Coast, R. Brown ; Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

2. P corymbosa, Lam. — Lat. 19 degrees, long. 130 degrees (No. 439a), 
G. F. Hill, 4/7/11 ; Pine Creek ; Glen of Palms, E. Giles. 

N. Coast, R. Brown ; Victoria River and Albany Island, F. v. Mueller ; 
Lizard Island, Keppel's Island, and Port Curtis, M'Gillivary. 

3. p. involucrata, F. v. M. — Hooker's Creek, Sturt's Creek, and near the 
sources of the Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

4. P. longiflora, F. v. M. — Grassy Flats along the Victoria River and other 
parts of Amhem's Land, F. v. Mueller; N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Nichol Bay, 
Walcot ; var. leucantha, Victoria R., F. v. Mueller. 

.5. P. spicata, Am. — N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

6. P. spirostyles, F. v. M. — Gilbert's River, F. v. Mueller ; Poit Essington, 
Leichardt. 

7. P staminodina, F. v. M. — Sources of the Victoria River, Hooker's 
Creek and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEERITOEY. lOO' 

8. P. synandra,F: v. M. — Hooker's Creek, and Start's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

9. Polycarpaea brevianthera, Ewart and Cookson (Plate XIII.). — A glab- 
rous, erect, annual, about 8 to 10 cms. high, with one or more erect, dicho- 
tomously branched stems, and a distinct tap root. 

Leaves narrow-linear, acute, .5 to 1.5 cms long, with incurved margins. 
Stipule.s small, scarious, pointed. 

Infloresence, a biparous cyme. Flowers pedicellate, about 4 mm. long, 
clustered into dense corymbose heads. Sepals 5, free, ovate, acute wliite with 
scarious margins and a prominent purple midrib. Petals and stamens slightly 
perigynous, united together into a short tube. Petals short, thin, about 1.8 
mm. long, not reaching to the top of the capsule, entire part .09 mm. long, 
free part as long, divided into 2 lanceolate, acute lobes. Stamens united with 
petals and alternate with them. Filaments short, broad, tapering towards the 
anthers, which are small, relatively short and broad (hence the specific name), 
and sagittate. Filament and anther about as long as entire part of petal. 
Ovary shortly stalked, oblong, tapering at top, 2 mm. long. Style short, 
broadening out towards the three stigmatic lobes. Capsule three- valved. 
Seeds small about .02 mm. long, flat, tapering towards one end with a straight 
embryo. 

Roper River, Professor W. Baldwin Spencer, 1911. 

Nearest affinity is with Polycarpaea synandra, from which it differs in 
having shorter petals with corolla-tube as long as their free parts, stamens as 
long as corolla-tube and a stalked ovary. 

10. Polycarpcea triloba, Ewart and Cookson (Plate XIV.). — A small, 
glabrous, erect, annual. Leaves narrow-linear, acute, .5 to 1.5 cms. long, 
with incurved margins. Stipules subulate, with scarious margins, tapering to a 
long fine point. 

Flowers pedicellate 3 to 4 mms. long, clustered into small corymbose 
heads. Bracts white, acute, with deeply toothed edges. Sepals 5, white, 
scarious, about 4 mms. long, ovate, acute, with a prominent, coloured, mid- 
rib. Petals 5, brightly coloured, pink, longer than the capsule, 3.2 mms. 
long, united with the stamens in a tube 1 mm. long, in which region the cells 
contain star-shaped crystals of Calcium oxalate. Free parts of petals divided 
into 2 lanceolate lobes. Stamens 5. 1.8 rams, long, not as long as the petals, 
but longer than the corolla-tube. Filaments 1 .2 mms. long, tapering towards the 
small sagittate anthers. Ovary slightly stalked, tapering towards the style. 
Style short .09 mms. long, with three large stigmatic lobes (hence the specific 
name). Capsule nearly 3 mms. long, splitting by 4 valves. Seeds numerous, 
small, about .02 mms. long. 

The nearest affinity is with Polycarpsea brev ^snthera, from which it differs 
in having stipules and bracts with deeply toothed margins, petals which are 
longer than the capsule and the cells of which contain crystals of calcium 
oxalate, longer stamens and longer anthers, a shorter style and a more deeply 
trUobed stigma and a capsule which splits by 4 vafves. 

Georgina River, Alfred Henry, 1889. 

11. P. violacea, Benth. — Croker's Island, A. Cunningham ; Port Essing- 
ton, Armstrong ; Darwin, C. E. F. Allen, No. 122. 

12. Polycarpcea Holtzei, n. sp., Maiden and Betche. — ^Near Darwin, North. 
Australia, Nicholas Holtze (No. 2054), March, 1911. 

The following specimens are also referable to this species : — P. indica,var. 
obtusifiora, F. v. M. Herb. 



110 THE FLOEA OF THE NOKTHEEN TBEEITOEY. 

North Western Australia.- — Between the Gascoyne and Forteseue Rivers, 
W.A., by H. S. King. King Sound, W.A., (W. W. Froggatt) considered by 
Mr. N. E. Brown, Royal Gardens, Kew, to be a dwarf form of P. corymbosa. 

Northern Territory. — Brock's Creek, N.T. (Dr. H. I. Jensen). Pine Creek 
(C. E. F. Allen), No. 80. 

In viciaia Darwin, Australia septentrionalis Martins, 1911. 

Planta annua, humilis, ramosissima, 5-7 cm. alta, leniter pUosa. Folia 
crebro fasciculata, angusto-liaeares marginibus leniter incrassatis, 5-7 mm. 
longa, aristata. Stipiilae laciniatae, lacinia quaque in angustum apicem 
attentuata foHis aequUongum. Flores in brevibus pedicellis incrassatis in 
cymis terminaHbus, bractis scariosis laciniatisque. Sepala vix 2 mm. longa, 
in duos lobos obtusos fissa. Petala libera, obtusa, brevissima, stamina paulo 
excedentes. Stamina 3, brevissima. Antherae fUamentis aequUongae. 
Ovarium ovoidum, styla petala leniter excedens, stigma leniter incrassata. 

A low annual branching from the base, 5 to 7 cm. high, the branches 
sparingly covered with crisped hairs. Leaves often clustered so as to appear 
verticUlate, narrow-linear with slightly thickened or recurved margias, often 
almost terete, 5 to. 7 mm. long and ending in a fine awn-like point 1 mm. long. 
Stipules laciniate, each lacinia tapering into a fine point often as long as the 
leaves. Flowers few or several in terminal cymes, the floral leaves reduced to 
scarious laciniate bracts. Pedicels very short, thickened at the top, with 
mi n ute dark points at the base of the sepals (warts or resinous exudations ?). 
Sepals scarcely 2 mm. long, each spUt down about half way into two obtuse 
lobes. Petals free, obtuse, hardly longer than the stamens. Stamens 3 only 
in all flowers examined, the anthers as long and longer than the filaments. 
Ovarium ovoid, with a very short style only slightly exceeding the petals. 
Stigma very small, hardly thicker than the style. 

The affinity of this new species is clearly with P. corymbosa. 

The proportionate length of petals and sepals is identical in both species, 
the indumentum and the shape of the leaves even to the peculiar aristate points 
are the same, but they are sharply distinguished by the sepals, which are 
tapering to a fine point in P. corymbosa, and are obtuse and deeply bi-lobed 
in the new species. They differ also in habit and in the laciniate stipules. 

The most remarkable character is the 3 stamens. All known species of 
PolycarpcBa have 5 stamens, though some have in addition stamonodia, but 
we could not find more than 3 fertile stamens in all flowers examined. — 
J. H. M. 

[Several specimens hitherto included under P. corymbosa in the Melbourne 
Herbarium have bifid sepals, and two in particular (Port Darwin, Holtze, 1883, 
and Pine Creek, sp. 5), appear to be identical with P. Holtzei. — A. J. E.] 

Incomplete specimens from Hanson Well, Spencer, and from Caledon Bay 
A. E. Martin, are considered by Mr. Cheel to belong to P. Burtoni, F. M. 
Bailey. 

2. DYSPHAGIA, R. Be. 

Flower-clusters forming a dense terminal leafless spike. — 2. D. plantag 
inella. 

Flower-clusters closely contiguous but axillary, forming a leafy spike. — 
1. D. httorahs. 

1. D. littoralis, R. Br. — Moist salt places on the N. Coast, R. Brown. 

2. D. plantaginella, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 



THE SLOKA OF THE NOBTHEBIT TEEBITOEY. Ill 

NYMPHACEiE. 

Sepals and petals 3 each. Carpels 6 or more, free, on a small torus. Ovules 
few. Flowers small. — 2. Brasenia. 

Sepals 4 to 6. Petals and stamens numerous, the outer ones free, the inner 
more and more adnate to the torus. Carpels immersed in the torus in a ring 
round a central conical projection. — 3. Nymphaea. 

Sepals 4 or 5. Petals and stamens numerous, hypogynous. Carpels half 
immersed without order in the flat top of the torus, no albumen. — 1. 
Nelumbo. 

1. NELUMBO, Adans. 
(NELUMBIUM, Juss.). 

1. N. nucifera Gaertn. {Nelumbiwn specioaum. Willd.). — G. P. Hill, 
1911/1912. 

Recorded. Swamps in Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller ; Lower Condamine 
Eiver, Coxon. Pink Water-Lily. Sacred Lotus. 

2. BRASENIA, Schbbb. 

1. B. peltata, Pursh. — ^North Austraha, R. Brown. Water Shield. 

3. NYMPH^A, TouBN. 1700. 

(CASTALIA, Salisb. 1805). 

1. N. stellata, Willd. {N. gigantea, Hook).— To^p Spring, G. F. ffill (No. 
548), 31/8/1911. Frequently cultivated. 

Lakes and marshes throughout tropical Austraha, R. Brown ; F. v. Mueller. 

ANONACEAE^. 

Petals spreading. — 1. Uvaria. 

Petals concave, not spreading, valvate. — 2. Popowia. 

1. UVARIA, Linn. 

1. U. membranacea, Benth. — Scrub at Cape York, M'GiUivray. 
U. Holtzei, F. v. M., recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Austraha. 

2. POPOWIA, Endl. 

1. P. austrcdis, Benth. — Barrow Bay, Port Essington, Armstrong. 
Polyalihia HoUzeana, F. v. M. ; Saccopetalum Brahei, F. v. M., recorded 
in National Herbarium Census from North Austraha. 

MYRISTICEffi, 

1. MYRISTICA, Linn. 1742. 

{Comacum, Adans., 1763; Horsfieldia, Willd., 1805; Knema, Lour., 
1790 ; Pyrrhosa, Endl, 1839 ; Sebophora, Neck., 1790 ; Virola, Avbl., 1775). 

1. M. insipida, R. Br. — ^Near Darwin, Gilruth and Spencer, July -August, 
1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Brunswick 
Bay, A. Cunningham ; Melville Island, Eraser ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

Queensland Nutmeg. Wood of a pinkish grey, easily worked. 



112 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHBEN TBEEITOKY. 

MENISPERMACEiE. 

Sepals imbricate. Petals 6. Stamens 6, free. Carpels 3. — 2. Tinospora. 

Sepals imbricate or open. Petals usually 3 to 5. Stamens united in a 
central column. Carpels broad, the style near the base. Seed albuminous. — 
1. Stephania. 

1. STEPHANIA, LouB. 
(CLYPEA, Blume). 

1. S. hernandiaefolia, Walp. — N. Coast, R. Brown ; rocky declivities and 
cataracts of Fitzroy and Stokes' Range, F. v. Mueller. Root poisonous. 

2. TINOSPORA, MiEES. 

Leaves ovate-cordate, entire. — 1. T. smilacina. 

Leaves broad, obtusely 3-lobed, much veined. — 2. T. Walcottii. 

1. T. smilacina, Benih. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
common in many parts of Arnhem's Land, and thence to the Burdekin, F. v. 
Mueller. 

2. T. Walcottii, F. v. i¥.— Nichol Bay, Walcott, 

Tristichocalyx jpubescens, F. v. M. ; Pachygone Hullsii, F. v. M. ; recorded 
in National Herbarium Census from North Australia. 

LAURACE^. 

Sub-order I. Trees or shrubs with perfect leaves. Anther-valves opening 
upwards. 

Three stamens belonging to the inner series, with extrorse anthers. — 2. 
Cryptooarya. 

All the stamens with introrse anthers. Flowers dioecious, in heads or 
umbels, with an involucre of about 4 bracts. — 1. Litsea. 

Sub-order II. Leafless parasitical twiners. Anther- valves opening up- 
wards. Single genus. — 3. Cassytha. 

1. LITSEA, Lam. 
(Including Tetranthera, Jacq.). 

1. L. chinensis, Lam. {Tetranthera laurifolia, Jacq.). — Islands of the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; Port Darwin, Schultz. 

2. CRYPTOCARYA, R. Be. 
(Caryodaphne, Blume). 

1. G. glaucescens, R. Br. ( Var. Cunninghamii, Benth). — Hunter's River, 
Brunswick Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

3. CASSYTHA, Linn. 1753 

{Calodium, Lour, 1790 ; Ozarthris, Rafin, 1836 ; Rombut, Rumph., 1763 ; 
Rumputris, Rafin, 1836 ; Volutella, Forsk., 1775). 
Laurel Dodders. Ail destructive to other plants. 
Flowers sessile in a spike or head. 

Flowers capitate, very small (the spikes contracted into ovoid 

globose or few- flowered heads). — 2. C. glabella. 
Flowers spicate, the spikes when fully out oblong or elongated, the 
lower or all the flowers more or less distant. 
Flowers 1 to \\ lines long. Spikes usually elongated, the 

flowers distant. — 1. C. flliformis. 
Flowers 2 lines long. Spikes very short. — 3. C. melantha. 



THE HjORA of the NORTHERN TERRITORY. 113 

Flowers (when fully out) pedicellate in a raceme, sometimes almost 
shortened into an umbel. — 4. C. pomiformis., 

1 . C. filiformis, Linn. — Some specimens from Victoria River, F. v. Mueller 

2. C. glabella, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Sohultz. 

3. C. mdantha, R. 5r.— Tungiegi Waterhole, G. F. Hill (No. 509), 
10/8/1911. Specimen in fruit only. 

Appears nearest C. melantha, but the fruits are smaller and the edges of 
the perianth not so conspicuous. 

4. C. pomiformis, Nees. — ^North Australia, Drummond (No. 151), and 
perhaps (No. 150) ; Swan River, Preiss (No. 1625) ; King George's Sound, 
Harvey, F. v. Mueller. 

HERNANDIACEZE. 
(COMBRETACEffi). 

1. GYROCARPUS, Jacq. 1763. 

1. G. americanus, Jacq. (Gyrocarpus Jacquini, Gaertn.). — Northern 
Territory, G. F. Hill (No. 463), 1911. Fruit only. 

Victoria River, Bynoe, P. v. Mueller. 

In India the wood is used to make boxes and toys, and is preferred to all 
others for catamarans ; the seeds are made into rosaries and necklaces. 

CRUCIFERffi. 

Pods linear at least 4 times as long as broad. 

Pods terete or tetragonous, the valves turgid or with a very pro- 
minent midrib. — 3. Stenopetalum. 

Pods flattened, usually long, the flat valves parallel with the 
septum. Cotyledons accumbent. — 2. Cardamine. 

Pods short or oblong, rarely 4 times as long as broad. 

Pods terete or globular, the valves very convex. — 3. Stenopetalum. 
Pods flattened, the fiat valves parallel to the septum or to each 

other. 4. Alyssum. 
Pods flattened laterally, the valves boat-shaped, with their flat sides 

at right angles to the narrow septum. — 1. Coronocarpus. 

1. CORONOCARPUS, Gaertn. 
(SENEBIERA, Poir). 

1. G. didymus, Linn. (S. didyma, Pers.). — A common weed in sandy soil, 
especially near the sea, in all warm countries, perhaps indigenous to North 
Australia, and now estabUshed in the neighbourhood of towns in almost all the 
colonies. 

Wart Cress. Imparts' a bad flavour to milk. 

2. CARDAMINE, Linn. 

1 . C. eiistylis, F. v. M. — On the rivers flowing into the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
rare, F. v. M. 



114 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TEEEITOEY. 

3. STENOPETALUM, R. Br. 1821. 

1. S. pedicellare, F. v. ikf.— 60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 
264a), 7/6/1911. 

S. nutans, F. v. M., recorded in National Herbarium Census from North 
Australia. 

4. ALYSSUM, Linn. (Meniocus Desv.), Mad wort. 

1. A. linifolium, Steph. — Lacrosse Island, Cambridge Gulf, N.W. Coast, 
A. Cunningham. 

Blennodia nasturtioides, Benth. ; Blennodia canescens, R. Br. ; Lepidium 
strongylophyllum, F. v. M. ; Lepidium pedicellosum, F. v. M. ; Lepidium 
ruderale, Linn. ; recorded in National Herbarium Census from North Australia. 

CAPPARroACEffi. 

Herbs with a capsular fruit. 

Torus short, the stamens inserted immediately within the sepals 

and petals. Seeds several. — 1. Cleome. 
Torus elongated, bearing the stamens at the top under the ovary. — 

2. Roeperia. 

Shrubs or trees, with an indehisccnt succulent fruit. 
Ovules and seeds many. 

Torus elongated, with a tube-like appendage at the base. — 

4. Cadaba. 
Torus short without any basal appendage. — 3. Capparis. 
Ovules and seeds usually solitary. — 5. Apophyllum. 

1. CLEOME, Linn. 1735. 

{Aleome, Neck., 1790; Anomalostemon, Klotzsdh., 1861 ; Atalanta, Nutt., 
1818 ; Buhsia, Bunge, 1859 ; Corynandra, Schrad., 1846 ; Lagansa, Rumph., 
1838; Micambe, Adans., 1763; Peritoma, B.C., 1824; Physostemon, Mart., 
1824 ; Podogyne, Hoffm., 1840 ; Polanisia, Rafin, 1818 ; Rorida, J. F. Omel., 
1791 ; Roridula, Forsk., 1776 ; Siliquaria, Forsk., 1775 ; Sinapistrum, 
Town., 1745 ;' Tetrateleia, Bond., 1859). 

Stamens 4 to 6, or rarely 8. 

Stemless, with radical leaves and 1-fiowered scapes. — 1. C. oxalidea. 
Erect and leafy, with racemose flowers. — 2. C. tetrandra. 
Stamens 8 to 16. — 3. C. viscosa. 

1. G. oxalidea, F. v. M. — Gravelly plains on the Upper Victoria River, 
and table land at the head of Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

2. 0. tetrandra. Banks. — N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. C. viscosa, Linn. [Polanisia viscosa). — Hermansburg, Finke River, 
G. F. Hill (No. 66), 11/3/1911. 

Near Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 204), 26/5/1911. 

90 miles W. of AJice Springs, G. F. Hill, 9/5/1911. 

60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. HiU (No. 379), 7/6/1911. 

Edith and Maude's Creeks, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Recorded. Along the whole coast from Westward of Victoria river to the 
limits of Queensland, and abundant about the GuLf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
and others. Dog's Mustard. A troublesome tropical weed. Used in disease? 
of the ear in Bombay. 



THE FLORA OP THE NOETHERN TEEEITORY. 115 

G. grandiflora, F. v. M. ; recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North Australia. 

2. EOEPERIA, F. v. M. 1857. 

{Gynandropsis, D.C., 1824; Sinapistrum, Medic. Ph. Bot., 1789; Tetra- 
teleia). 

1. R. cleomoides,F. v. M. (Gynandropsis Muelleri, Benth). — On Sandstone 
Ranges, Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 724), 13/1/1912. 

Near Western Creek, Sandstone Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 747), 13/2/1912. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; higli, rocky, sandy table-land at the 
sources of the Victoria River, Hooker's Creek, and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

3. CAPPARIS, Linn. 1735. 

(Beautempsia, Gaiid., 1844; Busheckia, Endl., 1833; Calyptranihus, 
Thou., 1811 ; Golicodendron, Mart., 1837 ; Destruguezia, Gaud., 1844 
Hombak, Adans., 1763 ; Lindackera, Sieb., 1841 ; Petersia, Klotzsch, 1861 
Quadrella, Meissn., 1867 ; Sodada, Forsk., 1775 ; Uterveria, Bertol., 1839). 

Most inland species are considered good stock food, and those forming 
trees yield excellent cabinet wood. 

Section I. Sepals 4, rather large, imbricate in two series. Berry globular 
or ovoid. 

Flowers on slender pedicels in terminal umbels. Outer sepals equal. — 
6. C. umbellata. 

Flowers lateral or axillary, pedicels sohtary or one above the other. One 
of the outer sepals larger and saccate or concave at the base. 
Stamens 12 or under. Flowers small. 

Pedicels usually 2, one over the other. Flowers very tomentose. 

— 1. C. lasiantha. 
Pedicels 4 or 5, one above the other. Flowers shghtly pubescent. 
— 4. C. quiniflora. 
Stamens numerous, or more than 15. — 5. C. spinosa. 

Section II. Two outer sepals broad, very concave, completely united in 
the bud, and separating irregularly as the flower expands. 
Leaves mostly ovate or oblong. 

Leaves mostly 2 to 4 in. long. Ovary glabrous. Fruit from ^-in. 
to a little more than 1 in. diameter. — 2. C. lucida. 
Leaves mostly 1 to 1| in. long. Ovary tomentose. Fruit 2 in. 
diameter. — 3. C. Mitchelli. 
Leaves lanceolate or long and narrow. — 7. C. umbonata. 

1. C. lasiantha, R. Br.— 90 miles N. , J-W. of Camp III., G. F. Hill (No. 
357), 15/6/1911. 

Mole Hill, Gilruth and Spencer, July -August, 1911. Creeper on India- 
rubber Tree. 

Eva Downs, G. F. HiU (No. 459), 19/8/1911. 

40 mUes S.S.W. of Newcastle Waters, G. F. HiU, 8/7/1911. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; 
Thomson River, A. C. Gregory. 

Fruit eaten by Queensland settlers. 

2. C. lucida, R. Br. — ^N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Boobyiss, Torres 
Straits, Herb. Banks. 

3. C. Mitchellii, Lindl. — Charhe Creek, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill, 
14/5/1911. Fruit only. 

E 



116 THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

30 miles N.E. of Anthony's Lagoon, G. F. Hill (No. 531), 28/8/1911. 

Northern Territory, G. F. Hill (No. 87a). 1911. Fruits only. 

10 miles W.S.W. of Mt. Stuart, G. F. HiU, 2/6/1911. With ovoid berries. 

Recorded. Plains of Promise, F. v. Mueller. 

Darling Downs Pomegranate. Wood excellent for carving. 

4. C. quiniflora, D. C. — ^N. Coast, Baudin. 

5. G. spinosa, Linn. (C. nummularia, D.C.). — Henbury Station, Finke 
River, G. F. HiU (No. 41), 8/3/1911. 

Caper (flower-buds pickled). 

6. C. umbellata, R. Br. — ^North Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, G. F. Hill 
(No. 631), 20/10/1911. 

Recorded. Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; barren plains 
of the Fitzmaurice and Victoria Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Gulf of Carpentaria, 
R. Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

7. C. umbonata, Lindl. — ^Edith Creek, GUruth and Spencer, July-August, 
1911. 

90 miles N, | W. of Camp III., G. F. HiU (No. 354), 15/6/1911. 
Recorded. Victoria river and dry ridges towards Fitzmaurice River, 
F. V. MueUer ; Depuech Island, Bynoe. 

C. loranthifolia, Lindl. ; recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North Australia. 

4. CADABA, FoEST. 

1. C. capparoides, D O. — N. Coast, Herb. Mus. Par. ; Vansittart Bay, 
A. Cunningham. 

6. APOPHYLLUM, F. V. M. 

1. A. anomalum, F. v. M. — Brigalow shrub, on the Burdekin, F. v. 
MueUer ; Cooper's river, A. C. Gregory. 

DROSERACE.X. 

Ovary 1 -celled. Styles 2 to 5, distinct or shortly united at the base. — 
1. Drosera. 

Ovary 2-ceUed. Style undivided. — 2. BybUs. 

1. DROSERA, Linn. 1735. 

(Adenopa, Rafin, 1836 ; Dismophyla, Rafin, 1836 ; Esera, Neck., 1790 ; 
Filicirna, Rafin., 1836 ; Rorella, Hall., 1785 ; Rossolis, Adans., 1763 ; 
Sondera, Lehm., 1844). 

Sundews. 

No stipules. — 2. D. indica. 

Stipules scarious. Leaves radical, rosulate, the stems or stock dying away 
below the rosette or rarely persisting and densely covered with the dried remains 
of the old leaves and stipules. — 

Racemes glabrous or scarcely pubescent. Leaves obovate or orbicular. — 
6. D. Burmanni. 

Racemes, especially the calyxes, softly villous. — 3. D. petiolaris. 

1. D. Burmanni, Vahl. — Regent River, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Upper Victoria River, Providence Hill and M'Adam Range, Nicholson River 
Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHEBN TEBEITOEY. 117 

2. D. indica, Linn. — ^Near Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill 
(No. 201), 22/5/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Attack Creek, M'Douall 
Stuart's Expedition. 

3. D. petiolaris, R. Br. — ^Melville Island, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Note on specimen. " A single specimen collected also from Adelaide 
River, but not forwarded." 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Henne 
Goulbum Island, A. Cunningham ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; M'Adam 
Range, F. v. Mueller. 

D. Banksii, R. Br. ; recorded from North Australia in National Herbarium 
Census. 

2. BYBLIS, Salisb. 

1. B.liniflora, Salisb. — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Hooker and Sturt's Creeks, 
Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Bown ; adjoining mainland, F. v. Mueller. 

PITTOSPORACEffi. 

Anthers ovate or oblong. Capsule dehiscent. Petals (except in Bur- 
saria) erect at the base. 

Trees or erect shrubs. Petals erect at the base. Capsule thick or coriace- 
ous. Seeds several. 1. Pittosporum. 

Erect shrubs, often prickly. Petals small, spreading from the base. — 
2. — Bursaria. 

Anthers ovate or oblong. Berry indehiscent. Petals erect at the base. — 
3. Citriobatus. 

1. PITTOSPORUM, Banks. 1788. 

(Cylbanida, Noronha., 1857 ; Glyaspermum, Zoll. and Morr., 1845 ; 
Pittosporoides, Soland., 1788 ; Psevditea, Hassk., 1842 ; Quinsonia, Montr., 
1860 ; Senacia, Comm., 1824). 

The trees furnish good cabinet wood, and the flowers of most are valuable 
for perfumery. Several species contain saponin. 

Flowers numerous, small, in compound terminal corymbs, with the lower 
branches axillary. — 1. P. melanospermum. 

Pedicels axillary, solitary or clustered, 1- flowered, the uppermost some- 
times in a terminal cluster. — 2. P. phillyraeoides. 

1. P. melanospermum, F. v. M. — York Sound, A. Cunningham ; low 
rocky hills between Victoria River and the Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

2. P. phillyraeoides, D.G. — Alice Springs, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. HiU 
(No. 126), 27/4/1911. 

Finke River, 8 miles N. of Alice Springs, Macdonnell ranges, G. F. Hill, 
21/4/1911. 

Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 97), 16/3/1911. 

Northern Territory, G. F. Hill (No. 98), 1911. 

60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 283), 7/6/1911. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River, and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

Poisonous according to Greshoff, contains saponin. A slender-stemmed 
small tree, yielding a close-grained wood. 

E 2 



118 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEERITOEY. 

2. BURSARIA, Cav. 

1 . B. spinosa , Cav. — About the Gulf of Carpentaria, rare and only the var. 
inoana, E. v. Mueller ; N.E. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

3. CITRIOBATUS, A. CtJNir. 

1. C. paiiciflorus, A. Cunn. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham. 

ROSACEZE. 

Trees or erect shrubs, with entire leaves. Stipules deciduous or none. 
Carpel solitary, with 2 erect ovules, and a basal style. 

Trees, petals 6 or 4. Stamens perigynous, with filiform filaments and 
small anthers. — 3. Parinarium. 

Shrubs, petals none. Stamens hypogynous, anthers longer than the 
filaments. — 2. Stylobasium. 

Herbs or scrambling shrubs. Leaves toothed divided or compound. — 
1. Rubus. 

1. RUBUS, Linn. 

1. R. moluccanus, Linn. — Port Essington, Armstrong. Queensland 
Bramble ; Native Raspberry. 

2. STYLOBASIUM, Desf. 1819. 

(Macrostigma, Hook. 1842). 

1. S. spathulatum, Desf. — 40 miles W. of Camp IV., Lander Creek, G. F. 
Hill (363), 21/6/1911. 

3. PARINARIUM, Juss. 

Petiole without glands. Leaves much veined. Flowers small. Calyx- 
lobes acute. Perfect stamens about 8. — 2. P. nonda. 

Petiole with 2 glands. Leaves shining, httle veined. Flowers rather 
large. Calyx-lobes obtuse. Perfect stamens 30 to 50. — 1. P. Griffithianum. 

1. P Oriffithianum, Benth. — Port Essington, Armstrong ; Quail Island, 
Flood. 

2. P. Tionda, F. v. M. — From the Upper Lind to Van Diemen's River, 
Gulf of Carpentaria, Leichhardt ; Gilbert River, F. v. Mueller. 

LEGUMINOS^. 

Sub-order I. Papilionacece. — Flowers 5-merous. Corolla very irregular, 
papihonaoeous, or very rarely (in a few Sophorece) nearly regular, the petals 
imbricate, the upper one (or standard) always outside in the bud. Stamens 10, 
or very rarely 9 or 5. 

Tribe I. Podalyriece. — Shrubs rarely herbs or small trees. Leaves simple 
or digitately compound (except in a few Burtonias), without stipellse. 

Stamens all free or scarcely united at the base. Pod not articulate. 
Standard small or narrow. — 13. Brachysema. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEBN TEREITOBY. 119 

Standard orbicular or reniform, large. Ovules 4 or more (except in a few 
Mirbelias). 

Calyx-lobes shorter or scarcely longer than the tube. Leaves simple 

or none. — 14. Mirbelia. 
Calyx-lobes much longerthan the tube. — 15. Isotropis. 
Standard orbicular or reniform, large. Ovules 2 (4 to 6 in Jacksonia 
piptomeris). 

Calyx-lobes much longer than the tube, valvate. 

Funicles long and thick, one folded or curved upwards, the other 
downwards. Pod globular or nearly so. Leaves pinnate, 
digitately 3 to 5-foliolate or simple. — 16. Burtonia. 
Funicles short and slender. Pod flattened or oblong. Leaves 
none or very rarely 1-foliolate. — 17. Jacksonia. 
Calyx-lobes shorter than the tube, or, if longer, imbricate or opening 
in the bud. 

Pod triangular, 2-valved. Seeds strophiolate. Calyx shortly 
5-toothed. Leaves simple, alternate, or none. — 18. 
Daviesia. 

Pod ovate or oblong, 2-valved. Calyx 5-lobed or toothed 
or 2-lipped. Leaves simple, sessile or shortly petiolate. — 
19. Gastrolobium. 

Tribe II. Genistece. — Shrubs or herbs, very rarely small trees. Leaves 
simple or with 1 or 3 or more digitate leaflets. Stamens all united in a sheath 
open on the upper side in all the Austrahan genera (except in one species of 
Hovea). 

Leaves all simple or none. Flowers axillary,, solitary or clustered. Seeds 
strophiolate. 

Anthers uniform. Pod very flat. — ^20. Bossiaea. 
Anthers alternately longer and shorter. Leaves alternate or none. 
Pod at least twice as long as broad, with coriaceous convex 
valves. Flowers red, yellow, or reddish -purple. — ^21. 
Templetonia. 
Pod turgid, scarcely longer than broad. Flowers blue or bluish- 
purple. — 22. Hovea. 
Leaves digitate or simple. Flowers or racemes terminal or leaf-opposed. 
Seeds not strophiolate. 

Anthers alternately longer and shorter. Style (often very minutely) 

bearded under the stigma. — ^24. Crotalaria. 
Anthers uniform. Style beardless. Pod hnear, follicular. Flowers 
minute, solitary or in short racemes. — 23. Rothia. 

Tribe III. Euloteoe. — Herbs, rarely shrubs. Leaves pinnate, leaflets 
entire. Flowers capitate or umbellate on axillary ped-uncles. Upper stamen 
usually free, at least at the base, the others united in a sheath ; filaments 
either all or 5 only dilated towards the end. Pod not articulate. — 25. Lotus. 

Tribe IV. GalegecB. — Herbs not twining, shrubs, or rarely trees or tall 
woody chmbers. Leaves pinnate, rarely reduced to 3 or 1 leaflets. StipeUse 
none, or setaceous in a few pinnate genera. Upper stamen usually free, at 
least at the base, the others united in a sheath, very rarely all united ; filaments 
filiform. Ovules 2 or more (except in Indigofera linifoha and in Psoralea). 
Pod not articulate, 2-valved (except Psoralea). 

Ovule 1. Fruit small, the pericarp adhering to the seed. Herbs or 
shrubs with black glandular dots. Leaflets (in Austraha) 1 or 3, sometimes 
toothed. — ^27. Psoralea. 



120 THE FLOEA OF THE NOBTHEBN TEEEITORY. 

Ovules 2 or more (1 in Indigofera Unifolia). Anthers tipped with a small 
gland. Pod2-valved. Herbs or shrubs, sometimes glandular. Leaflets entire. 
Hairs often appressed and attached by the centre. — 26. Indigofera. 
Ovules 2 or more. Anthers without glands. 

Racemes or flowers terminal or leaf -opposed. Herbs or shrubs. 

Stamens all united in a sheath, open on the upper side. — 28. 

Ptychosema. 
Upper stamen usually free, or all united in a closed tube. — 29. 
Tephrosia. 

Racemes or flowers axillary. Herbs or shrubs. 

Style not bearded (rarely a small tuft of hairs on the stigma in 
Tephrosia). 

Pod linear, rarely short and oblong ; valves thin or cori- 
aceous, flat or convex when ripe. — 29. Tephrosia. 

Pod long, narrow and thick, the endocarp continuous with 
the transverse partitions between the seeds. — 30. 
Sesbania. 

Style bearded under the stigma. Pod turgid, membranous or 
coriaceous. 

Petals acuminate. — 31. Clianthus. 
Petals obtuse. — 32. Swainsona. 

Tribe V. Hedysarece. — ^Pod separating into 1-seeded articles, or the whole 
pod 1-seeded and indehiscent (except Pycnospora and rarely Desmodium). 
Pohage and inflorescence, in the Australian genera, either of Galegese or 
Phaseolese. 

Leaves pinnate with several leaflets, as in Galegeae. Stamens united in a 
sheath, or in 2 bundles or 6 each. — 33. ^schynomene. 

Leaves with 2 leaflets. Bracteoles large, enclosing the flowers. Stamens 
all united. Anthers alternately long and short. — 34. Zomia. 

Leaves pinnately S-foholate or 1-foliolate, with stipellse as in Phaseolese. 
Stipules usually dry. 

Pod flat, not folded. 35. Desmodium. 

Pod turgid, not articulate, but with transverse lines. — 36. Pycnos- 
pora. 
Pod-articles folded over each other within the calyx. 
Calyx-tube small, lobes subulate. — 38. Uraria. 
Calyx campanulate, enlarged after flowering, with short broad 
lobes. — 39. Lourea. 

Pod-articles globular, oblong-terete, or slightly flattened but thick. 
Calyx narrow, dry, deeply lobed. Leaves 1-foliolate. — 37. 
Pabricia. 

Tribe VI. Phaseolem. — Herbs usually twining or prostrate, rarely erect 
or shrubby at the base, very rarely trees. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate or 1- 
foUolate, rarely 5 or 7-foliolate, with stipellse (digitate in a very few species, 
stipellse minute or none in Rhynchosia and its allies). Upper stamen usually 
free, at least at the base or all but the base. Anthers uniform or very nearly so 
(except in Mucuna). Pod not articulate, 2-valved. 

Flowers in axillary short clusters with persistent striate bracts and bracte- 
oles. Seeds not strophiolate. 

Calyx tubular. — 43. Clitoria. 

Calyx campanulate. — 55. Dohchos. 



THE FLORA. OF THE NORTHBEN TERRITORY. 121 

Flowers small, single, scattered in a loose raceme, the rachis not nodose. 
Bracts small, deciduous (lower flowers often solitary in the axUs). Seeds not 
strophiolate. — 44. Glycine. 

Trees or tall erect herbs with conical prickles. Flowers large, red. Wings 
very short. — 45. Erythrina. 

Anthers alternately long and short. Flowers large, purple yellow or white. 
Standard short. Keel acuminate. — 46. Mucuna. 

Twining or erect at the base, not glandular. Flowers in pairs or clusters 
along or at the top of a common peduncle, the rachis of the cluster gland-like or 
forming a protruding node. Bracts deciduous or none. Anthers uniform. 
Style beardless. 

Calyx-lobes 4 (the upper one of 2 united), acuminate. — 47.- Galactia. 
Calyx 2 upper lobes united in a large upper Up, the 3 lower 
minute. — 48. Canavaha. 
Style bearded under the stigma. 
Stigma oblique or lateral. 

Keel spirally twisted. — 53. Phaseolus. 

Keel straight, or with a curved beak not forming a complete 
spire. — 54. Vigna. 
Stigma small, terminal. — 55. Dolichos. 

Twining or erect. Flowers racemose, umbellate or soUtary, the rachis not 
nodose. Bracts usually membranous and deciduous. Stipelke usually minute 
or none. Style beardless. Upper stamen free. 
Ovules 4 or more. — 49. Cantharospermum. 
Ovules 2 or rarely 1. 

Pod flattened. Hilum of the seed parallel to the suture with a 

central funicle. — 50. Rhynchosia. 
Pod flattened. Seed obhquely transverse, the funicle attached to one 
end of the hilum. Standard usually very sUky — 51. Eriosema. 
Pod turgid. Leaflets digitate. — 87. Moghania. 

Erect. Flowers small, in terminal racemes or panicles. 

Stipules dry, and habit of Desmodium. — 52. Pycnospora. 
Twiners. Leaves abruptly pinnate with small leaflets. Upper stamen 
wanting, the other 9 united in a sheath open on the upper side. — 
42. Abrus. 

Tribe VII. Dalbergiece. — ^Trees or woody chmbers. Leaves pinnate with 
five or more leaflets or sometimes one leaflet, very rarely three. StipeUse none 
or small and subulate. Stamens all united in a sheath or tube or into two 
parcels of five, very rarely the upper one free. Pod indehiscent. 

Pod flat, thin or coriaceous, one or both sutures edged with a narrow 
wing. — 41. Derris. 

Pod flattened but thick, with obtuse sutures. — 40. Galedupa. 

Tribe VIII. Sophorece. — ^Trees, woody climbers, or rarely tall shrubs or 
almost herbaceous. Leaves piimate, with several leaflets, without stipellse, or 
reduced to a large leaflet. Stamens all free or scarcely united at the base. — 
49. Castanospermum. 

Sub-order II. Caesalpiniece. — Flowers usually 5-merous. CoroUa ir- 
regular or nearly regular, imbricate in the bud, the upper petal inside. Stamens 
(in the Austrahan genera) 10 or fewer and all free. Radicle usually straight. 

Leaves twice pinnate, often with hooked prickles. Stamens 10, all bearing 
anthers. — 12. Peltophorum. 



122 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

Leaves simply pinnate. 

Sepals and petals 5 ; stamens 10 ; anthers all perfect, opening in 

terminal pores or short slits, or some minute and empty. 

Leaves abruptly pinnate. — 11. Cassia. 
Sepals and petals 5. Stamens 3, with perfect anthers opening in 

■longitudinal sUts ; 2 small staminodia. Leaves unequally pinnate. 

— 10. Petalostylis. 
Sepals and petals 4 or 5. Stamens 2, opening in terminal pores. 

Leaves unequally pinnate or with sessile digitate leaflets. — 

9. Labichea. 
Sepals 4. Petals 3. Stamens 3 or 2 perfect, 4 or 5 minute stamin- 
odia. Leaves abruptly pinnate. Pod thick. — 7. Tamarindus. 
Leaves of 2 leaflets or 2-lobed. Stamens 10 or fewer. — 8. Bauhinia. 

Sub-order III. Mimosece. — Flowers 5-merous, 4-merous, rarely 3-merous 
or 6-merous, small, regular, sessile in spikes or heads, or very rarely shortly 
pedicellate. Sepals valvate, often united. Petals valvate (except in Erythro- 
phloeum), often united. Stamens equal to or double the number of petals or 
indefinite . Radicle straight . 

Stamens twice as many as petals. 

Petals slightly imbricate. — 6. Erythrophloeum. 
Petals strictly valvate. 

Anthers tipped with a gland. — 5. Dichrostachys. 
Anthers without any gland. Pod short, flat, falcate or obHque. 
Lower flowers of the spike often with long, linear, coloured 
staminodia. Herbs or undershrubs. — 4. Neptunia. 

Stamens indefinite. 

Stamens, at least in the hermaphrodite flowers, all free. — 3. Acacia. 
Stamens monadelphous. 

Pod flat and thin, straight or scarcely falcate. — 2. Albizzia. 
Pod curved or twisted, 2-valved and often reddish or pulpy 
inside, or separating into indehiscent articles. — 1. Pithe- 
colobium. 

1. PITHECOLOBIUM, Maet. 
(Cathormion, Hassk.). 

1. P. moniliferum, Benth.—Okej Creek, G. P. Hill (No. 765), 16/2/1912. 

Recorded. Point Pearce, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; along all the watercourses round the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, Leichhardt. 

2. ALBIZZIA, Dura. 

1. A. procera, Benth. — Gloucester Island, Henne. Wood resembling 
walnut. 

3. ACACIA, Linn. 1737. 

( Arthrosprion, Hassk., 1855 ; ChitonanthMs, Lehm., 1847 ; Farnesia, 
Gasp., 1838 ; Hoopesia, Buckl., 1862 ; Phyllodoce, Link., 1831 ; Tetracheilos, 
Lehm., 1847 ; Vachellia, Wight and Am., 1834 ; Zigmaloba, Bafin., 1838). 

The bark of many is used in tanning ; and many also, at certain periods of 
their growth, produce a saponin poisonous to stock. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NOBTHEBN TBBEITOEY. 123 

Leaves all or mostly reduced to flat terete or subulate phyllodia or minute 
scales without leaflets. (Phyllodinece). 
Flowers in globular heads. 

Phyllodia none or reduced to minute scales. — IV. Calamiformes. 
Phyllodia (either small and toothlike or vertically flattened or 
elongated), decurrent on or continuous with the branches. 

Branches flat or 2-winged by the decurrent phyllodia. — 

I. Alatae. 

Branches 3-winged or the phyllodia (usually pungent) very 
shortly or scarcely decurrent, but not articulate. — 

II. Continuse. 

Phyllodia articulate on the stems, at least when old. 
Phyllodia rigid, tapering into pungent straight points, usually 
narrow or short, not whorled. — III. Pungentes. 

Phyllodia linear-subulate, terete or tetragonous rarely 
slightly flattened, obtuse or with incurved or innocuous 
points, not whorled. — ^IV. Calamiformes. 

Phyllodia terete or slightly flattened, usually short, 
all whorled or crowded and irregularly whorled or 
clustered. — V. Brunioidese. 

Phyllodia vertically flattened, broader than thick, obtuse 
acute or with incurved or innocuous points. 

Phyllodia 1 -nerved, the veins pinnate, reticulate or 
rarely 1 or 2 secondary small nerves from the base 
on one side of the midrib. — VI. Uninerves. 

Phyllodia with 2, 3 or more parallel nerves. — 
VII. Plurinerves. 

Flowers in cylindrical or oblong spikes. 

Phyllodia rigid, tapering into pungent points. — ^III. Pungentes. 
Phyllodia obtuse or with a callous, innocuous or hooked 
point. — VIII. Juhflorae. 

Leaves all bipinnate. Flowers in globular heads or rarely in spikes. — 
(BipinnatoR.) IX. Gummiterse. 

Div. I. Phyllodinece. — Leaves mostly phyllodineous without leaflets. 

Series I. Alaim. — Phyllodia bifariously decurrent, forming two opposite 
wings to the stem, the free part short, broad, and acute, or rigid and pungent- 
pointed. Flowers in globular heads, on axillary simple peduncles rarely ap- 
pearing racemose by the reduction of the flowering branches. — 9. A. 
bossiseoides. 

Series II. Continuce. — Phyllodia narrow, rigid, rapering into a pungent 
point, continuous with the stem and shortly and trifariously or irregularly 
decurrent. Flowers in heads or spikes on axillary simple peduncles. — 45. A. 
Peuce. 

Series III. Pungentes. — Rigid shrubs, branches in some species spinescent. 
Phyllodia articulate on the stem, rigid, tapering into pungent points, subulate, 
linear or lanceolate, or rarely none. Flowers in heads or spikes on axillary 
simple peduncles. 

A. Plurinerves. — Phyllodia 2 or more nerved, or terete and nerveless. 
Heads globular. — 46. A. phlebocarpa. 

B. Uninerves. — Phyllodia 1 -nerved. Heads globular. — 44. A. patens. 



124 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TBREITOBY. 

Series IV. Calamiformes. — Phyllodia rarely none, more frequently narrow- 
linear or subulate, terete tetragonous or very slightly flattened, articulate on 
the stem, obtuse or with short innocuous or recurved points, 1 or several-nerved. 
Flowers in globular heads on simple axillary peduncles, or rarely several heads 
in a short raceme, or irregularly racemose by the abortion of the floral phyllodia. 

A. Plurinerves. — ^Phyllodia striate, with 2, 3 or more nerves on each side. — 
10. A. Bynoeana. 

B. Uninerves. — Phyllodia 1-nerved or nerveless. — 30. A. juncifolia. 

Series V. Brunioidece. — Phyllodia numerous, small, Unear-subulate, 
verticiUate, clustered or crowded, obtuse or with innocuous or rarely rigid 
points. Flowers in globular heads or simple axillary peduncles, usually ex- 
ceeding the phyllodia. 

Phyllodia aU regularly verticiUate. 

Phyllodia 8 to 10 or more in the whorl, slender, under |-in. long. 
Petals striate. 
Phyllodia recurved at the end, sulcate. Pod sessile. — 37. A. 

lycopodifolia. 
PhyUodia recurved at the end, not sulcate. Pod on a stipes of 2 

to 3 Unes. — 21. A. galioides. 
Phyllodia straight at the end, sulcate. Pod sessile. — 26. A. 
hippuroides. 
Phyllodia 5 to 7 in. the whorl, recurved at the end, not sulcate. 
Petals not striate, with a prominent midrib. — 5. A. Baueri. 
Phyllodia in clusters of about 3. Pod almost woody, narrowed into a long 
stipes. — 65. A. subtemata. 

Series VI. Uninerves. — Phyllodia vertically flattened, either narrow and 
obtuse or with a short oblique point, or broad and obtuse, acute or rarely 
pungent-pointed, with 1 central nearly marginal nerve, or very rarely 2-nerved. 
Flowers in globular heads, either on simple axillary peduncles, solitary, in 
pairs or clusters, or several in axillary racemes. 

A. Armatce. — Shrubs or undershrubs, not spinescent. Phyllodia from 
obovate to lanceolate, rarely above IJ in. long, more or less undulate, with a 
central nerve and* usually nerve-Hke margins ; marginal glands none, or very 
small and obscure. Stipules generally persistent, either spinescent or setaceous 
or acuminate or phyllodia-like. Peduncles 1-headed. — 24. A. Gregorii. 

B. Brevifolice. — Shrubs, never spinescent. Phyllodia either broad, ovate 
or falcate, or narrow, oblong or Unear, short, obtuse or with a small recurved 
innocuous point, occasionally undulate and more pointed. Stipules minute 
or none. Peduncles 1-headed. — 59. A. spathulata. 

C. Angustifolice. — Shrubs or trees, not spinescent. Phyllodia oblong- 
lanceolate or linear, occasionally falcate, with one central nerve or rarely 2- 
nerved, mostly above 1 in. long. Stipules minute or none, or rarely spinescent. 
Peduncles 1-headed. Some of the species very resinuous. — 55. A. Sentis. 

D. EacemoscB. — Not spinescent. Phyllodia not pungent, with one central 
nerve or very rarely a second shorter or fainter one, the veinlets when visible 
diverging from the midrib or reticulate. Flower-heads globular, few or all or 
nearly all in axillary racemes, very rarely a few solitary in the lower axils of a 
young branch. Flowers usually small and 5-merous. Petals not striate. 

Phyllodia linear, thick, rarely falcate-lanceolate, usually without glands, 
the lateral veins reticulate and obscure. Seeds longitudinal. — 54. A. salicina. 

Phyllodia ovate, obovate or broadly oblong, usually under 1 in. — 51. A. 
pyrifolia. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TBRBITORY. 125 

Series VII. Plurinerves. — Phyllodia vertically flattened, obtuse or with 
an innocuous or recurved point (rarely pungent when the phyllodium is broad), 
with 2 or more longitudinal nerves. Flowers in globular heads on axillary 
peduncles, either solitary or shortly racemose. 

A. Triangulares. — Stipules setaceous or minute, not spinescent. Phyllo- 
dia small (under |-in. long), broadly falcate-ovate or triangular with small 
points often pungent. 

Flowers not |-line long. Calyx much shorter than the corolla. — 16. A. 
deltoidea. 

Flowers above 1 line long. Calyx nearly as long as the corolla. — 63. A. 
stipulosa. 

B. Brevifolice. — Phyllodia under 1 in. long, obovate or broadly oblong, 
very obtuse, often undulate. Stipules inconspicuous. 

Phyllodia under J-in. or very rarely |-in. long. Petals smooth. — 57. A. 
setulifera. 

Phyllodia ^ to 1 in. long. Petals strongly striate. 

Phyllodia faintly nerved. Calyx shortly toothed. Pod thick and hard, 
hooked at the end, tapering into a long stipes. — 67. A. translucens. 

Phyllodia several-nerved. Sepals spathulate, free or separating. Pod 
thinly coriaceous, flat, with thickened parallel margins, glutinous and villous. — 
9. A. impressa. 

C. Oligoneurce. — Phyllodia above |-in. and mostly above 1 in. long, 
oblong lanceolate or linear, straight or scarcely falcate, with 2 or 3 nerves, 
faintly or not at all veined between them (except A. Simsii), and not glutinous. 

Flower-heads racemose. Phyllodia coriaceous, obtuse. — 8. A. bivenosa. 
Peduncles sohtary or clustered. — 58. A. Simsii. 

D. Microneura. — Glabrous or glaucous and not glutinous. Phyllodia 
thick, veinless or with very fine, scarcely prominent parallel veins, narrow 
or rarely short and obovate. 

Veins only visible under a lens (Western species). — 12. A. coriacea. 
Veins very fine, but prominent (Eastern species). — 60. A. stenophylla. 

E. Nervosce. — Often viscid, occasionally glaucous, rarely hoary or pubes- 
cent. Phyllodia straight or sometimes falcate, coriaceous or thin, with several 
prominent nerves and, when broad, reticulate between them, the nerves rarely 
reduced to three when the phyllodium is narrow. 

Glaucous. Phyllodia coriaceous, oblong, cuneate, obtuse ; nerves 3 to 5, 
slightly prominent, veins reticulate. — 25. A. hemignosta. 

Very viscid. Nerves or veins usually numerous. — 16. A. dictyophleba. 

F. Dimidiaice. — Phyllodia, usually broad, and often long, falcate or very 
oblique, with 2, 3, or 4 prominent distant nerves, and reticulately penni-veined 
between them. 

Glabrous. Phyllodia rather thin (2 to 4 in.). Flower-heads in axillary 
racemes growing out into leafy branches. Pod 6 to 8 Unes broad. — 7. A. 
binervata. 

Glabrous. Phyllodia coriaceous, long-falcate (6 to 8 in.). Flower-heads 
in axillary clusters or very short racemes. — A. latescens. 

Hoary or glaucous. Phyllodia large, broad (3 to 4 in.). Pod above 1 in. 
broad. — 56. A. sericata. 

Woolly or velvety-tomentose. Phyllodia obovate or orbicular ( 1 ^ to 2 in. ). 
Flower-heads in a terminal raceme. — 53. A. retivenia. 



126 THE IXOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Series VIII. Juliflorae. — ^Phyllodia vertically flattened or in a few species 
terete, several-nerved or rarely 1-nerved, obtuse acute or pointed, rarely slightly 
pungent. Flowers in cylindrical dense or interrupted spikes, rarely, when 
sessile, shortly oblong. 

A. Rigidulce. — Phyllodia flat, often short, straight oblique or shortly 
falcate. Spikes dense (except A. megalantha). Flowers 5-merous. 
Phyllodia small, rarely above |-in. long, undulate. 

Phyllodia mostly clustered, narrow, 2 to 4 lines long. Spikes. 

sessile. Sepals free. — 1. A. amentifera. 
Phyllodia broad, about J-in. long. Spikes pedunculate. Calyx 
sinuate-toothed. Seeds oblique. — 70. A. Wickhami. 

Phyllodia narrow, obtuse with a short point, \ to 1 J in. long. 

Phyllodia obscurely 3 to 5-nerved. Pod 3 to 6 hues broad. Seeds 

oblique. — 38. A. lysiphloia. 
Phyllodia obscurely 1-nerved. Pod 1| lines broad. Seeds longitudi- 
nal. — A. linarioides. 

Phyllodia rather broad, coriaceous, mostly 1 to 3 in. long. ; rarely 4 in., 
obtuse or with a glandular callous point, straight oblique or shortly falcate. 

Tomentose or pubescent. Stipules conspicuous. Phyllodia 1 to 2 in. 
long, 2 to 4-nerved, with anastomosing veins. Pod narrow. — 
62. A. stipuhgera. 

Resinous. Phyllodia 1 to 1| in. long, 5 to 9-nerved, without inter- 
mediate veins. — 50. A. ptychophylla. 

Glabrous, except the young shoots. Phyllodia obliquely narrowed 
at both ends, somewhat undulate, with a terminal gland often 
large. 

Phyllodia finely 3 to 5-nerved. Spikes pedunculate. Buds very 
striate. Calyx sinuate-toothed. — 61. A. stigmatophylla. 

Phyllodia very coriaceoug, 5 to 9-nerved. Spikes sessile. Pod 
terete, turgid. Seeds oblique. — 69. A. umbellata. 

Phyllodia finely 3 to 5-nerved. Spikes pedunculate. Buds 
smooth. Calyx deeply lobed. — 33. A. leptophleba. 

Phyllodia broadly oblong-falcate, obtuse or with a hooked callous point, 
very coriaceous. 

Spikes dense. Flowers not 1 line long. Pod flat. Seeds obhque. — 

34. A. limbata. 
Spikes interrupted. Flowers 2 lines long. — 39. A. megalantha. 

Phyllodia nearly straight, coriaceous, obtuse, 3 to 4 in. long. Pod narrow. 
Seeds longitudinal. — ^23. A. gonoclada. 

B. StenophyllcB. — Phyllodia linear-subulate or narrow-hnear, straight or 
slightly curved, terete or flat but thick, rarely under 2 in. long or above 1 J hues 
broad. Spikes dense, short or slender, with small 5-merous, or in terete-leaved 
species often 4-merous flowers. 

Phyllodia terete or scarcely flattened, very finely striate under a lens. — 
47. A. pityoides. 

Phyllodia terete, nerveless or obscurely 1-nerved. Calyx lobed. — 
71. A. xylocarpa. 

Phyllodia very narrow but flat, 1-nerved. Sepals free. — 22. A. gono- 
carpa. 

Phyllodia flat but thick, prominently 3 or 5-nerved. — 19. A. drepano- 
carpa. 

Phyllodia flat, minutely striate under a lens. — 2. A. arida. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHEEN TEEBITOBY. 127 

G. Falcatoe. — Phyllodia usually long or large, more or less falcate, narrowed 
at each end, with numerous parallel nerves or veins, either all equal, or the 
central one or several more prominent than the others, the smaller ones occas- 
ionally anastomosing. Spikes slender, dense or rarely interrupted. Flowers 
mostly 5-merous. (Several species of this group cannot be distinguished 
without the fruit.) 

Pod (where known and probably in all the species) narrow, with longi- 
tudinal seeds, or rarely broader with the longitudinal seeds along the centre. 

Phyllodia narrow-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, rather thick, 
slightly falcate, with very fine parallel nerves, the midrib usually 
more prominent. 

Loosely pubescent. Stipules conspicuous. Phyllodia not above 
3 in. long. — 11. A. conspersa. 

Glabrous or the young shoots silky-pubescent. Stipules incon- 
spicuous. Phyllodia mostly above 3 in. long. — 18. A. 
doratoxylon. 
Phyllodia narrow-lanceolate, not so thick and rather more falcate 

than in the preceding species, usually with about 3 nerves more 

prominent than the rest. 

Phyllodia sprinkled with a few hairs. Pod flat, sUghtly convex 

over the seeds. — 14. A. dehbrata. 
Phyllodia very glabrous, the smaller veins between the three 
principal nerves scarcely conspicuous. Pod unknown. — 
' 40. A. oligoneura. 
Phyllodia glabrous. Nerves numerous. Pod very convex over 
the seeds and monihform. — 66. A. torulosa. 
PhyUodia more falcate than in the preceding species, often broader 
or longer, with more nerves. Pod narrow or flat, straight or 
twisted.— 49. A. polystaohya. 
Pod (where known and probably in all the species) rather broad, coriaceous 
woody or rarely rather thin. — Seeds very oblique or transverse. Parallel veins 
of the phyllodia usually numerous and closely packed. 

PhyUodia long, narrow, and slightly falcate. Pod flat, with straight 
margins and undulate valves. Seeds orbicular. 
Branches acutely angular. — 48. A. plectocarpa. 
Branches scarcely angular. — 42. A. pachycarpa. 
Phyllodia broad, falcate or very oblique Pod nearly terete and 

turgid. — 68. A. tumida. 
Phyllodia long, and more falcate. Pod hard flat.contractedtothobase. 
Phyllodia 3 to 5 hnes broad. Pod obtuse, not hooked. — 

36. A. loxocarpa. 
Phyllodia 6 to 8 hnes broad. Pod obtusely hooked at the end. 
— 41. A. oncinocarpa. 
PhyUodia broad, falcate or very obUque. Pod broad, hard, and 
woody, obUquely veined. 
Branchlets 3-angled. Pod obtusely recurved or hooked at the end, much 
narrowed at the base. — 3. A. aulacocarpa. 

Branchlets nearly terete or sUghtly angular. Pod broad, very hard, 
obliquely truncate at the base. 

Pod flat or scarcely twisted, the outer margin entire. 

13. A. crassicarpa. 
Pod much twisted, the outer margin deeply sinuate. — 
4. A. auricuhformis. 



128 THE rLOEA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

Pod uncertain. Smaller veins of phyllodia anastomosing to fine network. — 
52, A. retinervis. 

D. Dimidiatce. — Phyllodia large, broad, very oblique or falcate, with 3 
or more distant prominent nerves, more or less confluent at or near the lower 
margin at the base, pinnately net- veined between them. 
Branchlets very acutely angular or almost winged. 

Glabrous and glaucous, spikes pedunculate. Flowers mostly 

4-merous. — 32. A. latifolia. 
Hoary or silky-pubescent, spikes sessile. Plowers mostly 5-merous. — 
27. A. holosericea. 
Branchlets terete or scarcely angular. 

Spikes 1 to 2 in. long. Flowers glabrous. (Erect shrub) — 
17 A. dimidiata. 
, Spikes scarcely |^-in. long, dense. Flowers densely pubescent. 
Stem prostrate or diffuse. — 28. A. humifusa. 

Series IX. GummifercB. — Leaves bipinnate. Stipules of some or all 
the leaves persistent and spinescent. Flower-heads globular, on soUtary or 
clustered simple peduncles. 

Bracts small, close under the flower-heads. 

Pinnae 4 to 6 pairs. Leaflets small, 10 to 20 pairs. Pod thick, cylin- 
drical or spindle-shaped, indehiscent, pithy between the seeds. — 
20. A. Farnesiana. 
Pinnae 1 or 2 pairs. Leaflets small, 8 to 12 pairs. Pod narrow- 
linear, 2-valved. — 64. A. suberosa. 
Bracts forming a Uttle 4-lobed ring round the middle of the peduncle. 

Pinnae 15 to 25 pairs. Leaflets scarcely 1 line long. Flowers 4- 
merous. Pod coriaceous ; valves slightly convex, striate length- 
wise. — 6. A. Bidwilh. 
Pinnae 3 to 10 pairs. Leaflets 3 to 4 lines long. Flowers 5-merous — - 
43. A. pallida. 

1 . A. amentifera. F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. A. arida, Benth. — Parched desert shores of Cambridge Gulf, N.W. 
Coast, A. Cunningham. 

3. A. aulacocarpa, A. Cunn {var. viacrocarpa) . — Stony Creek, Borroloola, 
G. F. HiU (No. 670), 8/11/1911. 

Hickory Wattle. A useful cabinet wood. 

4. A. auriculiformis, A. Cunn. — S. Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham. 

5. A. Baueri, Benth. — N. Coast, R. Brown. 

6. A. Bidwilli, Benth. — ^Whitsunday and Gloster Island?, Henne. 

7. A. binervata, D.G. — Table Island, Upper Roper River. 

8. A. bivenosa, D. C. — N.W. Coast, Admiralty Bay, Baudin's Expedition ; 
Bay of Rest and Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cunningham ; Depuech Island, 
Bynoe ; Hearson Island, Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

9. A. bossiaeoides, A. Cunn. — Liverpool River, N.W. Coast. A. Cunning 
ham. 

10. A. Bynoeana, Benth. — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Gulf of Carpentaria, 
F. v. Mueller. 

11. A. conspersa, F. v. M. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
and rocky sandy districts of the adjoining mainland. Upper Roper and Limmen- 
Bight Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Sterculia Creek, Leichhardt. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEfiEITOEY. 129 

12. A. coriacea, B.C. — Bay of Rest, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Depuech Island, Bynoe ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

13. A. crassicarpa, A. Gunn. — Amhem S. Bay, R. Brown ; Goulbum 
and Sims Islands, A. Cunningham ; Point Pearce, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essiag- 
ton, Armstrong ; Goold Island, M'GilUvray ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

14. A delibrata, A. Cunn. — York Sound and Port Warrender, N.W. 
Coast, A. Cunningham. 

15. A. deltoidea, A. Cunn. — Greville Island, Montague Sound, and 
Barren Islands, Regent's Inlet, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

16. A. dictyophkba, F. v. M. — Mount Humphries, M'Douall Stuart. 

17. A. dimidiata, Benth. — Herbert Bros. Station, near Darwin, G. F. 
HiU (2nd Series, No. 60), 28/5/1913. 

Recorded. Various parts of the N. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Victoria 
River and M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

18. A. doratozylon, A. Cunn. — Daly Waters, M'DouaU Stuart. 

19. A. drepanocarpa, F. v. M. — Rocks of the S.W. Shore of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. Whitsunday and Palm Islands, Henne. 

20. A. Farnesiana. Willd. — N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Nichol Bay, 
F. Gregory's Expedition ; Sturt's Creek and M'Arthur River, F. v. Mueller ; 
Albert River, Henne. 

21. A. galioides, Benth. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller; Islands of the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

22. A. gonocarpa, F. v. M. — Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown ; rocky shores of 
the Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

23. A. gonoclada, F. v. M. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

24. A. Gregorii, F. v. M. — Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, F. Gregory's Ex- 
pedition. 

25. A. hemignosta, F. v. M. — Cambridge Gulf, A. Cunningham ; Albert, 
Victoria, Gilbert, and Roper Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

26. A. hippuroides, Hew. — Usbome's Harbour, N.W. Coast, Voyage 
of the Beagle ; Attack Creek, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

27. A. holosericea, A. Cunn. — ^Darwin, G. F. Hill (2nd Series, No. 99), 
3/7/1913. 

Recorded. Cambridge Gulf, N.W. Coast, A. Cuimingham ; Nichol Bay, 
F. Gregory's Expedition ; Victoria River, P. v. Mueller ; Attack Creek, 
M'Douall Stuart ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

28. A. humifusa, A. Cunn. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of 
the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

29- A. impressa, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, Victoria and Van Alphen 
Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Short's Range, M'Douall Stuart. 

30. A. juncifolia, Benth. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
barren stony places on the Macarthur, Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

31. A. latescens, Benth. — ^Mayday Island, Van Diemen's Gulf, A. Cun- 
ningham ; Capstan Island, Port Essington, Armstrong. 

32. A. latifolia, Benth. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R, Brown ; 
Amhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

33. A. leptophleba, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 



130 THE PLOBA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

34. A. limbata, F. v. M. — ^N. Australia, F. v. Mueller. 

35. A. linarioides, Benth. — Cavern. Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, E. 
Brown. 

36. A. loxocarpa, Benth. — S. Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham. 

37. A. lycopodifolia, A. Cunn. — Cambridge Gulf, N. W. Coast, A. 
Cunningham ; Hammersley Range, Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition ; 
Victoria River, Bynoe, F. v. Mueller ; Amhem S. Bay, R. Brown. 

38. A. lysiphloia, F. v. M. — Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, F. v. MueUer ; 
Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; sandy plains and valleys of the 
adjoining mainland, F. v. Mueller. 

39. A. megalantha, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

40. A. oligoneura, F.v. M. — Victoria River and Macadam Range, F. v. 
MueUer. 

41. A. oncinocarpa, Benth. — Melville Island, Herb. Fraser ; Sim's 
Island, A. Cunningham. 

42. A.pachycarpa, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

43. A. pallida, F. v. M. — M'Adam Range, Fitzmaurice River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

44. A. patent, F. v. M. — Stony places, Hammersley Range, Nichol 
Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition ; Hooker and Sturt's Creeks, F. v. Mueller. 

45. A. Pence, F. v. M.—'N. of Will's Creek, Howitt's Expedition. 

46. A. phlebocarpa, F. v. M. — Rocky places at the sources of the Seven- 
Emu River, Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

47. A. pityoides,F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek and Gilbert River, F. v. Mueller. 

48. A. plectocarpa, A. Cunn. — Cambridge Gulf and Regent's River, 
N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Sturt's Creek, Roper, Seven Emu, and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. MueUer. 

49. A. polystachya, A. Cunn. — Port Essington, A. Cunningham ; Is- 
lands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

50. A. ptychophylla, F. v. Jf.— Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

51. A. pyrifolia, D.C. — Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cunningham ; 
Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

52. A. retinervis, Benth. — Cape Pond, N. W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

53. A.retivenia, F.v.M. — Short's Range, M'Douall Stuart. , 

54. A. salicina, Lindl. — Banks of Creeks, Amhem'sLand, F. v. Mueller ; 
Curtis Island, Henne. 

55. A. Sentis, F. v. M. — Victoria River, and Plains of Promise, Gulf of 
Carpentaria, F. v. MueUer. 

56. A. sericata, A. Cunn. — Montagu and York Sounds, N.W. Coast, A. 
Cunningham ; Victoria River and Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

57. A. setulifera, Benth. — N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

58. A. Simsii, A. Cunn. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
Henne. 

59. A. spathulata, F. v. M. — Bay of Rest, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

60. A. stenophylla, A. Cunn. — Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, F. v. Mueller. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 131 

61. A stigmatophylla, A. Gunn. — Brunswick Bay. N.W. Coast, A. Cun- 
ningham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

'62. A. stipuUgera, F. v. M. — Sources of the Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; 
in the interior, lat. 18 degrees, " Scrub-Wattle," M'Douall Stuart. 

63. A. stipulosa, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, 
F. V. Mueller. 

64. A. suberosa, A. Cunn. — ^Vansittart Bay and Careening Bay, A. 
Cunningham ; Glenelg River, J. Martin. 

65. A. subternata, F. v. M. — ^Table Land, Upper Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

66. A. torulosa, Benth. — Sandy banks of Roper and Nicholson Rivers, 
GuLt of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

67. A. transliicens, A. Gunn. — Montague Sound and Bay of Rest, N.W. 
Coast, A. Cunningham ; Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne. 

68. A. tumida, F. v. M. — ^Isle Lacrosse, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
rocky places, Victoria River, Point Pearce, and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; 
Attack Creek, M'Douall Stuart. 

Batchelor Farm, G. F. Hill (var. pilosa) (2nd Series, No. 71), 17/7/1913. 
The phyllodes are densely covered with small hairs, and are shorter and broader 
than in the type form. 

69. A. umbellata, A. Gunn. — ^Islands of the GuH of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; Cleveland Bay and Cape Fhnders, A. Cunningham ; Seven-Emu, and 
Robinson Rivers, F. v. M. ; probably also Depot Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

70. A. Wickhami, Benth. — Swan Bay, N.W. Coast, Voyage of the Beagle ; 
tableland between Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of 
the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; and adjoining mainland, F. v. Mueller. 

71. A. xylocarpa, A. Gunn. — ^Dampier's Archipelago and Water Island, 
N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition ; Upper 
Macarthur River, Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

A. tetragonophylla, F. v. M. ; A. genistoides, Gunn. ; A. spondylophylla, 
F. V. M. ; A. sclerosperma, F. v. M. ; A. notahilis, F. v. M. ; A. Luehmanni, 
F. V. M. ; A. trineura, F. v. M. ; A. praelongata, F. v. M. ; A. brevifolia, 
Benth. ; A. conjunctifolia, F. v. M. ; A. leptostachya, Benth (in National 
Herbarium Census), and A. Kelleri, F. v. M. ; in Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 
1891, recorded from North Australia. 

4. NEPTUNIA, LoTTR.* 

Peduncles slender, 1 to 3 in. long. Ovules several. Pod oblong, with 
several seeds. — 1. N. gracihs. 

Peduncles very short. Ovules 2. Pod orbicular, 1-seeded. — 2. N. 
monosperma. 

1. N. gracilis, Benth. — ^Islands of the North Coast, R. Brown. 

2. N. monosperma, F. v. M. — ^Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Gulf 
of Carpentaria, Landsborough, Henne. 

5. DICHROSTACHYS, W. and Arn. 

{Caillea, Ouillem. and Pers.). 

Pinnae 8 to 10 pairs. Leaflets 12 to 20 pairs. — 1. D. cinerea. 
Pinnae 1 or 2 pairs. Leaflets 4 to 6 pairs. — 2. D. Muelleri. 



132 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHBRN TEBBITOEY. 

1. D. cinerea, W. and Am. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. D. Mudleri, Benth. — Arnhem's Land, Waterhouse in M'Douall Stuart's 
Expedition. 

6. ERYTHROPHLAEUM, Afzel: 

{Fillaea, Guillem., and Pers. ; Laboucheria, F. v. M.). 

1. E. Laboucherii, F. v. if.— Newcastle Waters, G. P. Hill (No. 473), 
7/7/1911. 

Recorded. Careening Bay and Vansittart Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham ; Victoria River, Bynoe, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
R. Brown ; Strangways River, M'Douall Stuart. 

Poison-tree or Ironwood. Wood very heavy and dark ; used by the 
natives for woomerahs and spear-points. 

7. TAMARINDUS, Linn. 

1. T. indicus, Linn. — On the cliffs at the entrance to Victoria River, P. v. 
Mueller ; Port Essington, Leichhardt. 

8. BAUHINIA, Linn. 
The inland species considered good food for stock. 

Calyx disk-bearing base very short, free part campanulate, deeply lobed. 
Outer petals 5 to 6 Unes long. Pod 2 in. broad. — 1. B. Cunninghamii. 

Calyx disk-bearing base cylindrical, free part as long, divided to the base. 
Outer petals 1 J in. long. Pod 1 to IJ in. broad. — 2. B. Hookeri. 

1; B. Cunninghamii, Benth. — S. lat. 18 degrees, long. 132 degrees, G. F. 
HiU (No. 444), 6/7/1911. 

Katherine Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

40 miles S.E. of Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 444), 10/8/1911. 

Recorded. Careening Bay and Vansittart Bay, A. Cunningham ; N.W. 
Coast, Bynoe ; Oakover River, Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition ; Arn- 
hem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

Furnishes a heavy dark wood useful for many purposes. 

2. B. Hookeri, F. v. M. — Amhem N. Bay, R. Brown ; Port Essington, 
A. Cunningham. 

Queensland Ebony. Furnishes a heavy, dark wood useful for many 
purposes. 

B. Oilesii, F. v. M., and Bail ; recorded in National Herbarium Census 
from North Australia. , 

9. LABICHEA, Gaud. 
1. L. nitida, Benth. — Victoria River, Bynoe. 

10. PETALOSTYLIS, R. Br. 

1. P. labicheoides, R. Br. — Jay Gorge, Macdonnell Ranges, G F Hill 
(No. 133), 4/5/1911. 

40 miles N.N.W. of Meyer's Hut, G. F. Hill (No. 233), 2/6/1911. 

Recorded. Dampier's Archipelago, Bynoe ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. 

Var. microphylla, Ewart and Morrison. — 40 miles W. of Lander's Creek, 
Camp IV., G. F. Hill (No. 364), 23/6/1911. 

The stems and leaf-rachis of this variety are stouter, more rigid, and almost 
spinescent, terete and covered by a dense hoary coating of hairs. The leaflets 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHBEN TEKKITOEY. 133 

reaoli 41 in number, and are broadly obovate and retuse or even obcordate, 
thinly pubescent on lower surface and glabrous above, measuring 2-4 mm. in 
length by less than 3 mm. in breadth. The sepals are thinly pubescent, and 
are longer and broader (13 by 3 mm. max.) than those of No. 133, var. cassioides 
in which, however, the petals are larger and the leaflets reach 45 in number. 

In the form No. 233, which is almost glabrous, the leaflets are mostly 
5-6 mm. long, with the terminal one 8-9 mm. Numerous intermediate forms 
connect the small-leaved varieties with the fuUy-developed type. The var. 
cassioides described by Bentham (from Sturt's Creek and GuK of Carpentaria) is 
represented in the Melbourne Herbarium by specimens from Sturt's Creek and 
Nicholson River, both collected by F. v. M. in 1856, but neither has the varietal 
name added on the labels. On the other hand a specimen of var. microphylla 
(from Mt. Churchman, W.A., Young) is labelled by the Baron, evidently in 
error, " var. cassioides," but in it there are between 50 and 60 leaflets, measuring 
only 2-3 mm. in length, hirsute, and with a recurved blunt point. Another 
specimen, collected by Giles shows the rigid and almost spinescent character, 
while two specimens from the upper Ashburton River, W.A. (Cuthbertson, 
1888), indicate the one, a development approaching the typical, and the other 
a scrubby form similar to v. microphylla in the size of the leaf. The leaf 
development may be taken to indicate the nature of the water supply, the small- 
leaved forms being found in arid surroundings ; although the bed of a river, 
where moisture is retained in the mud and gravel, produces in the driest season 
the fuUy-developed form in flower, while beyond the overhanging banks almost 
all else is desiccated and dormant. 

11. CASSIA, Linn. {Cathartocarpiis, Pers.). 

(a) Flowers in pedunculate racemes or umbels, either axillary or forming a 
terminal panicle or compound raceme. (The Australian species are shrubs 
or trees). 

Stamens 7 perfect, of which 2 or 3 lower ones larger or on longer fila- 
ments ; 3 small and imperfect staminodia. Perfect anthers all 
oblong-hnear, the lower ones longer. 

Racemes short, almost corymbose, axillary or in a narrow 
terminal panicle. Pod thick or turgid. Seeds mostly hori- 
zontal. — 15. C. Sophera. 
Racemes short, loose, on long peduncles, forming a large terminal 
panicle. Leaflets 10 to 20 pairs, pubescent. Pod very fiat. 
— 8. C. laxifiora. 

Racemes elongated, on long axiUary peduncles. Bracts large, 
deciduous. Pod very flat. 

Pubescent. Leaflets 9 to 15 pairs, oblong or ovate, ob- 
tuse, mucronate. Stipules ovate-cordate, acuminate, 
rigid. Bracts broad, obtuse. — 18. C. venusta. 
Pubescent. Leaflets 9 to 15 pairs, ovate-lanceolate, acute, 
mucronate. Stipules narrow. Bracts acuminate. — 11. 
C. notabilis. 
Stamens 10, all with oblong-linear perfect anthers, all equal or the 
lower ones rather longer. 

Glands between the leaflets (at least of the lowest pair), oblong, 
subulate or stipitate, very rarely wanting. 
Bracts acuminate. — 17. C. sufEruticosa. 
Bracts small, broad, obtuse. Leaflets oblong-lanceolate or 
hnear. 



134 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Leaflets usually 6 to 10 pairs. (Eastern species). — 2. 

C. australis. 
Leaflets usually 3 to 5 pairs. (Western species). — 3. 
C. Chatelainiana. 
Glands between the leaflets sessile, flat, obscure or none 
(ovoid in C. leptoolada). 
Very glutinous, otherwise glabrous. Leaflets usually 4 or 5 

pairs. — 7. C. glutinosa. 
Glabrous or glaucous. Stipules leafy, semi-cordate. Leaflets. 

usually 3 to 5 pairs. — 14. C. pruinosa. 
Glabrous, glaucous, hoary, or white-tomentose. Stipules; 
small subulate or none. Flowers in very short 
corymbose racemes. 

Leaflets 1 or more pairs, rarely none in the lower 
leaves and then the phyllodineous petiole has a. 
gland at the end. 
Leaflets mostly 1 or 2 pairs, terete or Unear. — 6. C. 

eremophila. 
Leaflets mostly 3 to 6 pairs, hnear-lanceolate, cuneate,, 

elUptical or almost obovate. — 16. C. Sturtii. 
Leaflets 1, 2, or rarely 3 pairs, ovate, obovate, or 
broadly oblong. Pod not above ^-in. broad. — 5. 
C. desolata. 
Leaflets 2 or rarely 1 pair, broadly obovate. Pod 
nearly |-in. broad; very obtuse. — 13. C. 
oligophylla. 
Softly pubescent. Leaflets 2 to 4 pairs, elliptic£i.l-oblong. 
Stipules small, setaceous. Flowers in an umbel of 4 
to 6. — 12. C. oligoclada. 
Glabrous and glaucous. Stems slender. Leaflets 2 pairs, 

obovate or oblong. Glands ovoid. 
Stipules minute. Peduncles 2 -flowered. — 9. C. leptoclada. 
(6). Flowers in simple racemes, either terminal or becoming lateral by the 
elongation of the branch. Stamens 5 to 10 all perfect. Pod flat. Herbaceous. 
Leaflets 2 pairs, obovate. — 1. C. Absus. 

(c). Peduncles, 1-flowered, solitary or 2 or 3 together in or just above the 
axils. Stamens 5 to 10, all perfect. Pod flat. 

Leaflets usually under 12 pairs. Gland stipitate below the lowest 

pair. Sepals rather obtuse. Anthers 5. — 4. C. concinna. 
Leaflets above 20 pairs. Sepals very acute. Anthers 6 to 10. — 10. 
C. mimosoides. 

1. C. Absus, Linn. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. C. australis, Sims {var. glaucescens, Benth). — Hooker's Creek, F. v. 
Mueller. 

3. G. Chatelainiana, Qaud. — 70 miles N. of Survey Camp IV., G. F. Hill 
(No. 393), 28/6/1911. S. Lat. 17' degrees. Long. 132 degrees, G. F. Hill 
(Nt). 455), 7/7/1911. 

4. C. concinna, Benth. — 70 miles N. of Survey Camp IV., G. F. Hill 
(No. 386a), 28/6/1911. 

20 miles S.W. of Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 574), 7/9/1911. 
Sandstone country, Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 604), 2/10/1911. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHEBN TERRITORY. 135 

Lower McArthur River, G. F. HiU (No. 677), 8/11/1911. 
Recorded. Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

5. C. desolata, F. v. M. — Near Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell ranges, G. F. 
Hill (No. 208), 26/5/1911. 

Recorded. Depuech Islknd, N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller ; Central Mount Stuart, M'Douall Stuart. 

6. C. eremophila, A. Cunn. — 7 miles N. of Charlotte Waters, G. F. Hill 
(No. 17), 23/2/1911. 

Henbury Station, Finke River, G. F. HiU (No. 43), 9/3/1911. 
Jay Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 43), 21/3/1911. 

Var. platypoda, Benih. — Charley Creek, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill 
(No. 174), 14/5/1911. 

7. C. glutinosa, D.C. — Attack Creek, M'DouaU Stuart's Expedition. 

8. C. laxiflora, Benih. — Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown. 

9. C. leptoclada, Benth. — Sandstone ranges near Western Creek, Borro- 
loola, G. F. HiU (No. 745), 15/2/1912. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

10. C. mimosoides, Linn. — Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

11. C. notabilis, F. v. M. — Between Bonney River and Mount Morphett, 
M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

12. C. oligoclada, F. v. M. — Cambridge GuU, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham ; Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

13. C. oligophylla, F. v. M. — Sandy Plains, Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. 

14. C. pruinosa, F. v. M. — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; rocky hiUs, Nichol 
Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

15. G. Sophera, Linn. — ^Haast's Bluff (3000 ft.), MacdormeU Ranges, 
G. F. HUl (No. 177), 16/5/1911. This plant is poisonous, according to 
Greshoff, but the poisonous principle is not known. 

16. C. Sturtii, E. 5r.— Henbury Station, Finke River, G. F. HiU (No. 36), 
7/3/1911. Near Haast's Bluff, MacdonneU Ranges, G. F. HiU (No. 205), 
26/5/1911. 

60 mUes N.E. of Camp II., G. F. HiU (No. 282), 7/6/1911. 
This plant is poisonous according to Greshoff, but the poisonous principle 
is not known. 

17. C. suffruticosa, Koen. — Islands of the N. Coast, R. Brown. 

18. C. venusta, F. v. i/.— Camp II., G. F. HUl (No. 240a), 3/6/1911. 
Camp III., Lander Creek, G. F. HiU, 10/6/1911. 

Eleven MUe Creek, near Katharine, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 
1911. 

On sandstone ranges. Western Creek, near Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 746), 
13/2/1912. 

Recorded. Cambridge Gulf and Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cunningham • 
granite hiUs, Nichol Bay, and Hammersley Range, F. Gregory's Expedition ; 
sandstone tableland, Arnhem's Land, F. v. MueUer ; Attack Creek, M'Douall 
Stuart's Expedition. 

C. magnifolia, F. v. M. ; C. pleurocarpa, F. v. M. ; C. artemisioides, Gavd.\ 
C. heptanthera, F. v. M. ; recorded in National Herbarium Census, from North 
Australia. 



136 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

12. PELTOPHORUM, Vog. 

(Caesalpinia, sect., Brasilettia, D.C.). 

1. P. ferrugineum, Benth. — N.A., Bynoe ; Islands of the N. Coast, R. 
Brown, Earl de Grey's Island, Armstrong. 

13. BRACHYSEMA, R. Br. 

{Leptosema, Benth; Kaleniezenkia, Turcz. ; Burgesia, F.v. M.). 

Stems winged, bearing the flowers at their notoh-Uke nodes. 

Flowers mostly clustered. Bracts imbricate. Pod not exceeding 

the calyx. — 1. B. bossiaeoides. 
Flowers sohtary. Bracts minute or none. Pod more than twice as 

long as the calyx. — 3. B. uniflorum. 
Flowers crowded on short radical scapes. Barren stems erect, 

dichotomous and leafless. — 2. B. Chambersii. 

1. B. bossiaeoides, Benth. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown ; Sims Island, A. Cun- 
ningham. 

2. B. Chambersii, F. v. M. — 40 miles W. of Lander Creek, Camp IV., 
G. F Hill (No. 365), 21/6/1911. 

Recorded. Between the rivers Fink and Stephenson, M'Douall Stuart. 

3. B. uniflorum, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 
B. oxyloboides, Benth. ; recorded from North Australia in National 

Herbarium Census. 

14. MIRBELIA, Sm. 

[Dichosema, Benth. ; Oxycladium, F. v. M.). 

1. M. oxydada, F. v. M. — On sandhills, 70 miles N. of Survey Camp III., 
G. F. Hill (No. 394), 25/6/1911. 

110 miles N. of Survey Camp IV., G. F. Hill (No. 408), 1/7/1911. 

Recorded. N.A., A. Cunningham ; sandstone tableland at the head of 
Victoria River, and in Amhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

15. ISOTROPIS, Benth. 

Calyx tomentose, 4 lines long. Racemes terminal, leafless. Leaves ovate 
or oblong, very obtuse. — 2. I. atropurpurea. 

Calyx pubescent, 2 Unes long. Pedicels short, axillary or leaf-opposed. 
Stem-leaves linear, fiat. — 3. I. parviflora. 

Calyx pubescent, about 3 Unes long. Racemes short, flowers few or 
solitary. Leaves narrow-linear, flat, closely induplicate, Subacute and recurved. 
— 1. I. argentea. 

1. /. argentea, Ewart and Morrison. — Flowers in axillary racemes, petals 
yellow, of about equal length, keel beaked, pod oblong, obtuse, seeds numerous, 
smooth. 

A slender, few-branched undershrub, 1| ft. high, the whole plant clothed 
with an indumentum of appressed shining hairs. Leaves unifoholate, articulate 
on a very short petiole, narrow linear, flat but closely induphcate, subacute and 
recurved at distal end, in length up to 5 cm. X 0.3 cm. broad, the stiff 
silvery hairs more dense on under surface. Stipules subulate and short. 

Racemes short, axillary or terminal, flowers few or solitary, peduncles 
6-8 mm., with a pair of narrow lanceolate bracts at articulation near or above 



THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 137 

middle, and similar but smaller bracteoles close to calyx, wMch is about 7 mm. 
long, two lipped, lobes at least twice as long as tube, lanceolate, the upper pair 
united higher up, forming a broad lip, the lower lobes curving over the prominent 
keel. Petals yellow, about as long as the calyx, standard on a very short, 
broad claw, ovate, obtuse, wings slightly shorter, oblong, membranous near 
base, keel as long as standard with a very slender claw, sharply incurved and 
broad and membranous below the straight beak. Pod sessile, densely pubes- 
cent with stiff erect hairs brown on young pod at first, but yellowish on mature 
pod, which is turgid, oblong, obtuse with a minute recurved blunt point, 2.1 
cm. long, X 0.6 cm. thick, the pedicel enlarged under it ; funicles short, seeds 
about 26 in pod, subreniform, astrophiolate, flattened and smooth. 

10 miles W. of Eva Downs, G. P. Hill (No. 524«), 19/8/1911. 

The obtuse pod of this plant, as well as the large beaked keel, distinguish 
it from the other species of Isotropis. In I. Wheeleri, F. v. M., the seeds are 
reniform, with a strongly marked network of raised lines on the surface, and the 
pubescence is of a different character, its racemes also are terminal, and its pod 
smaller and acute, while the leaves are tubular rather than terete and channelled 
as described by Bentham. I. Winneskii, P. v. M., has smaller seeds, sym- 
metrically reniform, and rugose over a broad band round the outer margin, the 
funicle remaining attached in the narrow sinus. 

2. /. atropurpurea,F.v. M. — Hammersley Range, P. Gregory's Expedi- 
tion ; Attack Creek, and between Mount Morphett and Bonney River, M'DouaU 
Stuart. 

3. /. parviflora, Benth. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

16. BURTONIA, R. Be. 

Plant glabrous. Racemes 1 to 3-flowered. — 2. B. subulata. 
Plant very hirsute. Racemes elongated, many- flowered. Leaflets very 
numerous, small, ovate. — 1. B. polyzyga. 

1. B. polyzyga, Benth. — Between Mount Morphett and Bonney River, 
M'DouaU Stuart. 

2. B. svbulata, Benth. — Regent's River, Brunswick Bay, N.W. Coast, A. 
Cunningham ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong ; Amhem's Land, P. v. Mueller. 

17. JACKSONIA, R. Be. 

[Piptomeris, Turcz.). 

Series I. Phyllodineoe. — Phyllodineous branchlets flat, rigidly coriaceous, 
toothed or lobed, often prickly. — 2. J. dilatata. 

Series II. Bamosissimoe. — Subphyllodineous branchlets crowded, linear, 
angular-striate, with projecting tooth-hke nodes. 

Plowers in dense terminal spikes. Calyx very hirsute. — 3. J. odontoclada. 
Plowers in short terminal racemes. Calyx sparingly silky-pubescent. — 
4. J. ramosissima. 

Series III. Scoparice. — Plowering branches virgate or rushlike without 
pungent branchlets. Barren stems or branches usually similar, although oc- 
casionally, in the lower part of the stem, much-branched flexuose or pungent. 
Calyx-tube half as long as the lobes or longer, turbinate, 10-nerved. 

Calyx 4 fines long, the tube half as long as the lobes. — 6. J. vernicosa. 
Calyx 2 fines long, the tube nearly as long as the lobes. — 5. J. 
thesioides. 
Calyx-tube very short, -without prominent nerves. — 1. J. anomala. 



138 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEERITOEY. 

1. J. anomala, Ewart and Morrison. — Upper lobes of calyx shorter than 
lower, connate to top, petals somewhat shorter than calyx, standard small, 
shorter than the other petals, pod subglobose with two seeds. Flowers small 
situated on base of dichotomous, striate, leafless stems, with broad scarious 
bracts and bracteoles. A small undershrub reaching 1 ft. in height, with numer- 
ous stems repeatedly forked from the base ; bran(5hes flattened angular, 
striate, not pungent, at first thinly pubescent, 1.5 mm. broad ; leaves repre- 
sented by small brown lanceolate scales at nodes. Mowers very shortly pedi- 
cellate on short dense nearly sessile racemes clustered on basal rounded por- 
tions of branches, each subtended by a suborbicular brown villous bract, with 
a pair of oblong ovate muoronate bracteoles at base of calyx, in both cases 
5 mm. in length, and persisting. Calyx densely silky villous, cleft to near base, 
lower lobes 9 mm. oblong-Unear and acuminate, connate to top and forming a 
broad ovate lip 7-8 mm. long, with a subulate bifid tip. Petals and pod firmly 
-clasped by calyx, standard broadly ovate, on a very short broad claw, about 
5 mm. in length, and fitting under the concave upper lip of the calyx, wings 
on a very slender claw, narrow oblong, of about the same length as keel, but 
with a transverse fold near top, keel nearly 8 mm. long, ovate lanceolate. Pod 
ovoid or subglobose, sessile, villous, 1 cm. long, including the straight and 
tapering acuminate beak, which is nearly as long as the pod itself, and exceeds 
the calyx ; seeds two, approximately reniform, smooth, brown, 2 mm. in 
length. 

Lat. 18 degrees, 27 min., S. Long. 132 degrees E., G. F. Hill (No. 499), 
6/7/1911. 

This plant shows affinities to some of the Brachysemas, particularly the 
xerophytic species of the section Leptosema, in the leafless condition, radical 
inflorescence, broad bracteoles (as in B. bracteolosum), connate upper calyx 
lobes, and small ovate standard ; but it differs in the small number of seeds in 
the pod, and in the size and colour of the flowers. Compared with Jacksonias, 
on the other hand, it agrees in having small flowers, with the upper calyx lobes 
shorter than the lower, petals yellow, nearly equal in length, and shorter than 
the calyx. The seeds in the pod are only two, which is the usual number in 
Jacksonia, and if we consider that the leafless condition is normal in that genus, 
while exceptional in Brachysema, there need be no hesitation in deciding its 
generic position. There is seen in this species a considerable resemblance to 
some of the smaller forms of the Scoparia section found in extra-tropical South- 
west Australia, and its mature calyx even shows the angular character noted 
in the buds of J. angulata and others. 

2. J. dilatata, Benth. — Near Darwia, G. F. Hill (2nd Series, No 92)t 
26/7/1913. 

Edith Creek and Bacon Swamp, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Sandstone Range, Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 600), 2/10/1911. 

Recorded. Melville Island, Eraser ; Victoria River, Bynoe ; Islands of 
the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Arnhem's 
Land, F. v. Mueller. 

3. J. odontoclada, F. v. M. — Hell Gate, Roper River, Gilruth and Spencer 
July- August, 1911. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller ; also M'Douall Stuart's 
Expedition, lat. 17 degrees 58 minutes. 

4. J. ramosissima, Benth. — 20 miles S.W. of Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No 
564), 7/9/1911. 

5. J. thesioides, A. Cunn. — Prince of Wales Tslands, etc., R. Brown ; 
Victoria River and Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller. 



THE rLOEA OF THE NOETHEBN TERRITOEY. 139' 

6. J. vernicosa, F. v. M. — Gulf of Carpentaria, F. V. Mueller. 

J. Forrestii, F. v. M. ; J. compressa, Turcz. ; recorded from North- 
Australia in National Herbarium Census. 

18. DAVIESIA, Sm. 

1. D. reclinata, A. Cann. — Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown ; Sims Island, A. 
Cunningham. 

19. GASTROLOBIUM, R. Br. 

1. G. grandiflorum, F. v. M. — 70 miles N. of Camp IV', on Lander Creek^ 
G. F. Hill (No. 382), 29/6/1911. 

Recorded. Whittington Range, M'Douall Stuart ; Purdie's Pond, 
Waterhouse. This is poisonous, accprding to Greshofif, and acts as an inebriant. 
The poisonous principle is not known with certainty, but may be a readily 
decomposing alkaloid. 

Wallflower Poison-bush, Pea- flower Poison-bush, the Australian Poison 
bush ; a m^ost dangerous plant to stock. 

20. BOSSIAEA, Vent. 

1. B. phylloclada, F. v. M. — Sandstone country, near Tanumbirini, G. F. 
HiU (No. 804), 26/3/1912. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Fitzmaurice 
River, a chief component of the scrub between Van Alphen and Nicholson 
Rivers, F. v. MueUer. 

21. TEMPLETONIA, R. Be. 

Stems leafy. Stipules minute or inconspicuous. — 2. T. Hookeri. 
Stems leafless. Stipules minute, inconspicuous. Flowers small. — 1. T 
egena. 

1. T. egena, Benth. — Hooker and Sturt's Creeks, F. v. Mueller. 

2. T. Hookeri, Benth (Nematophyllum Hookeri, F. v. M.): — S. of Ne^. 
castle Waters, G. F. HiU (No. 481), 12/7/1911. 

Track to Maude Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 
Recorded. N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, F. v. Mueller. 

22. HOVEA, R. Be. 

(Poiretia, Sm. ; Plagiolobium, Sweet ; Platychilum, Delaun.). 

1. H. longifolia, B. Br. — Port Essington, A. Cunningham (specimens 
imperfect). 

23. ROTHIA, Pees. 

(Westonia, Spreng. ; Xerocarpus, Ghiillem. and Pers.). 

1. R. trifoliata, Pers. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

24. CROTALARIA, LmN. 

Rattlepods or Pop-pods. All yield good fibre. Species of this genus 
have been, both here and elsewhere, considered injurious to stock. 



140 THE FLOKA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

Series I. Simplicifolice. — Leaves simple, continuous with the short 
petiole, the Australian species all herbs or undershrabs. 
. Ovary and pod pubescent or villous. 

Leaves ovate. Stipules leafy, semilunar or falcate. Flowers blue. — 

12. C. verrucosa. 
Leaves oblong, linear, or rarely ovate. Stipules setaceous or none. 
Flowers yellow. 

Ovules 2. Pod usually 1-seeded, not exceeding the calyx. 

Flowers small. — 3. C. crispata. 
Ovules numerous. Pod many-seeded, above 1 in. long. 

Flowers rather large. — 6. C. juncea. 

Ovary and pod quite glabrous. 

Upper leaves usually linear. Petals and pod not exceeding the calyx. 
Calyx 3 to 4 hnes long, silky -pubescent or shortly villous, the two 

upper lobes united. — 7. C. linifolia. 
Calyx 1 in. long, densely hirsute with long spreading hairs, the 
upper lobes free. — 1. C. calycina. 

Upper leaves broad, oblong-cuneate or rarely almost linear. Petals 
and pod much longer than the calyx. 

Leaves oblong-cuneate. Flowers large in loose racemes. Calyx 
4 to 6 lines; pod 1| in. long. — 10. C. retusa. 

Leaves oval-elliptical or oval-lanceolate. Flowers numerous in 
dense racemes. Calyx not above 3 lines, pod. under f in. 
long.— 8. C. Mitchelli. 

Section II. UnifoliolatcB. — Leaves simple, the petiole articulate or geni- 
culate above the middle. Stem shrubby. 

Flowers under f-in. long. ; standard obtuse. 

Leaves pubescent or villous, at least underneath. Stipules none or 

not decurrent. — 9. C. Novse-Hollandise. 
Whole plant quite glabrous. Stipules decurrent. — 2. C. crassipes. 

Flowers 1^ in. long or more ; standard acute or acuminate. — 4. C. 
Cunninghamii. ' 

Series III. Digitatce. — ^Leaves all or mostly compound, with 3 rarely 5 
digitate leaflets. Herbs or shrubs. 

Ovules 2. Pod small, as broad as long. Herb with small flowers. — 11. 
C. trifoUastrum. 

Ovules many. Pod oblong, much longer than the calyx. — 5. C. dis- 
siti flora. 

1. C. calycina, Schrank. — Arnhem S. Bay, R. Brown ; S. Goulburn 
Island, A. Cunningham. 

2. G. crassipes, Hook. — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

3. C. crispata, F. v. M. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Victoria, Fitzmaurice and Baines Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

4. G. Gunninghamii, R. Br. — 70 miles N. of Camp IV., G. F. Hill (No. 
386), 28/6/1911. Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 663), 7/11/1911. 

Recorded. Common on the sandy shores of the N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; 
from Cygnet Bay, A. Cunningham to Victoria River and the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
F. V. Mueller, Leichhardt ; Sandy Ranges of the Hammersley Range, F. 



THE FLOKA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 141 

Gregory's Expedition ; Nichol Bay and De Grey River, Ridley's Erpedition ; 
Mount Humphries, M'Douall Stuart. 

5. C. disaitiflora, Benth. — Glabrous form. Hermansburg, Finke River, 
G. F. HiU (No. 54), 11/3/1911. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, Landsborough. 

6. C. juncea, Linn. — Upper Victoria River, Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, 
F. V. Mueller. Sun Hemp of commerce. 

7. C. Unifolia, Linn.— Borroloola., G. F. HiU (No. 615), 9/10/1911. 
Lower MacArthur River, G. F. HiU (No. 676), 8/11/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; N.W. Coast, 
Bynoe ; Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River and Macadam 
Range, F. v. M. 

C. Unifolia, Linn.—Okey Creek, G. F. HiU (No. 761), 16/2/1912 
{elongated variety). 

8. G. Mitchelli, Benth. — ^WiU's Creek, Howitt's Expedition. 

Var. tomentosa, Ewart. — 12 miles N.W. of Camp III. (long. 132| degrees, 
lat. 21 fS.), G. F. HiU (No. 326), 12/6/1911. 

This plant is poisonous according to Greshoff and Maiden, but the poison- 
ous principle is unknown. 

9. C. NovcE- HollandicB, D.C. — ^N.W. Coast, Bjnioe ; Nichol Bay, 

F. Gregory's Expedition ; Upper Victoria River and AUigator Point, F. v. 
MueUer ; Gulf of Carpentaria, Henne, Landsborough ; near Mount Humphries, 
M'DouaU Stuart. 

10. G. retusa, Linn. — Edith Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 
1911. Lower McArthur River, G. F. HiU (No. 681), 8/11/1911. 

Recorded. Sandy rocky situations on Victoria River, and Sea Range, 
Amhem's Land, F. v. MueUer ; Albert River, Henne. 

11. G. trifoliastrum, Willd. (C. medicaginea, F. v. M. — Haast's Bluff 
(4000 ft.), MacdonneU Ranges, G. F HUl (No 191), 18/5/1911. Lat. 19 
degrees S., long. 132 degrees, G. F. HiU (No. 434), 4/7/1911. Form with 
leaflets 2 mm. broad. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; Islands of 
the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

12. G. verrucosa, Linn. — ^Victoria River, and stony hiUs and grassy 
banks on the Wickham River, F. v. MueUer. 

G. humifitsa, Grah. ; G. incana, L. ; G. striata, D. G. ; G. quinquefolia, L. ; 

G. alata. Ham ; recorded from North AustraUa in National Herbarium Census. 



25. LOTUS, Linn. 

1. L. amtralis, Andr. — Camp III., Lander Creek, G. F. HiU (No. 316), 
10/6/1911. 

Recorded. E. tributaries of Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; Nichol Bay 
and De Grey River, Ridley's Expedition. 

Classed as a poison plant by Greshoff, Smith and Maiden, but no poisonous 
principle has been extracted, and the evidence as to its poisonous properties is 
not satisfactory. 



142 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY 

26. INDIGOFERA, Linn. 

{Sphaeridiophorum, Desv.) 

Calyx-lobes very much longer than the very short tube. Herbs or 
undershxubs (except I. rugosa). 

Leaves simple, nearly sessile. 

Leaves hnear or narrow-oblong. 

Flowers in short sessile spikes. Pod globular, 1 -seeded. — 7. 

I. linifolia. 
Flowers in long pedunculate racemes. Pod linear, several- 
seeded. — 5. I. haplophylla. 
Leaves cordate-ovate. Pod short usually 2-seeded. — 3. I. 
cordifolia. 
Leaflets single, ovate, rugose, very white, on a petiole of 3 to 4 

lines. — 10. I. rugosa. 
Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate. Flowers scarcely 2 lines long, in very 

short sessile spikes. — 12. I. trita. 
Leaves pinnate with several pairs of leaflets. 

Pod short. Ovules and seeds 2. Spikes short dense and sessile. 

— 4. I. enneaphylla. 
Pod Unear. Ovules and seeds several. 
Calyx much shorter than the petals. 

Flowers rather crowded in sessile racemes. Pod 1 to 
1| in. long, with an incurved point. — 9. I. parvi- 
fiora. 
Flowers very small, distant, in slender racemes. Pod 
I to |-in. long, straight, very slender, often viscid. — 
13. I. viscosa. 
Calyx-lobes about as long as the petals. Racemes loose. 
Plant hirsute with spreading hairs. — 6. I. hirsuta. 
Calyx-teeth all very short, the lower ones rarely rather longer than the 
tube. Shrubs. 

Leaflet 1, articulate on the petiole. 

Leaflet broadly obovate, with parallel prominent pinnate veins. 

— 8. I. monophylla. 
Leaflet ovate or oval-oblong, reticulate and very rugose. — 10. I. 
rugosa. 
Leaflets usually 5, obovate or orbicular. 

Calyx-teeth shorter than the tube. — 11 . I. saxicola. 
Calyx-teeth longer than the tube. — 1. I. boviperda. 
Leaflets 9 or more. 2. I. brevidens. 

1. I. boviperda Morrison. (Joum. of Botany, L. 166, May, 1912). — Lander 
Creek, about 21 degrees S. lat., and 132 degrees E. long., G. F. Hill (No 374) 
25/6/11. 

Recorded. Ashburton River, N.W. Austraha, Stuart Carey, 1883. 

The plant poisoned 120 cattle in one night at the Ashburton River in 1905, 
and some settlers recognised it as a reputed poison plant seen by them also in 
the Kimberley District, further North. The area of its distribution is, there- 
fore, very extensive. 

2. I. brevidens, Benth.—T^.K., G. F. Hill, 1911 ; M'Douall Range and up 
±0 lat. 20 degrees 20 minutes, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

3. I. cordifolia, Heyne. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 143 

4. I. enneaphylla, Linn. — 60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (Nos. 
285 and 287), 7/6/1911. 

Recorded. Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition ; Depuech Island, 
Bynoe ; stony, chiefly basaltic, plains and hills, Upper Victoria River, F. v. M. 

5. /. haplophylla, F. v. M. — Sandstone Ranges, near Western Creek, G. F. 
Hill (No. 772), 16/2/1912. 

Recorded. Rocky springs ai)d torrents on the Upper Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

6. I. hirsuta, Linn. — N. Coast, R. Brown ; Victoria River and Amhem's 
Land, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Islands off the Coast, A. 
Gunningham, Henne. " 

7. /. linifolia, Retz. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 83), 
13/3/1911. 

Recorded. N. Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Sweers Island, Heime. 

8. /. monophylla, B.C. — Baudin's Expedition; Depuech Island, N.W. 
Coast, Bynoe ; Nichol Bay and Fortescue River, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

9. /. parviflora, Heyne. — Nichol Bay and de Grey River, Ridley's Ex- 
pedition ; stony hills and gravelly banks, Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, 
F. V. Mueller. 

10. I. rugosa, Benth. — Bed of the Fortescue River, N.W. Coast, F. Gre- 
gory's Expedition. 

11. I. saxicola, F. v. M. — Port Essington, A. Cunningham; grassy 
stony plains. Sea Range, F. v. Mueller. 

12. I. trita, Linn.,f. — Gravelly Plains, Upper Victoria River, F. v. MueUer; 
Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; and adjoining mainland, 
Landsborough. 

13. I. viscosa, Lam. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Brinkley's Bluff, 
M'Douall Stuart ; Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Port Essing- 
ton, Armstrong. 

I. trifoliata, L. ; /. Schultziana, F. v. M. (in National Herbarium Census), 
and /. polygaloides Scott. ; (in Kew Bull, 1915), recorded from North Austraha. 

27. PSORALEA, Linn. 
(Meladenia, Turn.) 
In other parts of the globe some species of this genus are considered 
poisonous to cattle. 

Series I. Keel not shorter than the wings. — 11. P. Schultzii. 
Series II. Keel shorter than the wings. 
Leaves all 1-foliolate. Leaflets entire or toothed. 
Calyx lower lobe much longer than the others. 

Plant softly pubescent or silky- villous. Leaflets entire. — 2. 

P. badocana. 
Plant hispid. Leaflets toothed. 1. P. Archeri. 
Calyx-lobes nearly equal in length. Plant very dark and rough, 
with glandular dots. 

Plant pubescent or villous. Flowers in nearly globular short 

racemes. — 3. P. balsamica. 
Plant glabrous or shghtly hoary. Flowers small, in loose elongated 

racemes. — 6. P. leucantha. 



144 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Leaves all pinnately 3-foliolate, or the lower ones rarely l-foUolate. 

Calyx lower lobe much longer than the lateral ones. Leaflets entire. 
Flowers in dense heads. Calyx very hispid, the lower lobe long- 
lanceolate. Petals shorter than the calyx. — 9. P. plumosa. 
Flowers in interrupted spikes. Petals longer than the calyx. 
Calyx pubescent.— 10. P. pustulata. 

Calyx densely clothed with soft white woolly hairs. — 5. P. 
lachnostachys. 
Calyx lower lobe scarcely exceeding the upper ones. Leaflets usually 
toothed. 

Calyx softly silky -villous or black, 2 to 4 hues long, completely 

concealing the pod. — 8. P. patens. 
Calyx hoary -tomentose or shghtly pubescent, 1 to 1| lines long, 

open when in fruit, and scarcely exceediag or shorter than 

the pod. 

Leaflets ovate or elhptical, mostly f to 1 in. long. — 4. P 

cinerea. 
Leaflets oblong or lanceolate, 1| to 3 in. long. — 6. P. 

leucantha. 
Leaves digitately 3-foholate. Leaflets entirei. — 7. P. luteosa. 

1. P. Archeri, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. P- badocana, Benth. — Maude Creek, and Eleven-Mile Creek, near 
Katherine, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; N. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

3. P. balsamica, F. v. M. — Van Alphen River, F. v. Mueller ; Attack 
Creek, M'Douall Stuart. 

, 4. P. cinerea, Lindl.— Lake Woods, G. F. Hill (No. 486), 2/8/1911. 
Victoria River, Bynoe ; F. v. Mueller ; Gulf of Carpentaria, Landsborough. 

5. P. lachnostachys, F. v. M. — Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

6. P. leucantha, F. v. M. — Survey Route, lat. 19 degrees, 16 min. S., 
G. P. Hill (No. 429), 4/7/1911. 

Recorded. Hammersley Range, Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition ; 
gravelly Banks of the Victoria River, P. v. Mueller, Bynoe ; Attack Creek, 
M'Douall Stuart ; Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller ; Gulf of Carpentaria, Lands- 
borough. 

7. P. luteosa, Ewart and Morrison. — N.T., N. of lat. 15 degrees S., W. S. 
Campbell, September 1911. 

8. P. patens, Lindl. — Abraham's Lagoon, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Attack Creek, M'Douall 
Stuart's Expedition. 

9. P. plumosa, F. v. M. — Hooker's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

10. P. pustulata, F. v. ilf.— Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 474), 
17/7/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, and sources of Nicholson River, Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, F. V. Mueller ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

11. P. Schultzii, F.v. Jf.— Batchelor Farm, G. F. Hill (2nd Series, No. 83), 
17/7/1913 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEERITOEY. 145 

28. PTYCHOSEMA, Benth. 

1. P. trifoliatum, F. v. ilf.— Lander Creek, Camp III., G. F. Hill (No. 306), 
10/6/1911. 

29. TEPHROSIA, Pees. 

Leaflets obovate, oval, elliptical or oblong, the primary veins anastomosing 
or reticulate within the margin J 

Leaves trifoliolate on petioles of 2 cm. or less. Flowers in short 

racemes. — 17. T. pubescens. 
Leaflets soUtary or rarely 3, coriaceous. Flowers in small axillary 

clusters. Pod softly tomentose. — 3. T. coriacea. 
Leaflets soUtary or rarely 3. Flowers sessile in dense head-like 

clusters axillary. — 2i. T. uniovulata. 
Leaflets mostly 5 to 11, rarely under 1 in. long. Racemes elongated. 
Plant softly tomentose or silky. Flowers numerous. Calyx 
4 to 5 Unas long, softly viUous, lobes longer than the tube. 
— 7. T. flammea. 
Plant nearly g abrous. Flowers few. Calyx scarcely 2 lines 
long, the teeth very short. 20. T. reticulata. 
Leaflets numerous, above |-in. long, glabrous above, silky-pubescent 
or villous underneath. Racemes long. 

Leaflets ^ to 1 in. long, very silky underneath, the veins reticulate. 

Stipules persistent. Bracts smaU. — 4. T. crocea. 
Leaflets 1 to 2 in. long, silky-pubescent underneath, the primary 

veins parallel but anastomosing within the margin. Stipules 

very deciduous. Bracts hnear-subulate, long. — 12. T. 

oblongata. 
Leaflets numerous, not ^-in. long. Racemes long. 

Plant closely pubescent or viUous. Stipules striate, re flexed. 

Leaflets 11 to 19. — 16. T. porrecta. 
Plant closely sUky -pubescent. Stipules minute, erect. Leaflets 

30 to 40 or more. — 15. T. polj'zyga. 

Leaves all or mostly simple or 1-foliolate. Leaflets long and linear or 
cuneate-oblong, the veins mostly reaching the margin or irregular. 

Leaves sessile, long, linear-lanceolate, the veins anastomosing. 

Flowers small. — 8. T. graminifolia. 
Leaflets shortly petiolate, long, narrow-Hnear, without stipeUse. 

Flowers middle-sized. — 22. T. simplicifoha. 
Leaflets long and narrow-linear, either solitary with 2 stipeUae or 3 

with the middle one sessile or rarely another pair lower down. 

Flowers very small. — 10. T. leptoclada. 
Leaflets cuneate-oblong, 1 or rarely 3 to 5. Flowers large. — 13. 

T. oligophylla. 

Leaves pinnate. Primary veins of the leaflets oblique, numerous, and 
parallel. 

Flowers nearly sessile, mostly axiUary. Pod straight, densely and 
softly viUous. Plant softly tomentose or villous. 
Flowers not above 2 lines long. Ovide 1. Pod ovate. — 2. T. 

brachycarpa. 
Flowers about 3 hnes. Ovules 2 or rarely 3. Pod | to f-in. 

long.— 23. T. Stuartii. 
Flowers about 4 lines. Pod 1 to 1^ in. long. 5. T. eriocarpa. 



146 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Flowers in short dense terminal racemes. Leaflets narrow, silvery-' 

silky underneath. — 14. T. ph^osperma. 
Mowers in long or slender racemes. 

Leaflets, small, numerous, with a long terminal one. Flowers 

small. Pod long. — 9. T. juncea. 
Leaflets few, or, if many, the terminal one not longer than the 
others. 
Pod about 1 in. long, nearly straight. Seeds orbicular. 

Leaflets 7 to 15. Flowers rarely 3 hnes long. Pod 

obliquely acute, thin. 
Racemes filiform, not 2 in . long, with few distant pairs 

of flowers. 6. T. filipes. 
Racemes long and slender. 19. T. remotiflora. 
Leaflets soUtary or rarely 3 or 5. Flowers about 6 Hnes 
long. Pod coriaceous, almost obtuse. — 13. T. 
oligophylla. 
Pod above 1 in. long, more or less incurved. Seeds trans- 
versely oblong. Racemes usually long. 
Leaflets few, cuneate, glabrous, on long petioles. 
Calyx large, nearly glabrous ; lobes lanceolate. 
Standard very silky. — 11. T. macrocarpa. 
Leaflets usually above 7. Calyx small, on a slender 
pedicel ; teeth subulate or very short. Pod 
glabrous pubescent or loosely villous. — 18. T. 
purpurea. 
Leaflets usually few, long, and narrow. Calyx large, 
densely rusty- villous ; lobes longer than the tube, 
incurved, acuminate. Pedicels short. Pod softly 
and closely pubescent. — 1. T. BidwilU. 
Leaflets usually few ; cuneate, silky on both sides. 
Calyx small, softly silky. Pedicels short. Pod 
much curved, scarcely flattened, densely silky- 
tomentose. — 21. T. rosea. 

1. T. BidwilU, Benth {var. densa, Benth). — Hills near Nichol Bay, F. 
Gregory's Expedition. 

2. T. brachycarpa, F. v. M. — Desert near Hooker's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

3. T. coriacea, Benth. — Upper Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. 
Mueller. 

4. T. crocea, Benth. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

5. T. eriocarpa, Benth. — Deserts of Sturt's Creek and Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller. 

6. T. filipes, Benth.— Haast's Bluff (4,000 ft.), G. F. Hill (No. 188), 
17/5/1911 . Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne. 

7. T. flammea, F. v. M. — North Island, Gulf of Carpentaria; (Sandstone 
Ranges), G. F. Hill (No. 633), 20/10/1911. Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 657), 
7/11/1911. Sandstone Ranges, near Western Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 777), 
16/2/1912. 

Recorded. York Sound, A. Cunningham ; Upper Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

8. T. graminifolia, F. v. M. — Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller. 

9. T. juncea, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 147 

10. T. leptoclada, Benth. — Upper Victoria River, P. v. Mueller. 

11. T. inacrocrapa, Benth. — N.W. Coast (Victoria River) BjTioe ; 
Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

12. T. oblongata, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

13. T. oligochylia, Benth. — Cape York, M'Gillivray ; Albany Island, 
F. v. Mueller. 

14. T. phaeosperma, F. v. M. — North Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, G. F. 
Hill (No 624), 20/10/1911. 

Recorded. N. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

15. T. polyzyga, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands 
of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

16. T. porrecta, R. Br. — Islands of the GuH of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong. 

17. T. pubescens, Ewart and Morrison. — Top Spring, G. P. Hill (No. 555), 
31/9/1911. 

18. T. purpurea, Pers. — Sandstone Ridges, North Island, Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, G. P. Hill (No. 630), 20/10/1911 ; Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 661), 
7/11/1911 ; N.T., G. P. Hill (No. 745a), 8/7/1911. 

Recorded. Hills near Nichol Bay, P. Gregory's Expedition ; Port Cooper, 
Herb. P. v. M. ; Amhem S. Bay, R. Bro^vn. 

This plant is well known as a fish poison, and if eaten might also be poison- 
ous to stock. 

19. T. remotiflora, F. v. M. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown ; Pitzmaurice and 
Upper Victoria Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Albert River, Henne. 

20. T. reticulata, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Sim's Island, A. Cunningham ; Endeavour River, Banks and Solander. 

21. T. rosea, F. v. M. — Montague Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Victoria River and Depot Creek, P. v. Mueller. 

22. T. simplicifolia, F. v. M. — Trap plains. Roper River, P. v. Mueller. 

23. T. Stuartii, Benth. — ^In lat. 18 degrees, 35 min., M'Douall Stuart ; 
Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

24. T. uniovulata, F. v. M.—28 miles S.W. of Newcastle Waters, G. P. 
Hill (No. 499), 8/7/1911. 

Ashburton and Carre Rivers. 

T. lamphrolobioides, F. v. M. ; T. Forrestiana, F. v. M. ; T. nematophylla, 
F. V. M. ; T. conferta, F. v. M. ; T. sphaerospora, F. v. M. ; recorded from 
North Australia in National Herbarium Census. 

30. SESBANIA, Pers. 
( Agati, Desv.) 

Flowers very large (nearly 3 in. long), the petals narrowed at the end. — 
3. S. grandiflora. 

Flowers not 1 in. long. Petals broad. 

Racemes pendulous. Stem shrubby. — 2. S. segyptiaca. 
Racemes erect. Stem herbaceous. 

Bracts and bracteoles very deciduous. Calyx-teeth very short. 

— 1. S. aculeata. 
Bracts and bracteoles setaceous, often persistent. Calyx-teBth 
subulate-pointed, nearly as long as the tube. — 4. S. simpli- 
ciuscula. 



148 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHERN TERRITORY. 

1 . S. aculeata, Pers. — Crescent lagoon, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 
1911. McArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 672), 8/11/1911. Hodson Downs, G. 

F. Hill (No. 827), 5/4/1912. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; GuK of Carpentaria , Lands- 
borough ; also M'Kinlay's Expedition. 

Pea-bush ; yields a rope fibre worth £30 to £40 per ton (Mueller). 

2. S. aegyptiaca, Pers. — Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

3. S. grandiflora, Pern.— North of 15 degrees, W. S. Campbell, 5/9/1911. 
Recorded. Near Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition and Ridley's 

Expedition ; Glenelg River, N.W. Coast, Claekson ; Fitzmaurice River, 
Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

4. 8. simpliciuscula, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

8. brachycarpa, F. v. M. ; recorded from North AustraUa ia National 
Herbarium Census. 

31. CLIANTHUS, Soland. 
(Donia, G, Don.) 

C, Dainpieri, A. Cunn. {D. speciosa, 0. Don.) — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; 
Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cunningham ; near Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. 

32. SWAINSONA, Saiisb. 

(Gyclogyna, Benth. ; Diplolobium, F. v. M.) 

Keel incurved, but neither twisted or oblique. Style slender. Ovary 
silky- villous. 

Leaflets usually more than 9. Calyx-lobes lanceolate. — 4. S; 

phacoides. 
Leaflets usually under 9 (except S. Burkei). Calyx-lobes subulate or 
very short. Plants usually low or procumbent. 

Plants softly villous. Leaves obovate. Racemes dense, ovoid 

before expanding. — 1. S. Burkei. 
Plant glabrous or slightly hoary. Leaflets lanceolate or linear, 
acute. Flowers few, in short racemes. — 3. S. oroboides. 
Keel obUque or laterally twisted. Style firm, readily twisting. Ovary 
glabrous or nearly so. — 2. S. ocoidentahs. 

1. 8. Burkei, F. v. ilf.— 38 miles N.W. of Camp IV., Lander Creek, 

G. F. Hill (No. 378), 24/6/1911. 

Recorded. Burke's Creek, Newcastle Water, etc., M'Douall Stuart. 

2. 8. occidentalis, F. v. M. — ^N.W. Coast, Depuech Island, Bynoe ; fre- 
quent in sterile places about Nichol Bay, F. Gtregory's and Ridley's Expedition. 

3. 8. oroboides, F. v. if .—60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (Nos. 284 
and 286a), 7/6/1911. 

4. 8. phacoides, Benth {var. grandiflora, Benth). — ^Nichol Bay and De Grey 
River, Ridley's Expedition. 

Swainsona, sp.— -10 miles W. of Eva Downs, G. F. Hill (No. 521), 19/8/1911. 

8. oligophylla, F. v. M. ; 8. stenodonta, F. v. M. ; 8. oroboides, F. v. M. ; 
8. Kingia, F. v. Id. ; 8. microphylla, A. Gray ; 8. Macullochiana, F. v. M. ; 
(in National Herbarium Census), and S. cylocarpa, F. v. M. ; (in Vict. Nat. 
VIII., 1891), recorded from North Australia. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 149 

33. iESCHYNOMENE, Linn. 

1. JE. indica, Linn. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; in the 
interior, M'Douall Stuart ; also in R. Brown's collection without any label. 

2E. aspera, L. ; in Spec. Plant (1753), recorded from North Australia. 



34. ZORNIA, Gmel. 

1 . Z. diphylla, Pers.— Black Rocks, McArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 644), 
22/10/1911. 

Sandstone Range, Top Spring, Kilgour River, G. F. Hill (No. 553), 1/9/11. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria, R. Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Sweers Island and Albert 
River, Henne. 

Z. chaetophora F. v. M. ; recorded from North Austraha in National 
Herbarium Census. 

35. DESMODIUM, Desv. 
(Dendrolobium, W. and Am. ; Dicerma. D.C. ; Nicholsonia, B.C.) 

Wings usually free from the keel. Pod glabrous or silky-hairy. 

Flowers small, in dense umbels or heads along the" branches of a leafy 
panicle, each umbel almost enclosed in a 2-foliolate leaf. Pod-articles 2, 
nearly orbicular (Sect. PhyUodium). — 8. D. pulcheUum. 

Flowers in leafless racemes. Pedicels short crowded. Pod-articles 2, 
nearly orbicular. Leaflets digitate or nearly so. (Sect. Dicerma.). — 1. D. 
biartioulatum. 

Wings adhering to slight lateral protuberances or membranous appendages 
of the keel. 

Flowers in racemes or panicles. Ovules several, rarely 2 onlj. Pod of 
several articles (or single by abortion) indehiscent, the upper suture straight 
or slightly indented between the seeds. (Heteroloma) . 

Bracts narrow, persisting at least till the flower expands. Pedicels 
usually in pairs. 

Leaves all 1-foholate. Pod-articles small, nearly glabrous.— 

4. D. gangeticum. 
Leaves all (except sometimes the lowest) 3-foliolate. 

Pod-articles flat, prehensile pubescent. Stems slender, 
diffuse. Fruiting-pedicels slender, spreading, much 
longer than the calyx. Plant sHghtly pubescent. — 
3. D. flagellare. 
Pod-articles somewhat turgid, slightly pubescent. Stem 
trailing. Leaflets lanceolate, 2 to 3 in. long. — 
2. D. campylocaulon. 
Bracts broad membranous, falling off long before the flower ex- 
pands (Strobihferse). 

Pod-articles thin, strongly reticulate. 

Leaflets narrow-oblong or linear. — 6. D. neurocarpum. 

Leaflets broadly obcordate. — 9. D. triohostachjnim. 
Pod-articles scarcely separating, very finely veined, the upper 

suture thickened (see below, Sect. Nicholsonia). 
P 2 



150 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Flowers in terminal racemes or panicles. Bracts of the Strobiliferse. 
Ovules several. Pod very flat, the upper suture straight, the lower slightly 
indented and opening more or less in 2 valves. (Sect. Mcholsonia). 

Stem loosely diffuse. Leaves not crowded, leaflets oblong. Hairs 

long and spreading. — 5. D. Muelleri. 
Stems procumbent, pubescent. Leaves crowded ; leaflets small, 
" racemes fiUform, few- flowered. — 7. D. parvifolium. 

1 . D. biarticulatum, F. v. M. — Brunswick Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham ; Albert and Nicholson Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the GuK of 
Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne. 

2. D. campylocaulon, F. v. M. — ^Fertile plains, Sturt's Creek, F. v. 
Mueller. 

3. D.flagellare, Benth. — Beagle Valley, F. v. Mueller. 

4. D. gangeticum, D. C. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

5. D. Muelleri, Benth.— Ne&T Western Creek, G. F. Hill (No. ,755), 
15/2/1912. Western Creek, G. F. HiU (No. 757), 15/2/1912. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

A specimen collected by R. Rudd, 14/4/11, at Muntz's Survey Camp, 
Adelaide R., N.T., has the fruits more deeply indented than usual, and has 
indentations on the upper as well as on the lower edge. Bentham gives the 
upper suture as being straight or slightly thickened, but on some specimens of 
D. Muelleri both straight and slightly indented upper sutures occur. 

6. D. neurocarpum, Benth. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

7. D. parvifolium, D.C. — Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown. 

8. D. pulchellum, Benth. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown. 

9. D. trichostachyum, Benth. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

D. polycarpum, D.C. ; D. reniforme, D.C. ; recorded from North Aus- 
tralia in National Herbarium Census. 

36. PYCNOSPORA, R. Br. 

1. P- hedysaroides, R. Br. — GuH of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Copeland 
Island, Arnhem's Land, A. Cunningham ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

37. ALYSICARPUS, Neok. 
(Fabricia, Scop.) 

Calyx with narrow-lanceolate striate lobes, not overlapping. Pod about 
twice as long, scarcely contracted between the seeds, the articles sUghtly and 
irregularly wrinkled. — 1. A. longifolius. 

Calyx with lanceolate, rigid, not striate lobes overlapping each other. Pod 
shortly exserted, much contracted between the seeds, articles deeply marked 
with transverse wrinkles. — 2. A. rugosus. 

. I. A. longifolius, W. and Am. — Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown; Port 
Darwin.W. Holtze(No. 1344), 1892; near Pine Creek, J. H. Niemann, April, 
1904. 

2 A. rugosus, D.C— 10 miles W. Eva Downs, G. P. Hill (No. 522), 
9/8/1911. Okey Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 761,) 16/2/12. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River, and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

A. vaginalis, D. C. ; recorded from North Australia in National Herbarium 
Census. 



THE FIXDRA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 151 

38. XJRAEIA, Desv. 

1. V. cylindracea, Benth. — ^Five Mile Bar, McArthur River, G. F. Hill 
(No. 734), 6/2/1912. 

Recorded. Islands of the N. Coast, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

U. lagopoides, D.C. ; recorded from North AustraHa in National Her- 
barium Census. 

39. LOUREA, Neck. 
1 . L. obcordata, Desv. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. MueUer. 

40. GALEDUPA, Lam. 

(Pongamia, Vent.) 

1. G. pinnata, L. (Pongamia glabra, Vent.). — Fitzmaurice River, F. v. 
Mueller ; Raffles Bay, A. Cunningham. 

OU of seed is a cure for skin diseases. All parts of plant emetic. 

41. DERRIS, Lour. 

(Brachyjpterum, W. and Am.) 

1. D. uliginosa, Benth. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Albert River, Henne ; Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

42. ABRUS, LrNN. 

1. A. precatorius, Linn. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
Henne. 

Seeds (Crab's-eyes) considered poisonous. Used as jeweller's weights in 
India. 

43. CLITORIA, Linn. 
(Neurocarpum, Desv.) 

1. C. aii-stralis, Benth. — Amhem S. Bay, R. Brown. 

44. GLYCINE, Linn. 
(Leptolobium or Leptocyamus, Benth.) 

Terminal leaflet sessile between the two others or the three very shortly 
and equally petiolate. — 1. G. falcata. 

Terminal leaflet inserted at some distance from the lateral ones. — 2. G. 
tomentosa. 

1. G. falcata, Benth. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

2. G. tomentosa, Benth. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Amhem 
X. Bay, R. Brown. 

G. sericea, Benth., and G. japonica, L. (in National Herbarium Census), 
recorded from North Australia. 

45. ERYTHRINA, Linn. 

Leaves broadly 2 or 3-lobed. Calyx about |-in. long. Standard scarcely 
clawed. — 2. E. vespertiHo. 

Leaves entire. Calyx about |-in. long. Standard narrowed into a short 
claw. — 1. E. indica. 



152 THE FLORA or THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

1. E. indica, Lam. — Islands of the N. Coast, R. Brown." Coral-tree. 

2. E. vespertilio, Benth. — ^About 30 miles N.W. of Twitchera Gap 
MacdonneU Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 165), 10/5/1911. Borroloola, G. F. Hill 
(No. 665a), 8/11/1911. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller ; frequent towards Central Australia, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

46. MUCUNA, Adans. 
1. M. gigantea, D.G. — Islands of the N. Coast, R. Brown. Black Bean. 

47. GALACTIA, R. Br. 

Glabrous or pubescent with spreading hairs. Flowers few in the raceme, 
under J-in. long. — 2. G. tenuiflora. 

Silky -pubescent or villous. Flowers numerous, 7 or 8 Hnes long. — 1. G. 
Muelleri. 

1 . G. Muelleri, Benth. — Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. 0. tenuiflora, Willd. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of 
the GuH of Carpentaria and adjoining Coast, R. Brown, Henne, Landsborough ; 
Strangways River, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

48. CANAVALIA, D.C. 

1. C. obtusifolia, D.C. — ^North Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, G. F. Hill 
(No. 628), 20/10/1911. 

Recorded. Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, F. Gregory's Expedition ; Upper 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; iSlands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Broi.vn. 
This plant is poisonous according to Greshoff, but the poisonous principle is 
not known. 

49. CANTHAROSPERMUM, W. and Abn. 

(Atylosia, W. and Am.) 

Stems trailing or twining. 

Pod broad, thin, transversely reticulate. Leaflets broadly obovate or 

orbicular. — ^3. C. marmoratum. 
Pod coriaceous with deeply depressed transverse Unes between the 

seeds. Leaflets rhomboid, ovate or eUiptical. — 4. C. reticulatum. 
Stems erect shrubby at the base. Pod coriaceous. 

Leaflets very rugose, thick and soft. Pod villous, with long hairs. — 2. 

C. grandifohum. 
Leaflets scarcely rugose, silky-hoary or silvery-tomentose. Pod 

tomentose, without long hairs. — 1. C. cinereum. 

1. C. cinereum {F.V.M.), Taub. — ^Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition : 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. C. grandifoUum ( F. v. M.), Taub. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller: 
Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. G. marmoratum {Benth.), Taub. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; 
Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne. 

4. C. reticulatum {Benth.), Taub. — ^Islands of the Gult of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHBEN TERRITOBY. 153 

50. RHYNCHOSIA, Loto. 

(Nomisma, W. and Am. ; Copisma, E. Mey.) 

Stems erect and shrubby. 

Leaflets minutely tomentose, slightly rugose. Peduncles slender, 1 

or few- flowered. Keel obtuse. Seeds strophiolate. — 1. R. 

acutifolia. 
Leaflets softly tomentose, very rugose. Pedicels short, axillary. 

Keel beaked. — 5. R. rostrata. 
Stems trailing or twining. Flowers racemose. 

Pod nearly as broad as long, membranous, transversely reticulate. 

Seeds strophiolate. Calyx-lobes much longer than the tube. — 

4. R. rhomboidea. 
Pod falcate, much longer than broad. Seeds not strophiolate. 

Flowers scarcely above 3 lines long. — 3. R. minima. 

Flowers nearly 5 lines long. — 2. R. austrahs. 

1 . R. acutifolia, R. v. M. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Bynoe ; Gilbert 
River, F. v. Mueller ; N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. 

2. R. australis, Benth. — ^Port Essington, Armstrong. 

. 3. R. minima, D.C— Lower McArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 675), 
8/11/1911. 

Recorded. Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition and Ridley's Expedition ; 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Goulburn Islands, A. Cunningham ; New Year's 
Island, R. Brown. 

4. R. rhomboidea, F. v. M. — ^Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

5. R. rostrata, Benth. — ^York Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cuimingham. 

51. ERIOSEMA, D.C. 

1 . E. chinense, Vog. — Amhem N. Bay, R. Brown ; Port Essington, 

Armstrong. 

52. MOGHANIA, St. Hil. 

(Flemingia, Roxb.) 

Flowers in small loose panicles. — 1. M. Hneata. 

Flowers 2 or 3 on a short axiUary peduncle. — 2. M. pauciflora. 

1. M. lineata,{Roxb.), Taub. — Edith Creek, Gilruth arid Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. Victoria River, Treachery Bay, GuU of Carpentaria, F. v. 
Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

21. parviflora, {Benth.), Tavh. 

Batchelor Farm, G. F. HiU (2nd Series, No. 81), 17/7/1913. 

2. M. pauciflora, (Benth.), Taub. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; GuU of 
Carpentaria, Landsborough. 

.53. PHASEOLUS, Linn. 

Stipules not produced below their insertion. Pod flattened. 

Bracteoles broad, striate, persistent, as long as the calyx. Flowers 

small, pale yellowish- white. — 3. P. vulgaris. 
Bracteoles small and very deciduous. Flowers large, pink or whitish 

with the wings purple. — 1. P. adenanthus. 



154 THE FLOBA 01" THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

Stipules oblong, produced below their insertion, Pod at length nearly 
cylindrical. — 2. P. Mungo. 

1. P. adenanthus, Meyer (P Truxillensis, H. B. and K. — Between 
Fitzmaurice River and Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. P. Mungo, Linn.— Okey Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 765), 16/2/1912. 
Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the N. Coast, R. Brown. 

3. P. vulgaris, Linn. — ^Nichol Bay and De Gray River, Ridley's Ex- 
pedition. French Bean, a wild form of the well-known vegetable. 

54. VTGNA, Savi. 

[Scytalis and Strophostyles , E. Mey ; Plectrotropis, Schum.) 

Calyx-lobes acute, as long as the tube, the two upper united at the base 
only. Keel with a long obhquely incurved beak. — 3. V. vexillata. 

Calyx-lobes short, the two upper ones united into one broad entire one. 
Keel rather acute, but not beaked. 

Leaflets obovate, very obtuse. — 2. V. retusa. 

Leaflets mostly ovate, acute or acuminate, or narrow and lanceolate 
or linear. 1. V. lanceolata. 

1. V. lanceolata, Benth. — Upper Victoria River, P. v. Mueller ; to the S. 
of Will's Creek, Howitt's Expedition ; Arnhem S. Bay, R. Brown ; Albert 
River, Henne. 

2. V. retusa. Walp. ( V. lutea, A. Gray). — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

3. F. vexillata, Benth. — SSa Range and Point Pearce, F. v. Mueller ; 
Albert River, Henne. The pods have been used as a substitute for French 
beans. 

55. DOLICHOS, Linn. 

1. D. biflorus, Linn. — Gilbert River, F. v. Mueller. 

Trigonella suavissima, Lindl. ; Lamprolobium megalophyllum, F. v.- M. ; 
Smithia capitata, Desv. ; Lespedeza lanata, Benth. ; Sophora tomentosa, L. ; 
Caesalpinia Bondv£ella, Flem. ; Adenanthera pavonina, L. ; Adenanthera 
ahrosperma, F. v. M. ; recorded from North Austraha in National Herbarium 
Census. 

ERYTHROXYLACEffi. 

1. ERYTHROXYLON, Linn. 

1. H. ellipticum, R. i5r.— Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 715), 13/1/1912. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, on the mainland opposite Groote Eyland, 
R. Brown. A valuable cabinet-wood, of a reddish-brown, close-grained and 
nicely marked. 

ZYGOPHYLLACEiE. 

1. TRIBULUS, TouRN. 1735. 

{Ehrenbergia, Mart., 1827 ; Heterozygis, Bunge, 1836 ; Kallstroenia, Scop., 
1777 ; Tribulopsis, R. Br., 1849). 

Leaves, at least the upper ones, opposite. Glands of the disk not promin- 
ent. Ovules 2 or more in each cell. (Tribulus proper). 



THE FLOKA OF THE NOETHBEN TERRITORY. 155 

Cocci rounded at the back, without angular or winged edges. 
Cocci mth 2 or 4 prickles, rarely minute or deficient. 

Leaves almost aU opposite. Ovules 3 or 4 in each cell. 

Annual. Flowers small. Petals about J-in. — 10. T. 

terrestris. 
Perennial. Flowers large. Petals about |-in. — 3. T. 
cistoides. 
Lower leaves alternate. Ovules 2 in each cell. Flowers 
large. — 9. T. ranuncuUflorus. 
Cocci covered with numerous nearly equal prickles. — 5. T. 
hystrix. 
Cocci with prominent almost winged angles, and two prickles on the 

back between them. — 6. T. macrocarpus. 
Cocci broadly winged at the angles, without prickles. 

Plant glabrous except the inside of the sepals. Cocci smooth. — 
8. T. platypterus. 

Plant hirsute. Cocci strongly reticulate on the back and sides. 
— 4. T. hirsutus. 
Leaves aU alternate. Glands of the disk prominent. Ovules solitary. 
Fruit pyramidal, the cocci with 2 or 4 tubercles or small prickles below the 
middle. (Tribulopis, R. Br.). 

Leaflets 2 pairs, the lowest much smaller. Perfect stamens, usually 

5. — 7. T. pentandrus. 
Leaflets about 3 pairs, ovate, the lowest not far from the stem. 

Anthers 5 short, 5 oblong or linear. — 2. T. bicolor. 
Leaflets 3 to 6 pairs, ovate, lanceolate or linear. Anthers 10 nearly 
similar. Flowers small or large. — 1. T. angustitohus. 

1. T. angustif alius, Benth. {T. Solandri, F.v. M.). — Borroloola, G. F. 
HiU (No. 691, 696, 711a), 14/12/1911, and 13/1/1912. 

Recorded. Victoria and Gilbert Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; N.W. Coast, 
Bynoe ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. -Brown, Henne. 

2. T. bicolor, F. v. M. — Sandy shores of the Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

3. T. cistoides, Linn. — Observation Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, G. F. 
Hill(No. 635), 21/10/1911. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; 
Albert River and Sweers Island, Henne. 

This plant is a tropical cosmopolitan. In the last printed census of Aus- 
trahan Plants the name was omitted by Baron v. Mueller, but no reason given. 
It is undoubtedly native to North Austraha and Queensland, and possibly 
also to Northern New South Wales. Poisonous according to Greshoff, principle 
unknown. 

4. Ik hirsutiis, Benth. — ^Nichol Bay, F. Gregory. 

5. T. hystrix, R. Sr.— 60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 280), 
7/6/1911. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; on sandy soil, in the interior 
from Nichol Bay, F. Gregory. 

Note on Herbarium specimen from Mt. Lyndhurst, collected by Max 
Koch. " Considered to be valuable fodder. Aboriginal name in the Dieyerie 
dialect, ' Koola.' " The hairiness, however, and the prickles would consider- 
ably lessen its fodder value. 

6. T. macrocarptis, F. v. M. — ^In the interior, from Nichol Bay, F. Gregory. 



156 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHBEN TERRITORY. 

7. T. pentandrus, Benth. — Victoria River, and Sea Range, F. v. IVTueller ; 
Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

8. T. platypterus, Benth. — ^Hammersley Range, F. Gregory. 

9. T. ranunculiflorus, F. v. M. — Dry sandy pastures on the Upper Vic- 
toria River, P. v. Mueller. 

10. T. terrestris, Linn. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 
Fruit injurious to the feet of sheep. 

Nitraria Schoheri, L. ; Zygophyllum glaucescens, F. v. M. ; Z. iodo- 
carpum, F. v. M. ; Z. prismatothecum, F. v. M. ; Z. ammophilum, F. v. ill. • 
Z. fruticulosum, D. C. ; recorded from North Austraha in National Herbarium 
Census. 

RUTACEiE. 

Tribe I. — Boronieae. — Shrubs, very rarely arborescent. Leaves simple, 
3-foliolate or rarely pinnate, with opposite small leaflets. Ovary lobed. Fruit 
separating into distinct, 2-valved cocci. Endocarp separating elastically. 
Seeds albuminous. Embryo usually terete. 

Leaves opposite simple or compound. — 2. Boronia. 

Leaves alternate, simple. — 3. Rossittia. 

Tribe II. — Xanthoxylese. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves pinnate or 3-foholate 
with opposite leaflets, or 1-foholate, the leaflets usually large. Ovary lobed. 
Fruit separating into distinct 2-valved cocci. Endocarp persistent, or separat- 
ing elastically. Seeds with or without albumen. Cotyledons usually flattened 
and broader than radicle. — 1. Xanthoxylum. 

Tribe III. — Aurantieae. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves pinnate, with usually 
alternate leaflets, or 1-foholate or simple. Stamens twice as many as petals 
or more. Ovary not lobed. Fruit indehiscent. Seeds without albumen. 
'Leaves all or mostly pinnate. No thorns. 

Petals valvate or nearly so. C otyledons much folded. Flowers 

smaU. — 4. Micromelum. 
Petals imbricate, erect. Cotyledons flat. Flowers large. — 
5. Murraya. 
Leaves aU simple or 1-foholate, coriaceous. Thorns axillary. — 6. Ata- 
lantia. 

1. XANTHOXYLUM, Linn. 

1. X. parviflorum, Benth. — Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Port 
Essington, Armstrong ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. BORONIA, Sm. 1798. 

(Cyanofhamnus, Lindl. 1839.) 

The fragrant oil of many might be used in perfumery, and although none 
are so strongly scented as the West Australian B. megastigma, or the Victorian 
B. pinnata, they might improve under cultivation. 

Sepals as long as or longer than the petals, enclosing them in the bud. 
(Plants tomentose or pubescent.) 

Sepals longer than the petals. 

Leaves all simple. Sepals 5 to 6 lines. — 4. B. grandisepala. 
Leaves mostly or all pinnate. Sepals 3 to 4 hnes. — 2. B. 
artemisisefolia. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHEBN TERRITORY. 157 

Sepals (about 2 lines) of the size of the petals. Leaves pinnate. 

Leaflets small, ovate, numerous, Pedicles slender. — 3. B. fili- 

cifoUa. 
Leaflets linear. Pedicels very short. — L B. affinis. 

Sepals much smaller than the petals. Inflorescence entirely axil- 
lary. — 5. B. lanceolata. 

1. B. affinis, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, and mainland 
opposite Groote Eyland, R. Brown. 

2. B. artemisiaefolia, F. v. M. — Ranges near Western Greek, G. F. Hill 
(No. 770), 16/2/1912. The specimens are even more hairy than usual, es- 
pecially on the stems. 

Recorded. Islands of the GuH of Carpentaria, R. Brown; M'Adam, 
Fitzroj^ and Sea Ranges, F. v. Mueller. 

3. B. filicifolia, A. Cunn. — ^York and Montague Sounds, N.W. Coast, 
A. Cunningham. 

4. B. grandisepala, F. v. M. — M'Adam range, F. v. Mueller. 

5. B. lanceolata, F. v. M. — Edith Creek, Gihnth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Sandstone Ranges, Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 599 and 793), 2/10/1911. 
and 23/2/1912. Shrubs, 6 ft. and 12 ft. high. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong, Leichhardt ; stony places in Amhem's Land and Carpentaria, 
F. V. Mueller. 

3. ROSSITTIA, EwART. Plate XV. 

This new genus is related to Eriostemon and Phebalium, its nearest 
affinity being to Eriostemon. It is distinguished from both genera by having 
double the number of stamens and from Eriostemon by its glabrous filaments 
and non-apiculate anthers, and from Phebalium by its petals without inflexed 
tips. The scurfy tomentum in R. scabra completely covers the stem, leaves, 
pedicels, outer surface of the calyx and the ovary. 

1 . E. scabra, Ewart and Davits. — ^Leaves alternate, linear, sessile or nearly 
so, tapering to the base, entire, concave or indupMcate with a recurved mucron- 
ate or hooked point, spreading or deflexed, reaching to about 4 cm. in length, 
but mostly half that length or less. 

Flowers axillary single or sometimes in pairs, on pedicels of 2 or 3 mm 
increasing in flower to 8 mm. 

Calyx 4 mm. in length, 5-6 mm. in flower, tube very short, lobes broad 
imbricate and spreading. Petals yellow, shortly exceeding the calyx, imbricate, 
deeply emarginate without inflexed tips, 5 m.m. long, broad at top. Stamens 
free, more or less than 20 in number, filaments short slender, glabrous anthers 
ovate, 1 mm., not apiculate. Carpels 2, with a scaly surface and two ovules 
in each loculus. 

Ranges near Western Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 773), 16/2/1912. 

4. MICROMELUM, Bltjme. 1825. 

1. M. pubescens, Blume. — ^North Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, G. F. Hill 
(No. 634), 20/10/1911. Near beach. 

Recorded. S. Goulburn Island, and Port Essington, Armstrong ; Islands 
of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 



158 THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

5. MURRAYA, Linn. 
1 . M. exotica, Linn. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

6. ATALANTIA, Coee. 

1. A. recurva, Benth. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

SnVIARUBACEiE. 

Tribe I. Ovary lobed or carpels distinct. Leaves pinnate. — 2. Bruoea. 
Tribe II. Ovary entire. Leaves 3-foholate. — 1. Harrisonia. 

L HARRISONIA, R. Be. 
1. H. Brownii, A. Juss. — Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. BRUCEA, Mill. 

1. B. sumatrana, Roxh. — Arnhem's Bay, R. Brown, Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller. 

BURSERACEiE. 

Calyx 5-lobed, the disk Uning the tube, with the stamens on the margin. — 
2. Garuga. • 

Calyx, 3-lobed, the disk free, with the stamens outside or on the margin. — 
L Canarium. 

1. CANARIUM, Linn. 1754. 

(Canariopsis, Miq., 1859; Cenarium, Linn., 1759; Colophonia, Comm., 
1824 ; Mehenbethene, Besl., 1788 ; Pachylobus, G. Don., 1832 ; Pimela, Lour., 
1790 ; Scutinanthe, Thwaites, 1856). 

1. C. australianum, F. v. M. — At Black Rocks, MacArthur River, G. F. 
HiU (No. 646), 22/10/191 1 . Tree 35 ft. high. Fruit eaten by natives. 

Recorded. Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne. 

An AustraUan species is poisonous according to GreshofE. It contains a 
fish poison. Bloomfield River natives use the gum as a cement. Wood of a 
grey colour. 

2. GARUGA, RoxB. 

1. O. floribunda, Descne. — Port Nelson, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 
The wood close-grained and tough, of a grey colour. 

MELIACEZE. 

Tribe I. Meliece. — Stamens united in a tube. Ovules 2 in each cell. 

Seeds not winged, albuminous. 

Leaves simple. Petals very long and narrow. — 2. Turraea. 

Leaves bipinnate. — 3. Melia. 

Tribe II. Trichiliece. — Stamens united in a tube. Ovules 2, rarely 1, 
or (in Carapa) more than 2 in each cell. Seeds not winged, without albumen. 
Leaves pinnate. 

Disk tubular or cup-shaped, enclosing the ovary. — 4. Dysoxylum. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHEBN TERRITORY. 159 

Disk annular, or undistinguishable from the thickened base of the ovary. 
Stamens equal in number to or not twice as many as petals. Flowers 

very small, globular. — 5. Aglaia. 
Stamens twice as many as petals. 

Staminal tube toothed, with the anthers protruding between the 
teeth. Ovules solitary. Drupe globular, with a woody or 
stony putamen. — 6. Owenia. 
Staminal tube truncate or crenate. Ovules more than 2 in 
each cell. Leaflets reticulate. — 1. Carapa. 

1. CARAPA, Atjbl. 

( Xylocarpus, Koen.) 

1. C. moluccensis , Lam. — Saltwater Creek, near Macadam Range, F. v. 
Mueller ; Islands of the GuH of Carpentaria, Henne. Cannon-ball tree. 
Apple Mangrove. Bark contains 22 to 35 per cent, tannin. 

2. TURRAEA, Linn. 

1. T. pubescens, Hellen. — Recorded from National Herbarium Census, 
North AustraUa. 

3. MELIA, Linn. 

1. M. composita, Willd. — Albert River, Henne. White Cedar. The 
gum is a good substitute for gum-arabic. 

4. DYSOXYLUM, Blxjme. 

(Hartighsea A. Juss.) 

The wood of most species good for indoor use. 

1 . D. Schultzii, G. de C. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North AustraUa. 

5. AGLAIA, LoTJE. 

{Miluea, Roxh. ; Nemedra, A. Juss.) 

1 . A. elaeagnoidea, Benth. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Entrance Island, Endeavour Straits, Leiohhardt. 

6. OWENIA, F. V. M. 1857. 

Leaflets numerous, lanceolate, acute. — 2. 0. vemicosa. 

Leaflets 2 to 4 pairs, obtuse, penrdnerved or reticulate. — 1. 0. reticulata. 

1. 0. reticulata, F. v. M. — 20 miles N. of Survey Camp IV., on sand hill, 
G. F. HiU, No. 391), 28/6/1911. 

A tree up to 30 ft. high. 

Near Nichol Bay, Walcott ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
F. V. Mueller, Henne. 

2. 0. vemicosa, F. v. M. — Maude's Creek and Leitch Lagoon, Gilruth 
and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

Recorded. Cambridge GuH, A. Cunningham ; mouth of the Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller. 

0. acidula, F. v. M. ; recorded from North Austraha, in National Herbar- 
ium Census. 



160 THE FLORA OF THE NOKTHERN TERRITORY , 

POLYGALACE-ffil. 

Sepals nearly equal. Anthers 4 or 5. Flowers minute, in terminal spikes. 
— 3. Salomonia. 

Inner sepals larger and petal-like. Anthers 8. 

Capsule ovate or orbicular, scarcely contracted at the base. Seeds 

not comose. — 1. Polygala. 
Capsule cuneate, very narrow at the base. Seed hairs forming a 
long corona. — 2. Bredemeyera. 

1. POLYGALA, Link. 

Racemes long, terminal. Inner sepals petaloid, 'obtuse. Crest fringed. 
Stigma simple, terminal, capitate. 3. P. leptalea. 

Racemes short, very dense and hirsute, terminal or lateral. Inner sepals 
herbaceous, acuminate. Crest 2-horned. Style with 1 erect lobe and a lower 
large glandular stigma. — 2. P. eriocephala. 

Racemes lateral. Inner sepals herbaceous, mucronate, usually falcate. 
Crest fringed. Style with 1 large hooked or re flexed stigmatic cone. 
Racemes shorter than the leaves, or if longer, very dense. 
Leaves orbicular. — 4. P. orbicularis. 
Leaves from obovate to linear. 

Capsules broadly winged and ciliate. — 5. P. rhinanthoides. 
Capsules wingless and glabrous or nearly so. — 1 . P. arvensis. 
Racemes slender, much longer than the leaves. — 6. P. stenoclada. 

1. P. arvensis. Willd. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller; Goulbum 
Island, A. Cunningham ; N. Coast, R. Brown. Australian Milkwort. 

2. P. eriocephala, F. v. M. — ^Upper Victoria River, P. v. Mueller. 

3. P. leptalea, B.C. — ^Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essing- 
ton, Armstrong. 

4. P. orbicularis, Benth. — S. Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Mel- 
ville Island, Fraser ; N. Coast, Armstrong. 

5. P. rhinanthoides, Soland. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

6. P. stenoclada, Benth. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

P. persicarifolia, B.C., and P. Tepperi, F. v. M. ; recorded from North 
Australia (in National Herbarium Census). 

2. BREDEMEYERA, Willd. 1801. 

( Comesperma, Labill . 1 80 6 . ) 

Capsule sessile. Seeds filling the cells, without a coma. Stems leafless. — 
1. B. aphylla. 

ft- Capsule narrowed into a stipes, containing the long coma of seeds, which 
onlyjoccupy the broad part of the cells. 
Pubescent. — 2. B. secunda. 
Glabrous. — 3. B. sylvestre. 

1. B. aphylla (B. Br.), Chodat. — Islands of the N. Coast, R. Brown. 

2. B. secunda (Banks), Chodat. — Islands of the N. Coast, R. Bro^^^l. 

3. B. sylvestre (Lindl), Chodat.— 10 miles W. of Camp III., G. F. HiU 
(No. 388 ,28/6/1911. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 161 

3. SALOMONIA, Lotjr. 

1. S. oblongifolia, D. C. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North Australia. 

EUPHORBIACEa;. 

Tribe I. Euphorbiece. — ^Involucre calyx-Uke, includiag several male 
flowers, each of a single stamen without any perianth, and one central female 
one, a single pedicellate pistil without any or rarely with a perianth ; the whole 
flower-head resembling a single flower. Embryo with broad cotyledons and a 
narrow radicle. — 17. Euphorbia. 

Tribe II. Stenolobece. — ^Flowers distinct, both sexes with a perianth. 
Embryo linear, the cotyledons not at all or scarcely broader than the radicle. 
Shrubs often heath-hke, with entire coriaceous leaves, or rarely herbs with 
small membranous leaves. 

Ovules 2 in each cell. — 18. Poranthera. 

Ovules 1 in each cell. — 19. Ricinocarpus. 

Tribe III. AntidesmecB. — Flowers distinct, both sexes with a perianth. 
Embryo with broad cotyledons and a narrow radicle. Trees or shrubs, the 
flowers small in catkin-ijke spikes or racemes. Ovary usually reduced to a 
single cell with 2 ovules. Styles 3. — 7. Antidesma. 

Tribe IV. Phyllantheoe. — ^Flowers distinct, both sexes with a perianth. 
Embryo with broad cotyledons and a narrow radicle. Ovules 2 in each ceU. 
Flowers in axillary clusters or soKtary. 
Calyx or perianth-lobes imbricate in the bud. 

Petals present at least in the males, sometimes small and gland- 
like. — 1. Andrachne. 
No distinct petals. Perianth of 4 to 6 calyx-Uke or petal-hke lobes 
or segments, aU similar or the inner ones rather larger. 

Stamens 4 or more, ceiitral, free, without any rudimentary pistil. 
Styles linear, undivided. Leaves opposite. 8. Dissiharia. 

Stamens indefinite in a central column, without any rudirhentary 
pistil. Stigmas large flat, usually lobed. — 6. Petalostigma. 

Stamens 2 to 5, central, free or united, without any rudi- 
mentary style. Styles linear or short. 

Perianth-lobes or segments erect or spreading. Styles 

usually lobed. — 3. Phyllanthus. 

Perianth turbinate, the male flat-topped, the small orifice 

closed by minute lobes, the female open, the lobes 

minute or obsolete. Styles usually entire. — 4. Breynia. 

Stamens 4 or 5, surrounding a 2-fid or 3-fid abortive pistil. Styles 

2-fid.— 2. Fluggea. 
Stamens 5, 6 or more, surrounding a broad central disk. — 5. 
Hemicycha. 

Calyx-lobes valvate in the bud. Petals present. Stamens 5, on a central 
column which terminates in an abortive pistil. 

Ovary usually 2-celled. Drupe with 2 indehiscent pjnrenes. Veinlets 

of the leaves transverse between the primary veins. — 10. Bridelia. 

Ovary usually 3-celled. Capsule 3-dymous, separating into 2-valved 

cocci. Veinlets of the leaves reticulate between the primary 

veins. — 9. Cleistanthus. 



162 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Tribe V. Crotonece. — Flowers distinct, both sexes with a perianth, 
sometimes minute in the males. Embryo with broad cotyledons and a narrow 
radicle. Ovules 1 in each cell. Flowers, at least the males, in spikes raceme.s or 
panicles. Stamens usually indefinite. 

Calyx-lobes .or segments valvate. Petals present. — 11. Croton. 
Calyx-lobes or segments (at least in the males) valvate. No petals. 

Anthers erect, the cells adnata and parallel. Styles 2-fid, the inner 

surface fringed or with much raised papillae. — 14. Adriana. 
Anther-cells parallel attached above the base of the anthers versa- 
tile.— 12. Mallotus. 
Anthers 4-lobed, opening in 4 valves or longitudinally in 2 valves. 
Styles undivided, fringed or not. Trees or shrubs., — 13. 
Macaranga. 
Calyx small and open or minute. No petals. Stamens 2 to 6, exserted. 
Styles undivided. 

Calyx usually dividing into 2 or 3 broad lobes. Seeds carunculate. 

— 15. Sebastiania. 
Calyx minute. Stamens 3 or 2. Seeds without any carunculus. 
— 16. Excoecaria. 

1. ANDRACHNE, Linn. 

A species of this genus has been known to poison cattle in India. 

1. A. Decaisnei, Benth. — Islands off the N. Coast, R. Brown ; Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. FLUGGEA, Willd. 1805. 
(Chorisandra, Wight. 1853.) 

1. F. microcarpa, Blume {Securinega obovata, Muell. Arg.). — Lat. 18 
degrees, 27 min.. Long. 132 degrees (about), G. F. Hill (No. 450), 6/7/1911. 
Bush 4 ft. high. Four Mile Lagoon, -Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 795), 
26/2/1912. Native Mangel. Five-mile Bar, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill 
(No. 732), 7/2/1912. 

Recorded. Regent's River and Cygnet Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
King's Sound and Colher Bay, Chapman, Hughan ; Hierson Island, Gregory's 
Expedition ; Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Sweers Island and Albert River, Henne ; 
Port Darling, Schultz (No. 578). 

F. Leucopyrus, J. Mueller ; recorded from North Australia in National 
Herbarium Census. 

3. PHYLLANTHUS, Linn. 1737. 

(Anisonema, A. J uss., 1824 ; Asterandra, Klolzsch., 1841; Calococcus, 
Kurz., 1864 ; Cathetus, Lour., 1790 ; f'eramanthus, Hassk., 1844 ; Cicca, Linn. 
1767 ; Conami, Aubl., 1775 ; Diasperus, Linn., 1735 ; Dichelactina, Hance., 
1852-3 ; Emblica, Gaertn., 1791 ; Episieria, Rafin., 1838 ; Frankia, Bert., 
1840 ; Hemicicca, Baill., 1858 ; Lobocarpus, Wight., 1834 ; ]\Iargaritaria, 
Linn., 1781 ; Meborea, Aubl., 1775 ; Menarda, Comm., 1824 ; Prosorus., 
Dalz., 1852 ; Rhopium,Schreb., 1791 ; Staurothyrax, Oriff., 1854 ; Synostemon, 
F.v. if., 1858 ; Tephranthus, Neck., 1790 ; Tricarium, Lour., 1790 ; Tricarymn 
Spreng., 1826 ; Urinaria, Medic, 1787 ; Xylophylla, Linn., 1789 ; Zygosper- 
mum, Thw., 1858). 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 163 

Section I. Glochidion. — Trees or shrubs the leaves often large, stamens 3 
or more, the anthers erect and sessile on a central column, free or more or less 
3onnate, the cells parallel with the connective projecting beyond them. Ovary 
3 or more celled. Styles short, thick,' erect, often connate at the base. No 
glands or disk in either sex. — 7. P. Ferdinandi. 

Section II. Synostemon. — Undershrubs, shrubs or perennial herbs. Leaves 
small. Stamens 3, the anthers adnate to a central column, the cells parallel. 
Ovary 3-celled. Styles distinct or connate at the base. No glands or disk in 
either sex. 

Male perianth-segments narrow, erect, herbaceous or rigid, united or free. 
Hoary or glaucous undershrubs or rarely small shrubs. 

Styles thick but free. Stems from a woody base decumbent or 
ascending. Leaves rather rigid, glaucous. 
Leaves sessile, the lower ones cordate, the upper ones ovate. 

— 6. P. ditassoides. 
Leaves linear. — 1. P. Adami. 
Styles more or less connate or very short. Stems branching, 
ascending or erect. 

Male perianth-segments free. Leaves ovate or obovate, sessile. 
Branches much compressed or angular. — 15. P. ochrophyllus. 
Male flower unknown. Leaves ovate, short, rigid. Branches 
nearly terete, hoary-tomentose. 
Leaves under J-in. — 18. P. rigidulus. 
Leaves J-in. or more. — 11. P. Hunti. 
Male perianth-segments small, spreading. — 17. P. rhytidospermus. 

Section III. Kirganelia. — Shrubs, often large. Leaves distichous, 
usually petiolate. Stamens 5, the filaments usually connate at the base. 
Glands present. Ovary and capsule 3 or more-celled, usually fleshy or succu- 
lent. Styles distinct or connate at the base, short in the AustraUan species. 

. Pedicels fiHform, under 2 Unas, but mostly longer than the perianth. — 
16. P. reticulatub. 

Pedicels mostly shorter than the perianth. — i. P. baccatus. 

Section IV. Paraphyllanthus. — Shrubs or herbs of varied habit. Stamens 
3, the filaments free or more or less united. Anthers free, the ceUs parallel, 
opening longitudinally. Glands present. Ovary 3-celled. Styles free. Cap- 
sule dry. 

Filaments more or less united. 

Flowers nearly sessile. Capsule tuberculate. — ^21. P. Urinaria. 
Pedicels 1 to 3 Unes long. Ovary tuberculate. Capsule smooth. — 

20. P. trachygyne. 
Flowers nearly sessile. Ovary and capsule smooth. — 13. P. maderas- 
patanus. 
Filaments free. 

Fruiting perianth much enlarged, usually as long as or longer than 
the capsule. 
Glabrous or glaucous plant. Stems decumbent from a woody 

base. — 8. P. flagellaris. 
Glabrous or glaucous. Shrubby and branched. Seeds striate. — 

9. P. grandisepalus. 
Minutely hoary-tomentose. Fruiting-perianth less enlarged. — 

5. P. Carpentarise. 
Tomentose or villous plant, shrubby and branched. Capsule 
sprinkled with hairs. — 10. P. hebecarpus. 



164 THE TLOEA 0¥ THE NOBTHEEN TEERITOEY. 

Fruiting perianth shorter than the capsule. 

Leaves ovate, about 2 Unas long, hoary as well as the perianth. — - 

12. P. indigoferoides. 
Leaves oblong, about 3 lines long, glabrous as well as the 

perianth. — 2. P. aridus. 

Section V. Ewphyllanihus . — ^Trees, shrubs or herbs or varied habit. 
Leaves usually distichous. Stamens 3, the filaments free or more or less 
united ; anthers free, the cells short, more or less diverging or opening trans- 
versely, and often separated by a broad connective. Glands present. Ovary 
3-celled. Styles free. Capsule dry. Mowers usually minute. 

Stems annual or from a perennial base, shghtly branched, rather rigid, \ to 
1 ft. high. Leaves oblong. — 19. P. simplex. 

Stems annual, filiform, branching, -| to 1| ft. long. Flowers very minute. — 
14. P. minutiflorus. 

Section VI. Eeidia. — ^Trees or shrubs with distichous leaves. Male 
perianth of 4 segments. Stamens 2, the filaments united in a central column, 
anthers with separate parallel cells having the appearance of 4-celled anthers. 
Female perianth of 4 to 6 segments. Styles 3. 3. P. Armstrongii. 

1. P. Adami, Muell. Arg. (P- stenocladus, MuelL). — Port Keats, N.W. 
Coast, A. Cunningham ; M'Adam Range, Point Pearce, Providence Hill, 
F. y. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz, (No. 460), ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. P- aridus, Benth. — Barren shores of Brunswick Bay ' and Port 
Warrender, Vansittart Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

3. P. Armstrongii, Benth. — ^Port Essington, Armstrong. 

4. P. baccattcs, F. v. M. — ^Vansittart Bay and Greville Island, Regent's 
River, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz (No. 860). 

5. P. Garpentarice, Muell., Arg. — Tableland, Arnhem's Land and Roper 
River, Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

6. P. ditassoides, Muell., Arg. — South Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong. 

7. P. Ferdinandi, Muell, Arg. — Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 658), 
7/11/1911. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

8. P flagellaris, Benth. — Goulburn Islands, A. Cunningham. 

9. P. grandisepalus, F. v. M. — ^Fitzmaurice River, F. v. M. — 

10. P. hebecarpus, Benth. — Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. Con- 
sidered poisonous. 

11. P Hunti, Ewart and Davies (Plate XVI.) — (named after Mr. Atlee 
Hunt, Secretary for Home and Territories). — Small bush. Stems woody at the 
base. Erect 1 ft. or more high. Young. branches shghtly flattened, older ones 
terete, slightly tomentose. Leaves on pedicels of about 1 fine, obovate, with 
a short point, l-in. or more. Flowers solitary in the axils on pedicels of 1 to 
3 lines. Females perianths enlarged after flowering. Styles 3, erect. 
Capsule 4 to i^ lines diameter, nval, ashy-tomentose. Cocci triangular in 
section, rugose. Seed smooth, ^'pt' 'ies close to P. rigidulns. 

no miles N. of N.T. Survey Camp IV., G. P. Hill (No. 130), 2/7/1911. 

12. P indigoferoides, Benth. — York Sound, N-W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 165 

13. P. maderaspatanus, Linn. — Okey Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 762), 
16/2/1912.. Intercourse Island, Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cunningham ; 
Port Walcott, N.W. Coast, Harper ; Upper Victoria and Fitzmaurice 
Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 877). 

14. P minutijlorus, F. v. M. — ^Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

1.5. P ochrophyllus, Benth. — Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 428 (males) and 
No. 489 (females.) 

16. P. reticulatus, Poir. — Locality doubtful, and possibly not indigenous 
to the Northern Territory or to Australia. 

17. P. rhytidospermus, F. v. M. — Camp ii.. Lander Creek, G. F. Hill 
(No. 310), 10/6/1911. 

Recorded. Depot Creek, Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

18. P. rigiduliis, F. v. M. — Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

19. P. simplex, Retz. — Sandstone Ranges, near Western Creek, G. F. 
Hill (No. 749), 14/2/1912. 

20. P. trachygyne, Benth.— Vort Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 112, 660, 668 and 

788). 

21. P. Urinaria, Linn. — S. Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Port 
Dar^iin, Schultz (Nos. 85, 203) ; . 

P. thesioides, Benth (in National Herbarium Census) ; recorded from North, 
Australia. 

4. BREYNIA, Forst. 1776. 

{ Foersteria, Scop., 1777; Melanthesa, Blume, 1825; Melanthesiopsis 
Muell., Arg., 1863). 

Fruiting perianth spreading flat to a diameter of about 3 lines. — 1. B. 
cernua. 

Fruiting perianth broadly turbinate or concave, enlarging to about 2 lines 
diameter. Styles very short erect or spreading on the obtuse fruit. — 2. B. 
oblongifoUa. 

Fruiting perianth scarcely enlarged. 

Ovary and capsule more or less contracted into a stipes at the base 
and crowned with 3 protuberances surrounding the styles. — 
4. B. stipitata. 
Ovary and capsule sessile, the ovary tapering at the top, the capsule 
suddeidy contracted into a beak. — 3. B. rhynchocarpa. 

1. B. cernua, Muell. Arg. — ^N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

2. B. oblongifoUa, Muell. — ^MaeArthur River, Borroloola, G. F. Hill 
(No. 673), 8/11/1911. 

3. B. rhynchocarpa, Benth. — King's Sound, N.AV. Coast, Hughan. 

4. B. stipitata, Muell— Okej Creek, G. F. HiU (No. 766), 16/1/2/1912. 
Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; Port 

Darwin, Schultz (No. 546, 581) ; Prince of Wales Islands, R. Brown. 

5. HEMICYCLIA, W. and Arn. 

Filaments exserted, much longer than the small ovoid anthers. 2. H. 
sepiaria. 

Filaments very short ; anthers twice as long, oblong, not exceeding the 
perianth. — 1. H. lasiogyna. 



166 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

1. H. lasiogyna, F. v. M. — Port Essington, Leichhardt, Armstrong; 
Port Darwin, Sohultz (Nos. 700, 742 and 692). 

2. H. sepiaria, W and Am. — On the beach, Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 
746). 

6. PETALOSTIGMA, P. v. M. 1857. 

{Hylococcus, R. Br. 1873.) 

Fruit orange-coloured. Leaves pubescent. — 1. P. quadriloculare. 

Leaves nearly glabrous. — la. var. glabrescens. 

Pruit black and non-pubescent. Leaves pubescent. — 16. var. nigrum. 

1. P. quadriloculare, F. v. M. — Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 714), 
13/1/1912. 20 miles W. of MacArthur River Station, G. F. Hill (No. 560), 
499/1911. Small shrub. 10 miles N.N.E. of MacArthur River Station, G. P. 
Hill (561), 6/9/1911. 

Small tree 15 ft. high. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria, Henne ; Amhem's Land, F. v. Mueller ; in the interior, lat. 20 degrees, 
M'Douall Stuart ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 94, 298, 299, 447, 449.). 

Bitter Crab. Bark yields a brownish yellow dye. Ripe fruit said to be 
a valuable vermifuge for horses. 

la. Var. gZofej-ascews.— Hudson Downs, G. F. Hill (No. 829), 5/4/1912. 

16. Var. nigrum, ^Ewart and Davies (Plate XVII.). — Pubescent. Leaves 
petiolate, ovate, obtuse or acute -|- to 2 in. long. Male flowers in axillary 
clusters. Perianth segments 2 to 4 lines long, silky-pubescent. Fruit black, 
^-inch diam., glabrous, seeds smooth, dark brown. 

Sandstone ranges, Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 708), 13/1/1912. North of 
15 degrees, W. S. Campbell (No. 17), 5/9/1911. 70 miles North of Cainp IV., 
G. F. Hill (No. 387), 28/6/1911. 

7. ANTIDESMA, Linn. 

Flowers inside, glands and rudimentary ovary in the males, ovary in the 
females, pubescent or hirsute. Spikes paniculate. 

Female flowers nearly sessile. Perianth -segments ovate acute. 

Leaves rounded at the end. — 2. A. Ghaesembilla. 
Female flowers pedicellate. Perianth-segments very broad and 
obtuse. Leaves often obtusely acuminate. — 1. A. Dallachy- 
anum. 
Flowers in the interior perfectly glabrous. — 

Leaves |-to 1 in. long, ovate or obovate. Spikes | to 1 ia. Peri- 
anth segments broad. Fruit small. 3. A. parvifolium. 
Leaves ovate or elliptical, 1. to 2 in. long. Female perianth seg- 
ments narrow-lanceolate. Fruit small. 4. A. Schultzii. 

1. A. Dallachyanum, Baill. — Port Essington, Armstrong. Herbert 
River, Cherry. 

2. A. Ohaesembilla, Gaertn. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham ; Point Pearce, Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz (No. 694, 748). 

3. A. parvifolium, F. v. ]\L — Sandstone Ranges, near Western Creek, 
G. F. Hill (No. 771), 16/2/1912. 

4. A. Schultzii, Benth.— Fort Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 610, 743). 



THE rLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 167 

8. DISSILIAEIA, F. V. M. 

1. D. tricomis, Benth. — Port Essington, A. Cunningham ; and Arm- 
strong. 

9. CLEISTANTHUS, Hook. 
1. C. Cunninghamii, Mitell., Arg. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

10. BRIDELIA, WiLLD. 

Whole plant glabrous. — 1. B. ovata. 

Young shoots and under side of leaves tomentose-pubescent. — 2. B. 
tomentosa. 

1. B. ovata, Dene. — Sims Island, N. Coast, A. Gunningham. 

2. B. tomentosa, Blume. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong ; Port Darwm, Schultz (Nos. 46, 101, 111, 166). 

11. CROTON, Linn. 

Stamens not more than 12. Leaves penniveined, rarely irregularly 
3 -nerved at the base. 

Leaves densely clothed underneath with a stellate or silvery tomen- 

tum. — 2. C. Schultzii. 
Leaves hoary on both sides with a close stellate tomentum. — 

3. C. tomenteUus. 
Leaves quite glabrous or very sparingly sprinkled when young 
with stellate hairs or scales. — 4. C. Verreauxii. 
Stamens 20 to 30 or more. Leaves broad, .5 or 7 -nerved at the base, 
densely stellate-tomentose. — 1. C. arnhemicus. 

1. C. arnhemicus, Miiell. Arg. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, and Sea Range, F. v. Mueller ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 48, 563, 684). 

2. C. Schultzii, Benth.— Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 609). 

3. C. tomenteUus, F. v. M. — Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; Careening 
Bay, N.W. Coast. A, Cunningham. 

4. C. Verreauxii, .Baill. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 620 and 680). 

12. MALLOTDS, Lour. 

{Rottlera, Roxh. ; Echinus, Lour.) 

1. J/, nesophilus, F. v. M. — ^Islands of the N. Coast, Henne, Flood ; Port 
Darwin, Schultz (No. 881) ; Port Essington, Armstrong, ; Caledon Bay,. 
Gulliver . 

13. MACARANGA, Thou. 
{Mappa, A. Juss.) 
1. M. Tanaria, Muell. Arg. — ^Port Essington, Armstrong, Leichhardt. 

14. ADRIANA, Gaud. 
( Trachycaryon, Kl. ) 

Leaves or their middle lobe ovate-lanceolate or broad, often acuminate. 
Styles free, slender, longer than the capsule. Eastern or tropical species. — 
1. A. acerifoha. 



168 THE FLOEA OF THE NOBTHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

Leaves deeply 3-lobed, the middle lobe ovate-oblong, obtuse, not acumin- 
ate. Styles free rarely exceeding the capsule. North-western and Western 
species. — 2. A. tomentosa. 

1. A. acerifoUa, Hook. — ^Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 
Cotton-bush. 

2. A. tomentosa, Gaud. — ^N.W. Coast, Carew River, A. Cunningham ; 
Depuech Island, Bynoe ; Nichol Bay and De Gray Rivers, Ridley's Expedition ; 
Point Larrey, Hughan. 

15. SEBASTIANIA, Speeng. 

( Adenogyne, Klotzsch., 1841 ; Cnemidostachys, Mart., 1824 ; Ditrysinia, 
Rafin., 1825 ; Elachocroton, F, v. M., 1857 ; Gussonia, Spreng., 1821 ; 
Microstachys, A. Juss., 1824 ; Tragiopsis, Karst., 1859). 

1. S. chamelaea, F. v. Jf .— 60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 272), 
7/6/1911. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 539) ; Beagle Bay, N.W. Coast, Hughan. 

16. EXC(ECARIA, Linn. 

The bark yields caoutchouc in abundance. 

Leaves obovate or broadly elliptical, obtuse, entire or crenate, 2 to 3 in. 
long. — 1. E. Agallocha. 

Leaves narrow-oblong, very obtuse, entire, | to 1 in. long. — 2. E. parvi- 
folia. 

1. E. Agallocha, Linn. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Sweers ; Saltwater Banks of Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Goulburn Island, 
A. Cunningham ; Port Darwin, Schultz (Nos. 597, 677.) 

Milky Mangrove, River Poison-tree, Blinding-tree. Bark contains 13-15 
per cent, tannin. 

2. E. parvifolia, Muell., Arg. — Common round the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
R. Brown, F. v. Mueller, Landsborough. " Gutta-percha tree." (Lands- 
borough). Yields a very handsome cabinet wood. 

17. EUPHORBIA, Linn. 1737. 

{ Aledoroctonum, Schlecht, 1847; Anisophyllum, Haw., 1812; Antha- 
cantha, Lem., 1858 ; Athymalus-, Neck., 1790 ; Chamaesyce, S. F. Gr., 1821 
Chylogala, Fourr., 1869 ; Dactylanthus, Haw., 1812 ; Epurga, Fourr., 1869 
Esula, Rupp., 1745 ; Gelarhoeus, Haw., 1812 ; Keraselma, Neck., 1790 
Lacanthis, Rafin., 1836; Lyciopsis, Schweinf., 1867; Medtisea, Haw., 1812 
Petalandra, F.v. M., 1862 ; Poinsettia, R. Grah., 1836 ; Tithymalus, Tourn., 
1742 ; Treisia, Haw., 1812 ; Zalitea, Rafin., 1836). 

Section I Anisophyllum. — Leaves all opposite with small interpetiolar 
stipules. Involucral glands usually bordered by a petal-like appendage 
(except E. Atoto and E. pilulifera). Seeds without any carunculus. 

Flower-heads in small distinct terminal cymes with the floral leaves or 
bracts as long as or longer than the involucres. Capsules and whole plant 
glabrous. 

Seeds smooth. Appendages of the involucral glands scarcely conspic- 
uous. — 3. E. Atoto. 
Seeds rugose. Appendages conspicuously petal-like, entire. — 9. E. 

MitchelUana. 
Seeds rugose. Appendages more or less lobed. — 11. E. myrtoides. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 169 

Flower-heads solitary or two together, terminal or in the upper axils. 
Stems hairy or pubescent. 

Stem and leaves pubescent or shortly hirsut e . 

Involucres 1 1 hues long, the glands with a broad palmately lobed 

appendage. — 13. E. schizolepis. 
Involucres not J-Une long, the glands with a very small 
usually lobed appendage. — 14. E. Schultzii. 
Stems slender, sprinkled with long spreading hairs. Involucres 
under 1 hne, the glands with a narrow entire white border. — 
2. E. Armstrongiana. 
Flower-heads solitary in the upper or in nearly aU the axils or forks. 
Stem and leaves pubescent or hirsute. 

Involucres 1^ hnes long, the glands ^vith a broad pahnately lobed 

appendage. — 13. E. schizolepis. 
Stems much branched, usually 6 iu. to 1 ft. — 4. E. austraUs. 
Involucres about 1 line long, the gland-appendages entire. Dwarf 
plant with rigid stems of 1 to 2 iu. — 10. E. MueUeri. 
Whole plant quite glabrous. 

Involucres about 1 hne long. Dwarf plant with rigid stems of 1 

to 2 in.— 10. E. Muelleri. 
Involucres J to f-hnes long. 

Diffuse or prostrate branching stems forming at length a 
perennial rhizome. Gland -appendages usually entire. 
Styles notched only at the end. — 5. E. Drummondii. 
Styles slender bifid. — 1. E. alsiuse flora. 
Annual, with erect and slender stems. Gland-appendages 

usually entire. — 16. E. Wheeleri. 
Annual, diffuse and much branched. Gland-appendages 
usually lobed. — 11. E. myrtoides. 
Flower-heads numerous, in dense or rather loose terminal or axillary 
cjrmes, the floral leaves, except sometimes the lowest pair, reduced to smaU 
bracts shorter than the involucres. 

Dwarf glabrous perennial. Leaves ovate or oblong. Gland-appendages 
large and very white. — 8. E. micradenia. 

Glabrous erect or procumbent annual. — ^Leaves linear. Gland-appendages 
rather large. — 15. E. serrulata. 

Pubescent perennial with erect or ascending stems, the ultimate branches 
filiform and cymes loose. Gland-appendages large and very white. — 7. E. 
fiJipes. 

Hirsute annual. Leaves ovate or lanceolate. Flower-heads minute,, 
very numerous in dense headUke axillary cymes. Involucral glands without 
appendages. — 12. E. pUuhfera. 

Section II. Eremophila. — Leaves opposite or the lower ones and 
sometimes those of the lateral branches alternate. Stipules very minute or 
none. Involucral glands without appendages. Seeds carunculate. — 6. E. 
eremophila. 

1. E. alsinaeflora, Baill. — ^Mount King, Glenelg River, N.W. Coast,. 
Martin. 

2. E. Armstrongiana, Boiss. — ^Port Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 22). 

3. E. Atoto, Forst. — Sandy beaches, Melville Island, G. P. Hill (3rd series, 
Xo. 12), 12/4/1914. 



170 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHEKN TERRITORY. 

Recorded. Water Island, Montague Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong ; La Grange Bay, Hughan ; Port Darwin, Schultz, 
(No. 601) ; Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

4. E. australis, Boiss. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Nichol Bay, M. 
Brown ; Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Gregory's Expedition. 

Poisonous to sheep. 

Var. erythrantha, F. v. M. — 35 miles N.W. of Lander Creek, G. F. Hill 
(No. 379), 24/6/1912. 

5. E. Drummondii, Boiss. — Roper River, Bull Oak Creek, Gilruth and 
Spencer, July-August, 1911. 10 miles W. of Eva Downs, G. F. Hill (No. 518), 
19/8/1911. About 30 miles N.W. of Twitchera Gap, Macdonnell Ranges, 
G. F. Hill (164), 10/5/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Gulf of Carpentaria, Lands- 
borough. Said to poison goats (Hill). Poisonous according to Greshoff and 
Maiden. Irritant. Alkaloid, drumin. According to Maiden it has poisoned 
stock in N.S.W. Caustic Creeper. It is used by the Queensland natives in 
cases of snake-bite. The fresh milky sap possesses great healing properties, 
and is in constant use by bushmen. Feeding tests carried out by Stanley 
(Agric. Gazette, New South Wales, Sept., 1896), with this and the following 
species, shewed that sheep could be fed on them without injury. 

6. E. eremophila, A. Gunn. — 10 miles W. of Eva Downs, G. F. Hill (No. 
527), 19/8/1911. 

North Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, G. F. Hill (No. 618), 19/8/1911. 

About 30 miles N.W. of Twitchera Gap, Macdonnell Ranges. G. F. Hill 
(No. 159), 10/5/1911. 

Recorded. Groote Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Greville Island, 

Regent's River, N.W. Coast, and Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

Poisonous according to Miquel. Irritant. Caustic Plant. 

7. E. filipes, Benth.—BoiToloola., G. F. Hill (No. 605), 2/10/1911. 
Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; Fitz- 

maurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

8. E. micradenia, Boiss. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 545). 

9. T. Mitchelliana, Boiss. — MacArthur River, at Black Rocks, G. F. Hill 
(No. 643), 22/10/1911. 

Recorded. Sweers Island, Henne. 

10. E. Muelleri, Boiss.— N.W. , F. v. Mueller ; Port Darwin, Schultz 
(No. 439, 485). 

11. E. myrtoides, Boiss. — ^Near Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. 
Hill (No. 203), 26/5/1911. Lat. 19 degrees. Long. 132 degrees, G. F. Hill (No. 
438), 4/7/1911. Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 53), 11/3/1911. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, Dampier's . Archipelago, A. Cunningham ; 
Despard's Island, Bynoe. 

12. E. pilulifera, Linn.— Boiroloola,, G. F. Hill (No. 796), 29/2/1912. 
Native name, Werribee-werribee, cure for sores according to natives, cure 

for asthma according to whites (Hill). 

Pill Wolfsmilk, Caiacica of the natives in Brasil, Erva dosoobras (snake 
herb), of the Portuguese. Acts as a strong diuretic, and is used in Brazil and 
the West Indies for snake bite, and in the East Indies for asthma (Dr. Rosen- 
thal). Used as a sedative in spasmodic conditions of thf> re^miTatorv 



THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHEEN TEEEITOEY. 171 

apparatus. It produces dermatitis, etc. (Bailey). Loudon says the juice is so 
acrid as to corrode and ulcerate the bod}^ wherever applied. Removes warts, 
freckles, is used as a depilatory, etc. Application of the juice, powder and 
extract produces not only erysipelatous, pustular and phlegmonous inflamma- 
tion, but even gangrene (Pammel). 

13. E. schizolepis, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

14. E. Schultzii, Benth. — Roper River, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Recorded. Port Darwin, Schultz, (Nos. 15, 237, 844 and 879) ; Camden 
Harbour, F. v. Mueller. 

15. E. serrulata, Beinw. — Port Essington, Armstrong ; Port Darwin, 
Schultz (No. 234); Escape Clifis, Hulse. 

16. E. Wheeleri, Baill.—20 miles N.W. by N. of Meyer's Hill, Macdonnell 
Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 213), 1/6/1911. 

Recorded. Greville Island, Regent's River, and Montague Sound, N.W. 
Coast, A. Cumiingham ; King's Sound, Hughan. 

E. Careyi, F. v. M. ; recorded from North Australia in Nat. Herb. Census. 

18. PORANTHERA, Rudge. 

1 . P. microphylla, Brogn. — Port Darwin, Schultz (No. 54). 

19. RICINOCARPUS, Desf. 
(Eoeperia, Spreng.) 

Leaves Unear, the margins much revolute, IJ to 3 in. long. Petals, 
much shorter than the calyx. Ovary tomentose. — 2. R. rosmarinifoUus. 

Leaves lanceolate, flat, hoary on both sides, 1 J to 3 in .long. Petals much 
shorter than the calyx. Ovary tomentose. — 1. R. marginatus. 

1. B. marginatus, Benth. — York Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

2. R. rosmarinifolivs, Benth. — Montague and York Sounds, N.W. Coast, 
A. Cunningham. 

Bischoffia Javanica, Blume ; Homalanthus Leschenavltianus A . de 
Jv^s. ; recorded from North Australia in Nat. Herb. Census. 

ANACARDIACE^. 

Stamens 10. Carpels 5 to 6. Ovules suspended from an erect funicle. — 
1. Buchanania. 

Stamens 5. Ovary 1 -celled. Ovule suspended from the top of the cavity 
— 2. Semecarpus. 

1. BUCHANANIA, Speeng. 1800. 

(Catnbessedea, Kunth, 1824; Coniogeton, Blume, 1826; Lanzana, Stokes, 
1812; Launzan, Buck.- Ham., 1799; Launzea, Endl., 1841; Lundia, Puer., 
1825). 

1. B. 2Iuelleri, Eng. (B. angustifolia, Roxh.). — Top Spring, G. F. Hill 
(No. 442), 31/8/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, Bynoe, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Arm- 
strong ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

Var. pilosa.—BoTroloola., G. F. HiU (No. 601), 31/8/1911. 

This is a form intermediate bet^^-een the variety and the t^■pe, having the 
leaves of the type and the inflorescence of the variety. 



172 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Borroloola, G. F. HUl (No. 668), 8/11/1911. 

An Australian species of Buchanania is poisonous according to Greshoff, 
but the principle is not known. 

B. obovata, Eng. ; recorded from North Australia in Nat. Herb. Census. 

2. SEMECARPUS, Linn. 
1. S. Anacardium, Linn. — ^Port Essington, Armstrong. 

CELASTRACEiE. 

Leaves alternate. Ovules 2 in each cell. Capsule loculicidal, coriaceous. — 
2. Celastrus. 

Leaves alternate. Ovules 3 or more in each cell. Capsule 1 locuUcidal, 
woody or bony. Flowers in cymes. Stamens on the margins of the disk. — 
1 . Denhamia. 

Leaves mostly opposite. Ovules 2 in each cell. Drupe indehiscent, 2 or 
3-celled. — 3. Cassine. 

1. DENHAMIA, Meisn. 

(Leitcocarpon, A^ Bich.) 

1. D. obscura, Meissn. — ^York Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Melville Island (not Moreton Bay), Eraser ; Victoria River and Arnhem's 
Land, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. CELASTRUS, Linn. 1737. 

{Catha, a. Don., 1832 ; Guevinia, Hort., 1845-6 ; Ori.ra, Thunb., 1783 ; 
Semarilla, Rafin., 1838). 

Leaves ovate or eUiptical. — 2. C. Muelleri. 

Leaves linear or narrow-lanceolate. — 1. C, Cunninghamii. 

1. C. Cunninghamii, F. v. M. — Lat. 17 degrees. Long., 132 degrees 
(about), G. F. Hill (No. 454), 7/7/1911. A tree 20 ft. high, and 3 in. in diameter. 
'i& Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R 
Brown. 

2. C. Muelleri, Benih. — ^Near Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

3. CASSINE, Linn. 
{Elaeodendron, J acq.) 
1. C. melanocarpa, F. v. M. — Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown. 

STACKHOUSIACEiE. 

1. STACKHOUSIA, Sm. 1798. 

(Pokiostigma, Schuch., 1853-5 ; Tripterococcv^, Endl., 1837.) 

Corolla-lobes oblong, obtuse. — 2. S. muricata. 
Corolla-lobes acute or acuminate. 

Cocci obovoid or globular, reticulate. Corolla 3 lines or less. — 

3. S. viminea. 
Cocci broadly winged. Corolla more than 4 lines, with filiform points 
to the lobes. — 1. S. Brunonis. 

1. S. Brunonis, Benth. — Regent River, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 173 

2. S. muricata, Lindl. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

3. S. viminea, Sm. — 35 miles N.W. of Camp IV., Lander*Creek, G. F. 
HiU (No. 375), 24/6/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Bay of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Goulburn 
Island, A. Cunningham. 

Macgregoria racemigera, F. v. M. ; recorded from North Australia in 
Nat. Herb. Census. 

SAPINDACE.a:. 

Flowers irregular, either 1 petal fewer than the sepals, or the stamens or 
disk unilateral, and ovary excentrical. 

One ovule in each cell of the ovary. 

Herbaceous or halt-herbaceous climber with bi-ternate leaflets. 

Capsule inflated, membranous. — 1. Cardiospermum. 
Trees with pimiate leaves. Petals 1 fewer than sepals. — 

4. Erioglossum. 

Shrubs or trees, with 1 or 3 digitate leaflets. Sepals 4, broadly 

imbricate. Petals 4 or none. Fruit of 1 or 2 indehiscent 

lobes. — 2. Allophylus. 

Two ovules in each cell of the ovary. Low shrubs or undershrubs, 

with entire, lobed, or pinnately dissected leaves. — 7. Diplopeltis. 

Flowers regular. Disk annular or none. Stamens aU round the ovary. 
One ovule in each ceU of the ovary. Trees or tall shrubs. Leaves 
pinnate (except Heterodendron and sometimes Atalaya). 

Capsule loculicidaUy 3-valved. — 6. Cupania. 
Fruit separating into winged samaras. — 3. Atalaya. 
Fruit divided into indehiscent or 2-valved lobes or irregularly 
locuhcidal, the valves not seraratiag from the axis. — 

5. Heterodendron. 

Two ovules in each cell of the ovary. 

Trees with pumate leaves. Petals 4 or 5. — 10. HarpuUia. 

Shrubs or rarely small trees. Leaves simple or pinnate with smaU 
leaflets. Calyx cup-shaped. Petals none. Disk incon- 
spicuous. 

Stamens in the male flower 10 or fewer, usually 8. — 8. Dodonaea. 

Stamens in the male flowers more than 10. — 9. Distichostemon. 

1. CARDIOSPERMUM, Linn. 

1. C. Halicacahum, Linn. — ^Victoria River, Sea Range, etc., F. v. Mueller; 
Albert River, Henne. Heart Pea, Balloon Vine. 

2. ALLOPHYLUS, Linn. 

1. A. ternatus, Lour. (S. serrata, D.C.). — N. Coast, R. Brown; Port 
Essington, Armstrong. 

3. ATALAYA, Beumb. 1847. 

{Psevdatalaya, Sapindus partly.) 

Flowers and fruit, as well as the whole plant, quite glabrous. — 2. A. 
saJicifolia. 



174 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TEEEITOBY. 

Flowers and fruit more or less pubescent or tomentose. 

Plaint glabrous, except the flowers. — 1. A. hemiglauca. 
Branches, young leaves and panicles velvety-tomentose. 
Leaflets and petiole-wings much reticulate. — 3. A. variitolia. 

1. A. hemiglaiica, F. v. M. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 
93), 13/3/1911. Borroloola, G. F. Hill, 12/9/1911. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Hammersley Range, Nichol Bay, F. 
Gregory ; Albert River, Henne. White-wood, Cattlebush. Yields a quantity 
of gum, often in lumps of 10 to 11 ozs. 

2. A. salicifolia, Blume. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Melville Island (not Moreton Bay), Fraser, and A. Cunningham. 

3. A. variifolia, F. v. if .—Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 659), 7/11/1911. 
Sea Range, Macadam Range, and near Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

4. ERIOGLOSSUM, Bltjmb. 
1. E. edule, Blume. — Brunswick Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

5. HETERODENDRON, Desf. 1818. 

1. H. oleaefolium, Desf. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 89), 
13/3/1911 ; also (No. 92). Hammersley Range, near Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. Wood very hard ; useful in turnery. 

6. CUPANIA, Linn. 
1. G. anacardioides, A. Rich. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

7. DIPLOPELTIS, Endl. 1837. 

{Diplotaxis, Lindl.) 

Fruit separating into distinct indehiscent cocci. — 1. D. Huegelii. 
Capsule membranous, loculicidally 3-valved. Leaves linear or cuneate, 
entire or 3-lobed. — 2. D. Stuartii. 

1. D. Huegelii, Endl. {var. eriocarpa, Benth). — ^Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, 
F. Gregory. 

2. D. Stuartii, F. v. M. — ^Lat. 18 degrees, 27 min.. Long. 132 degrees, G. 
F.HiU (No. 448), 6/7/1911. 

Between Mount Morphett and Bonny River, M'Douall Stuart. 

8. DODONAEA, LINN. 1737. 

{Empleurosma, Bartl., 1847 ; Ptelea, Triopterys, Palavia, Serjania, Thouinia.) 

Series I. Cycloptera. — Leaves entire, toothed, or rarely lobed. Wings 
of the capsule extending from the base to the style or nearly so, each carpel, 
including its wing, nearly orbicular or longer than broad. 

Leaves flat, elliptical, oblong-lanceolate or spathulate, or if linear not 
fihform, entire or obscurely sinuate, usually above 2 in. long, rarely between 1 
and 2. 

Young branches very angular. Seeds smooth and shining. Leaf- 
veins indistinct. — 1. D. lanceolata. 
Young branches terete or slightly angular. Seeds opaque. — 
7. D. viscosa. 
Leaves flat, more or less cuneate, entire or toothed at the end, rarely 
exceeding 1| in., and usually under 1 in. — 3. D. peduncularis. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHEEN TEERITOEY. 175 

Series II. Platypterce. — ^Leaves quite entire, flat. Wings of the cap- 
sule very divergent or divaricate, not reaching to the style nor to the base, 
each carpel, including its wing, broader than long, transversely ovate or oblong. 
— 5. D. platj-ptera. 

Series III. Pinnatce. — ^Leaves all pinnate or very rarely a few simple 
ones at the base of the branches. Capsule of the Cyclopterce, except in D. 
ox^-ptera, where it approaches that of the Platypterce. 

Tall shrubs or small trees. Leaflets flat, oblong, lanceolate or obovate, 
not coriaceous. Racemes or panicles terminal, loose. 

Leaflets usually numerous, lanceolate or oblong. Capsule not in- 
flated, the wings broad. — 6. D. polyzyga. 
Leaflets few, obovate or oblong. Capsule large and inflated. — 
4. D. physocarpa. 
Much-branched, leafy shrubs. Pedicels solitary or clustered.— 2. D. 
ox;\'ptera. 

1. D. lanceolata, F. v. M. — Capstan Island, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Victoria River and Sea Range, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
R. Brown,. 

2. D. oxyptera, F. v. J/.— MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 722), 
19 1/1912. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; dry rocky 
hiUs, Fitzmaurice River, Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

3. D. peduncular is, Lindl. (var. coriacea, Ewart and Davies). — 70 miles 
X. of Camp IV., G. F. HiU (8/6/1911). The leaves are larger and broader 
than usual and are coriaceous. Some Queensland specimens have even larger 
leaves, but in these the leaf is thinner. 

4. D. physocarpa, F. v. 21. — Lat. 18 degrees, 28 min.. Long. 132 degrees, 
G. F. HiU (No. 445), 6/7/1911. About 3 ft. high. 

. Recorded. Sea Range, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. Poisonous accord- 
ing to Greshoff, principle unknown. 

5. D. platyptera, F. v. M. — Cygnet Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Fitzmaurice River, F. v. M. 

6. D. polyzyga, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

7. D. viscosa, Linn. — MacdonneU Ranges, G. F. HiU (No. 123), 23/3/1911. 
On hill sides, bush 5 ft. Simpson's Gap, MacdonneU Ranges, G. F. HiU 
30/4/1911. On hUl 12 mUes N.AV. of Charlotte Waters, G. F. HUl (No. 18), 
24/2/1911. Hop Bush. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

Poisonous according to Greshoff and Radlkofer. Fish poison. The leaves 
of a form of this tree are in India used as a vermifuge. 

D. petiolaris, F. v. 21. ; D. pachynema, F. v. 21. ; D. humilis, Endl. ; D. 
ten ui folia, Lindl. ; recorded from North AustraUa in National Herbarium 
Census. 

9. DISTICHOSTEMON, F. V. M. 1857. 

( Pleistichostemon . ) 

1. D. phyllopterus, F. v. M. — (D. hispidulus, Baill. ; Dodonacea hispidula, 
Endl.). On Ranges 26 mUes S.W. of Borroloola, G. F. HUl (No. 577), 7/9/1911. 
Sandstone Ranges, near Western Creek, G. F. HUl (No. 769), 15/2/1912. 



176 THE IXOEA OF THE NORTHERN TEERITOEY. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Goulburn Island and Cape Pond, A. 
Cunningham ; Victoria River, Point Pearce, and Roper River, P. v. Mueller ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown , 
Henne ; From Amhgm's Land to the sources of Gilbert's River, not rare, F. v. 
Mueller. 

10. HARPULLIA, Roxb. 

1. H. Leichhardtii, F. v. M. — Port Essington, Leichhardt. 

RHAMNACEiE. 

Leaves 3 or 5-nerved. — 2. Zizyphus. 
Leaves penninerved. 

Panicle branches elongated and raceme-Uke. Nut 1 -seeded, produced 

into a long wing-Uke appendage. — 1. Ventilago. 
Panicle or cyme 2-3-chotomous. Endocarp separating into cocci. 

Ovary immersed in the disk. Epicarp thick. Leaves white 

or rusty underneath. — 4. Alphitonia. 
Ovary sessile on the disk. Epicarp thin. Leaves green on both 
sides. — 3. Emmenospermum. 

1. VENTILAGO, Gabrtn. 1788. 
{Enrila, Blanco, 1837.) 

1. V.viminaUs, Hook. — ^Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (No. 219), 9/8/1911 
20 miles N.W. and N. of Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (1/6/1911). 
Recorded. Nicholson River, Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

2. ZIZYPHUS, Juss. 

Leaves green on both sides, softly pubescent or villous, or at length 
glabrous. Drupe small, 2-celled. — 1. Z. Oenoplia. 

Leaves white or rusty underneath, with a close tomentum. — 2. Z. 
quadrilocularis. 

L. Z. Oenoplia, Mill. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria and Arnhem 
S. Bay, R. Brown. 

2. Z. quadrilocularis, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

3. EMMENOSPERMUM, F. v. M. 
1. E. Cunninghamii, Benth. — Port Warrender, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 

4. ALPHITONIA, Reissek. 1840. 

1. A. excelsa, Reissek.— BoTioloola, G. F. Hill (No. 655), 7/11/1911. 

Sandstone ranges and flats, near Tanumbirini, G. F. Hill (No. 807). 

Bauhinia Downs, G. F. Hill (No. 575), 24/3/1912. Hell Gate, Roper River 
and Eleven-Mile Creek, near Katharine. Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 
1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria (Cape Van Diemen), R. 
Brown ; Sweers Island, Henne ; Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

Red Ash. The leaves, with water, rubbed on the hands remove inkstains. 



ham. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY 177 

VITACEiE. 

Stamens free. Ovary 2-celled with. 2 ovriles in each cell. Woody climbers, 
with tendrils. — 1. Vitis. 

Stamens and petals connate with the disk. Ovary 3 to 6-celled with 1 
ovule in each cell. Erect, without tendrils. — 2. Leea. 

1. CISSUS, Linn. 
Leaves simple. 

Branches glaucous. Veinlets reticulate, not prominent. Flowers at 

least 1 line diameter. — 3. C. cordata. 
Not glaucous. Veinlets transverse. Flowers not ^ line diameter. — 
2. C. adnata. 
Leaflets 3. — 4. C. tritolia. 
Leaflets 5 to 9, pedate. — L C. acetosa. 

1. Cissv^ acetosa, F. v. M. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown ; Victoria and Fitz- 
maurice Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

2. C. adnata, Wall. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown ; Sea Range, very rare, F. v. 
MueUer. 

3. C. cordata. Wall. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown. 

4. C. carnosa, Lam. ( V. trifolia, Linn.). — ^N. Coast, R. Brown ; Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Albert River, Henne. Supposed antidote to snake-bite. 

2. LEEA, Linn. 

1. L. samhucina, Willd., Raffles Bay, Goulburn Island and other points 
of the N. Coast. — ^A. Cunningham. 

ELAEOCABPACEiE. 

1. ELAEOCARPUS, Buem. 1747. 

{Aceratium, D.C., 1824; Acronodia, Blume, 1825; Acrozus, Spreng., 
1827 ; Adenodus, Lour., 1790 ; Beythea, Endl., 1840 ; Craspedum, Lour., 
1790 ; Dicera,Forst., V116 ; Eriostemum,Colla., 1840 ; Ganitrus, Gaertn., 1791 ; 
Lochneria, Scop., 1777 ; Monocera, Jack., 1820 ; Elaicarpus, Perinkara, 
Adans.). 

Flowers about 1 line. — 1. E. arnhemicus. 
Flowers about 2 Unes. — 2. E. obovatus. 

1. E. arnhemicus, F. v. M. — ^Near Darwin, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

2. E. obovatus, G. Don. (var. foveolatus, Benih). — ^Islands of the N. Coast 
R. Brown ; Liverpool River, A. Cunningham ; Fitzmaurice River and Macadam 
Range, F. v. Mueller. 

THIACEiE. 

Drupe indehiscent, not echinate, entire or 2-lobed. Petals narrow, short, 
with a foveolate base. Trees or shrubs. — 2. Grewia. 

Fruit globular, echinate, indehiscent, or separating into 1 -seeded cocci. 

Petals narrow, with a foveolate or pubescent base. Shrubs or herbs. 3. 

Triumfetta. 

Capsule 2 to 5-ceUed, with several seeds in each, opening in valves, usually 
long and smooth, rarely short and echinate. Petals usually obovate or broad, 
without a foveola. Shrubs or herbs. — 1. Corchorus. 



178 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TBRRITOEY. 

1. CORCHORUS, Linn. 

Annuals (or biennials), glabrous or loosely pubescent. 

Capsule globular or ovoid, very obtuse. — 2. C. echinatus. 

Capsule (I to |-in. long) rather thick, angular or winged. — 1. C. 

acutangulus. 
Capsule linear, not \Adnged. 

Capsule I to 2 in. Lower pair of serratures of the leaves ending in 
fine setae. Stamens numerous. 
Caspule 5-celled, the transverse partitions conspicuous. — 5. C. 

olitorius. 
Capsule 3 or 4-celIed, without transverse partitions. — 9. C. tri- 
dens. 
Capsule under J-in., 2 or 3-celled. Leaves without setae. Flowers 
very small. Stamens few. Pubescent plants. 
Capsule 3-celled, erect or spreading, 3-toothed at the top. — 

3. C. fascioularis. 
Capsule 2-celled, reflexed, very hirsute, rather acute. — 6. C. 
Pumiho. 
Undershrubs or shrubs more or less tomentose or hirsute. 

Fruiting pfedioels recurved. Capsule linear, curved or twisted, 
more or less torulose, 2 or 3-celled. 

Low diffuse shrubs or undershrubs. Capsule few-seeded. 
Sepals under 2 lines. Stamens about 10. 
Capsule 3 or 4 lines long, very hispid, slightly curved. — 6. C. 

Pumilio. 
Sepals under 2 lines. Stamens about 20. 
Capsule elongated, much twisted, torulose, glabrous. — 10. C. 
vermicularis. 
Erect shrubs. Capsule tomentose, elongated, many-seeded. 

Tomentum scabrous or almost villous. Sepals 2 or 3 lines.. 

Petals narrow. — 8. C. sidoides. 
Tomentum soft, close and hoary. Sepals 4 lines or more. 
Petals broad. 

Leaves 2 to 4 in. — 4. C. leptocarpus. 
Leaves about 1 in. — 7. C. sericeus. 
Caspule erect, straight, not twice as long as the calyx, 5-celled. — 
11. C. Walcottii. 

1. C. acutangulus, Lam. — ^Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. C. echinatus, Benth. — Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, sources of the 
Victoria River, P. v. Mueller. 

3. C. fascicularis. Lam. — Victoria River, Sturt's and Hooker's Creeks, 
F. V. Mueller ; Arnhem's Bay, R. Brown. 

4. G. leptocarpus, A. Cunn. — Water Island, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

5. G. olitorius, Linn. — Van Diemen's Gulf, A. Cunningham. 

6. G. Pumilio, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

7. G. sericeus, Ewart and Davies (Plate XVIII. ). — Leaves alternate about 
1 in. long, ovate-lanceolate, thick and velvety, with a dense stellate tomentum, 
.5-nerved at the base, on petioles of about 4 lines. Flowers clustered in the 
axils, peduncle of about 5 lines. Pedicels about IJ to 2 lines. Sepals long and 



THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHBRN TEEEITORY. 179 

narrow, densely pubescent, 4 to 5 lines long. Petals not as long as the sepals. 
Fruit not seen. Near to C. leptocarpus but differs in having smaller leaves 
with closer nerves and dense tomentum. 
Borroloola, G. F. HiU, 9/10/1911. 

8. G. sidoides, F. v. M. — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Cygnet Bay, A. Cun- 
ningham ; frequent in sterUe places on the Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; 
Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

9. C. tridens, Linn. — Islands of the N. Coast, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria 
River, Sturt's and Hooker's Creeks, F. v. Mueller. 

10. C vermicularis, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

11. C. Walcottii, F. v. M. — Enderby Island, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham; 
Hearson Island and Nichol Bay, F. Gregory. 

Var. parviflora, Benth. — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory. 

Var. densiflora, Benth. — Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

C. Elderi, F. v. M. ; G: hygro'philus, Gunn. ; G. elachocarpus, F. v. M. ; 
(in Nat. Herb. Census), and G. Allenii, F. v. M. (in Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 
1891) ; recorded from North Australia. 

2. GREWIA, Linn. 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so, 3-nerved at the base. Flowers hermaphro- 
dite. 

Sepals 7 to 9 lines. Petals small, the foveola very large. Torus 
elongated. Fruit depressed-globose, not lobed, ^.in. diameter 
or more. — 4. G. orientalis. 
Sepals about 4 lines. Petals very small, the foveloa large. Torus 
short. Fruit small, 2-lobed (unless reduced to one carpel). — 
2. G. multiflora. 
Sepals about 2 lines. Petals more than half as long, the foveola very 
small. Torus short. Fruit small, entire. — 1. G. breviflora. 
Leaves white-tomentose underneath or scabrous, 3 or 5-nerved. Flowers 
polygamo-dioecious. 

Leaves obovate-oblong to lanceolate. Foveolate base of the petals 

broader than the lamina. — 5. G. polygama. 
Leaves ovate or orbicular. Foveolate base of the petals small. 
Leaves ovate-cordate, acuminate, often 3 to 4 in. Staminodia 
in the female flowers numerous, clavate, without anthers. — 
.6. G. xanthopetala. 
Leaves small, orbicular, very scabrous. Buds striate. (Female 
flowers unknown). — 3. G. orbifoUa. 

1. O. breviflora, Benth. — Cygnet Bay, A. Cunningham ; N.W. Coast, 
'Bjrxoe ; Islands of the Bay of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. G. multiflora, Jtiss. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

3. O. orbifolia, F. v. M. — Sandstone rooks of the Upper Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller. 

4. G. orientalis, Linn. — Van Diemen's Gulf, A. Cunningham ; Islands 
of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

5. G. polygama, Roxb. — CuUen Creek, and Eleven-Mile Creek, near 
Katharine, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 1911 ; medicinal astringent. 
Lower Macvb'thur River, G. F. Hill (No. 682), 8/11/1911. Five-mile Bar 
MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 719), 19/1/1912. 

G 



180 THE FLOBA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

Recorded. Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers and Arnhem's Land, F. v. 
Mueller. 

Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; Sweers Island, Henne. A valuable remedy in cases of dysentery. 

6. O. xanihopetala, F. v. M. — Sandstone rocks, Upper Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller. 

G. laevigata, Vahl. ; recorded in Nat. Herb. Census from North Australia. 

3. TRIUMFETTA, Pltjm. 1737. 
{Bartramia, Linn, 1747 ; Porpa, Blume, 1825). 

Ovary 3 to 5-celled. Fruit 3 to 8-celled, with 1 seed in each cell. 

Leaves round-cordate, entire or lobed. Fruit rather large, with two 

cells and seeds to each carpel. — 1. T. Appendiculata. 
Leaves ovate to lanceolate. Fruit small, with as many cells and 
seeds as carpels. Erect tomentose shrubs. 

Broader leaves obovate-rhomboid. Calyx appendages ovate- 
peltate. (Fruit unknown). — 3. T. glaucescens. 
Broader leaves cordate-lanceolate. Calyx appendages small, 
obtuse. Fruit depressed-globular, 5-ceUed, nearly glabrous. 
— 2. T. denticulata. 
Broader leaves obovate-cordiate. Calyx appendages small, acute. 
Fruit ovoid-globular, 4-celled, very tomentose. — 4. T. 
micrantha. 
Ovary 2-celled. Fruit 1-seeded. 

Fruit covered with long soft plumose setae. — 6. T. plumigera. 
Fruit very small, scarcely pubescent, shortly echinate. — 5. T. parvi- 
iiora. 

1. T. appendiculata, F. v. M. — Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, F. Gregory ; 
Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. T. denticulata, E. Br. — Cavern Island, and Groote Eyland, in the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. T. glaucescens, R. Br. — Islands of the GuH of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

4. T. micrantha, F. v. M. — Cullen Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Victoria River, Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks and Abel Tasman River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

5. T. parviflora, Benth. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

6. T. plumigera, F. w.lf.— Near Top Spring, G. F. Hill (No. 544), 
31/8/1911. Eleven-mile Creek, near Katharine, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Recorded. Montague Sound, A. Cunningham ; N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; 
Depot Creek, sources of the Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

T. chaetocarpa, F. v. M. ; T. leptocantha, F. v. M. ; T. Winneckeana, 
F. V. M. (in Nat. Herb. Census), and T. Bradshawii, F. v. M. (in Proc. Linn. 
Soc, N.S.W., 1891), recorded from North Australia. 

MALVACEiE. 

Many of this order yield fibre in great quantity, and material valuable in 
paper making. 

Tribe I. Malveae. — Staminal column bearing filaments to the summit. 



THE FLORA OE THE NOBTHBBN TERRITORY. 181 

Stj'le-branches the same number as ovary-cells. Mature carpels separating 
more or less from the axis (imperfectly so ia some Abutila). 

Ovules solitary ia each cell, ascending with a ventral raphe. — 2, Mal- 
vastrum. 

Ovules solitary in each cell, pendulous or horizontal with a dorsal raphe. 
Bracteoles none. 

Styles with decurrent stigmas. Flowers more or less dioecious. — 3. 

Plagianthus. 
Stigmas terminal, capitate, or truncate. — i. Sida. 
Ovules 2 or more in each cell. Bracteoles none.' Stigmas terminal. — 
1 . Abutilon. 

Tribe II. Hibiscece. — Staminal column truncate or o-toothed at the 
summit, bearing the anthers or filaments on the outside, or rarefy at the summit 
also. Style-branches or stigmas the same number as ovary-cells. Carpels 
united in a several-celled capsule, locuhcidal or indehiscent. 

Style branched at the top or with radiating stigmas. Ovary 5-celIed. — 
5. Hibiscus. 

Style undivided, with decurrent stigmas. 

Bracteoles 3 to 5, narrow, not cordate, sometimes very small. 

Ovary 3, 4 or rarely o-ceUed. Capsule coriaceous, locuhcidal. — 

7. Cienfuegosia. 
Ovar3^ .5-celled. Capsule woody, sometimes indehiscent.— 
6. Thespesia. 
Bracteoles 3, broad, cordate. — 8. Gossypium. 

I. ABUTILON, TouRN. 1763. 

( Abutilaea, F. v. 31., 1852 ; Beloere, Shuttl, 1862 ; Bogenhardea, Reichb., 
1841; Herissantia, Medic, 1789; Lass, Adans., 1763; Prestonia, Scop., 
nil. Fleischeria. Lantern-Flower. Chinese Lantern. All yield good fibre. 
I. Capsule truncate or concave at the top. Carpels (usually 2 or 3- 
seeded), angular-pointed or awned at the upper outer edge, persistent, or rarely 
at length deciduous, leaving the filiform placenta attached to the axis. 

Carpels (usually 10 or fewer), not exceeding the calyx-lobes, the points 
erect, or rarely divergent. Stems usually (perhaps always) shrubby. 
Calyx-lobes shorter than the tube. 

Calyx 1 in. long, campanulate, lobes acute, nearly as long as 

the tube. Petals twice as long. — 1. A. amplum. 
Calyx I to J-in., lobes acuminate or rather obtuse, spreading, 
much shorter than the tube. — 7. A. leucopetalum. 
Calyx-lobes longer than the tube or cup, acuminate. — 8. A. oto- 
carpum. 
Carpels usually exceeding the calyx-lobes, the points often divergent. 
Herbs usually tall, sometimes hard, almost woody at the base. 
Stems coarse and erect. Leaves broadly cordate. 

Stipules small and subulate. Flowers mostly axillary. — 6. A. 

indicum. 
Stipules broadly semisagittate. Flowers in terminal leaflets 
racemes or panicles. — 2. A. auritum. 
Stems rather slender. Leaves ovate or cordate-lanceolate. Capsule 
truncate, with short divergent points. — 9. A. oxycarpum. 

II. Carpels (often 1 -seeded by abortion) rounded or angled at the top, 
quite distinct, and seceding from the axis when fully ripe. 

G2 



182 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Carpels numerous (about 20), closely packed, very hirsute. Tall herbs, 
with large, broadly cordate leaves . — 1 . A. pedatum . 

Carpels rarely more than 10, glabrous or slightly tomentose, not searious. 
Leaves mostly cordate-orbicular. 

Densely velvety-tomentose (shrubby). Petals shortly exceeding 

the calyx.— -4. A. Cunninghamii. 
Low undershrub, shortly tomentose or pubescent, often with 
spreading hairs. Petals fully twice as long as the calyx. — 5. A. 
Fraseri. . 
Carpels 10 to 15, slightly hispid, enlarged and searious when ripe. Slender 
undershrub, with cordate, often almost sessile leaves. — 3. A. crispum. 

1. A. amplum, Benth. — Harding River, S.E. of Mchol Bay, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. 

2. A. auritum, G. Don. — Keppel Bay, R. Brown ; Percy Island, A. 
Cunningham. 

3. A. crispum, G. Don. — Sources of Hooker's Creek, and MacArthur 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Maitland River, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

4. A. Cunninghamii, Benth. — Enderby Island, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham ; Albert River, Henne. 

5. A. Fraseri, Hook.—m miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 289), 
7/6/1911. 

Recorded. N.W., M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

6. A. indicum, G. Don. — Head of Kilgour River, G. F. Hill (No. 434a), 
30/8/1911. 

Recorded. Point Cunningham and Cygnet Bay, A. Cunningham ; Gulf of 
Carpentaria, Landsborough.- 

7. A. leucopetalum, F. v. M.—60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. HiU (No. 
277), 7/6/1911. 25 miles N.W. of Anthony's Lagoon, G. F. HiU (No. 530), 
27/8/1911. 

Recorded. Hooker's Creek and Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

8. A. otocarpum, F. v. M. — In the desert or Sturt's Creek, and on 
Gilbert River, F. v. M. ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory. 

9. A. oxycarpum, F. v. M. — Fiizroy and Mackenzie Rivers, F. v. 
Mueller. 

10. A. pedatum, Ewart. — Peduncles long, calyx with numerous veins, 
tube as broad as long, and more than twice the length of the lobes. Corolla 
yellow, shortly exceeding the calyx. Fruit (immature), depressed globular, 
carpels not angular. Whole plant densely and softly clothed with a yellowish 
or rusty indumentum, branches under 26 cm. high from the base, branchlets 
softly angular. Leaves on long petioles, reaching 3 cm., cordate-orbicular 
with large blunt teeth or margins, green smooth and velvety on upper surface, 
paler and veined below, 3.5 cm. diameter. Peduncles in upper axils, up to 
4.5 cm. in length, pedicels thickening towards calyx, both being rusty, calyx 
with a broad base overhanging top of pedicel, 1 to 1.5 cm. long, and about 
as broad with 20 to 30 veins more or less distinct, tube scarcely expanding 
upwards, nearly 1 cm. long, lobes 3 or 4 mm., deltoid and shortly acuminate, 
tomentose on under side ; buds cordate-globose contracting to an acute 5-ribbed 
apex. Petals yellow, 17 mm. long, ciliate at base. Fruit (immature) depressed 
globose densely pubescent, rounded and smooth, and quite concealed by calyx. 

70 miles N. by W. of Camp III., near Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 342), 
14/6/1911. 



THE TLOEA OF THE NOETHEEN TEREITOEY. 183 

From the carpels being rounded at the top the plant falls into Section II. 
of the genus Abutilon. It appears to be nearest A. muticum G. Don, but the 
peduncles are longer than the petioles, the calyx-lobes are shorter than the tube, 
and the capsule, although immature, is much shorter than the calyx. 

A. tubulosum, Hook ; A. cryptopetalum, F.v.M. ; A. geranioides, Benth. ; 
A. longilobum, F. v. M. ; A. exonemum, F. v. M. ; (in Nat. Herb. Census), 
and A. asiaticum, G. Don (in Gen. Syst., No. 503, 1831) ; recorded from North 
Austraha. 

2. MALVASTRUM, A. Gray. 1849. 
(Nototriche, Turcz., 1863 ; Malva, partly). 
1. M. spicatum, A. Gr. — 30 miles N.W. of Twitchera Gap, Macdonnell 
Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 160), 10/5/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River and Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 
M. tricusindatum, A. Gray.; recorded from North Australia in Nat. Herb. 
Census. 

3. PLAGIANTHUS, Forst. 

( Asterotrichion and Blepharanthemum, Klotzsch. ; Lawrencia, Hook. ; 
Halothamnus, F. v. Mueller). Hemp bush. 
Flowers in dense spikes.^-4. P. densifiorus. 
Flowers axillary, solitary or clustered. 

The herbaceous parts with scurfy scales . — 2. P. squamatus. 
Glabrous or slightly pubescent herbs. 

Flowers all sessile. — 1.. P. glomeratus. 
Male flowers stalked. — 3. P. difiusus. 

1. Pla^ianthus glomeratus, Benth. — 10 miles W.S.W. of Stuart Ranges, 
2/6/11, G. F. Hill (No. 224). Thorny Hemp bush. 

2. P. squamatus, Benth. — Recorded. Swan River, Drummond, 4th 
Coll. (No. 106), Preiss (No. 1231.). 

3. P. diffusus, Benth (in Nat. Herb. Census); and P. densifiorus, E. Baker 
(in Britt. Journ. Bot. XXX., 1892), are recorded from North Australia. 

4. SIDA, Linn. 1735. 

{Diadesma, Bafin, 1836 ; Dictyocarpus, Wight., 1837 ; Fleischeria, Steud., 
1844 ; Malvinda, Dill., 1787). All yield good fibre, Sida hemp. 

I. Calyx without prominent ribs or angles. Carpels strongly reticulate 
on the sides, indehiscent, or nearly so, never aristate. Perennials or shrubs. 
Flowers 1 or 2 together, on slender pedicels, articulate near the top.- 

Calyx-lobes obtuse, not protruding beyond the broad part of the fruit. 
Carpels strongly wrinkled on the back. Fruit 2-| to 4 lines 

diameter. — 2. S. corrugata. 

Carpels not, or very slightly wrinkled . Fruit not exceeding 2 lines 

diameter. Leaves and flowers very small. — 5. S. intricata. 

Calyx-lobes acute or scarcely acuminate, remaining herbaceous, and 

not much enlarged after flowering. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, cordate at the base. — 6. S. 

macropoda. 
Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, not cordate. — 12. S. 
virgata. 
Calyx-lobes acuminate, with long, subulate, woolly points. — 3. S. 

cryphiopetala. 
Calyx-lobes enlarged and thinner or scarious after floweririg. — 7. S. 
physocalyx. 



184 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHERN TERRITORY. 

Flowers clustered, several together. Pedicels sliort,[^not articulate. — 11. 
S. subspicata. 

II. Calyx 5-aiigled, prominently 10-ribbed. Carpels not reticulate on 
the sides, and opening in two short valves at the top. Herbs or under shrubs. 

Leaves ovate or narrow, whitish with a close tomentum o" both sides. 
Carpels 5. — 10. S. spinosa. 

Leaves ovate or narrow, whitish with a close tomentum underneath. 
Carpels about 10. — 9. S. rhombitolia. 

Leaves broad, cordate (or rarely narrow). Tomentum soft, loose, or 
velvety. Carpels about 10. — 1. S. cordifolia. 

III. Calyx with 15 or 20 nerves prominent when in fruit. Carpels numer- 
ous. Styles free to the base. 

Calyx enlarging after flowering, open at the top. — 8. S. platj'calyx. 
Fruiting calyx very large, membranous, quite closed over the fruit. — 
4. S. inclusa. 

1. S. cordifolia, Linn.—D&iwia, G. F. Hill (3rd Series, 2), 2/2/1914. 
Recorded. Port Essington, Armstrong ; N. Coast, Bynoe. 

2. 8. corrugata, Lindl. — 110 miles N. of Survey Camp IV., G. F. Hill 
No. 409), 1/7/1911. Hugh River, MacDonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 145), 
6/5/1911. 

Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 84), 13/3/1911. 
60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. HiU (No. 261a), 7/6/1911. 
Lat. 19 degrees, Long. 132 degrees, G. F. Hill (No. 84), 13/3/1911. 
Upper Victoria River, and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

3. S. cryphiopetala, F. v. M. — Brindley's Bluff, MacDonnell Ranges, 
M'DouaU Stuart. 

4. 8. inclusa, Benth.—QO miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 266), 
7/6/1911. Recorded. Hammersley Range, N.W. Coast, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. 

5. 8. intricata, F. v. M. — ^About 30 miles N.W. of Twitchera Gap, Mac- 
Donnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 161), 10/5/1911. Near Mt. Zeal, MacDonnell 
ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 166), 12/5/1911. 

Recorded. Stony ridges of the Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

6. 8. macropoda, F. v. M. — Summits of Sea Range, Head of Hooker's 
Creek, Arnhem's Land, and GuH of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

7. 8. physocalyx, F. v. M. — Hammersley Range, N.W. Coast, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. 

8. 8. platycalyx, F. v. If .—Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

9. 8. rhombifolia, Linn. — Eleven-mile Creek, near Katherine, Gilruth and 
Spencer, July- August, 1911. 60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 276), 
7/6/1911. 

Recorded. Port Essington, Armstrong. 

Queensland Hemp, Sida Weed. The ripe capsules cause the death of 
fowls that feed on it, the sharp pointed capsules causing internal inflammation. 

10. 8. spinosa, Linn. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller ; Quail Island, Flood. 

11. 8. subspicata, F. v. M. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Hooker and 
Sturt's Creeks, F. v. Mueller. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHERN TERRITORY. 185 

12. ;S'. virgata, Hook.— 25 miles S.W. of Borroloola, G. F. HiU (No. 573), 
7/9/1911. Recorded. Sandstone table-land of the Upper Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller. 

5. HIBISCUS, Linn. 1737. 

{Abelmoschiis, Medic, 1787 ; Azanza, B.C., 1824; Bamia, B. Br., 1830; 
Bombycodendron, Zoll., 1847 ; Cotyloplecta, Alef., 1863 ; Furcaria, Kostal., 
1836 ; Hymenocalyx, Zenk., 1835 ; Ketmia, Tourn., 1737 ; Laguruiea, Oav., 
1787 ; Lagunaruia, Reichb., 1828 ; Munchusia, Heist., 1838 ; Pariti, Adans., 
1763 ; Paritium, St. Hil., 1827 ; Pentaspermum, B.C., 1840 ; Petitia, Neck., 
1790 ; Polychlaena, Garcke., 1867 ; Solandra, Murr., 1785 ; Triguera, Cav., 
1786 ; Trionaea, Medic, 1787 ; Trionum, Linn., 1735 ; Triplochiton, Alef., 
1863 ; Fugosia.) 

AU yield good fibre (Hibiscus hemp).-. 

Section I. Bracteoles f ree (sometimes very deciduous). Calyx 5-toothed, 
splitting open on one side and deciduous. Tall annuals. {Abelmoschus, Medic). 

Glabrous or the inflorescence tomentose. Bracteoles small, falUng off 
from the young bud. Flowers white. — 4. H. ficuLaeus. 

Hisjpid. Bracteoles 8 to 12, linear, persistent. Flowers red. — 12. H. 
rhodiopetalus. 

Section II. Bracteoles free. Calyx shortly 5-lobed, inflated. Herb 
with deeply lobed leaves. {Trionum, Medic). — 17. H. trionum. 

Section III. Bracteoles free. Calyx deeply 5-lobed, the lobes 1 or 3- 
nerved, without thickened margins. Seeds bordered or covered by long 
woolly hairs. Low or slender shrubs or undershrubs. {Bombicella, D. C). 

Plant densely and rigidly velvety-tomentose. Leaves ovate or lanceolate, 
mostly undivided. Bracteoles small. — 8. H. microchlaenus. 

Plant closely and densely tomentose. Leaves orbicular, mostly broadly 
3-lobed, — 11. H. Piaonianus. 

Section IV. Bracteoles free. Calyx deeply 5-lobed, the lobes with a 
central nerve and thickened nerve-hke margins. Seeds glabrous. Tall herbs or 
shrubs, often more or less armed with short prickles (except the last 2 species). 

Herb glabrous or with scattered hairs. Calyx ribs ciliate. Flowers white 
or pink. — 1. H. cannabinus. 

TaU shrubs, glabrous or with scattered hairs. — 6. H. heterophyUus. 
Tomentose or densely villous shrubs, without prickles. Calyx tomentose 
or villous. 

Flowers 1| to 2 in,, long. — 18. H. zonatus. 
Flowers about |-in. long. — 2. H. Coatesii. 
Section V. Bracteoles free. Calyx deeply 5-lobed, the lobes 1 or 3- 
nerved, without thickened margins. Seeds glabrous or shortly pubescent. 
Low or slender shrubs or imdershrubs glabrous, scabrous-pubescent or bristly 
hispid. 

Leaves undivided. 

Scabrous-pubescent. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong. — 7. H. 

leptoeladus. 
Glandular viscid and rigidly setose. Leaves broad-cordate or orbicu- 
lar. — 13. H. setulosus. 
Leaves deeply divided. 

Glabrous or nearly so. Calyx fin. long. Capsule hispid. — 10. H. 
pentaphyUus. 

Hirsute and densely setose. Calyx not Jin. Capsule glabrous. 

5. H. geranioides. 



186 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Small velvety-tomentose shrubs or undershrubs. Leaves shortly lobed. — 
9. H. panduriformis. 

Section VI. Bracteoles united at least at the base. Calyx 5-lobed. 
Tomentose shrubs or undershrubs. Leaves crenate or broadly and shortly 
lobed. 

Involucral lobes long, much exceeding the calyx.^ — 14. H. Spenceri. 
Involucral teeth or lobes short or broad. Klaments long and few. 
Calyx-lobes obscurely nerved. 

Leaves crenate. Mowers white or pink.^ — 15. H. Sturtii. 
Leaves broadly toothed. PloAvers purpUsh. — 3. H. Farragei. 
Involucral bracts united at the base only. Filaments short and 
numerous. Calyx-lobes 1-nerved, with thickened margins.- — 
18. H. zonatus. 
Glabrous tree. Leaves broad-cordate, entire.^ — 16. H. tiliaceus. 

1. H. cannabinus, Linn {H. radiatus, Gav.). — Katharine Creek, Gilruth 
and Spencer, July-August, 1911. Recorded. Arnhem's Land, Islands of 
Carpentaria Bay, etc., R. Brown ; Victoria and Pitzmaurioe Rivers, Macadam 
Range, etc., F. v. Mueller. 

2. H. Coatesii, F. v. M. — Hammersley Range, near Niohol River, P. 
Gregory's Expedition. 

3. H. Farragei, F. v. M. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (No. 
90), 13/3/1911. Recorded. Maodonnell Range, E. Giles. 

4. H. ficulneus, Linn. — Head of Kilgour River, G. F. HiU (No. 535a), 
30/8/191 1 . Recorded. In basaltic tropical and sub-tropical plains, N. A., F. v. 
Mueller. The young mucilaginous pods are edible. 

5. H. geranioides, A. Cunn. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; Vansittart's Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

6. H. heterophyllus, Vent. — ^Western and Okey Creeks, G. F. Hill (No. 759), 
16/2/1912. Calyx with prickles but with very httle tomentum. Native Rosella. 

7. H. lepfocladus, Benth.- — Sandstone ranges. Western Creek, G. F. HiU 
(No. 748a), 14/2/1912. Recorded. Islands of Carpentaria Bay, R. Brown ; 
•Victoria River, Bynoe, F. v. Mueller. 

8. H. microchlaenus, F. v. M.- — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; 
Maitland River, Nichol Bay, Walcott ; Fortescue River, M. Brown. 

9. H. panduraeformis, N. Burman. — Edith Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July-August, 1911. Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Maitland 
River, F. Gregory's Expedition ; Albert River, Hehne. 

10. H. pentaphyllus, F. v. M.- — ^Victoria River and Arnhem's Land, F. v. 
Mueller ; gathered also in Leiohhardt's and M'DouaU Stuart's Expeditions. 

11. P. Pinionianus, Gaud. — ^Mount Denison, M'DouaU Stuart. 

12. H. rhodopetalus, F. v. M. — Arhmen's Land, R. Brown ; Port MoUe, 
M'GilUvray. 

13. H. setulosus, F. v. M. — Rocks on the MacArthur and Seven Emu 
Rivers, GuU of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

14. H. Spenceri, Ewart.- — Involucral bracts united at base into a cup, 
calyx shorter, cleft to middle ; petals 3 times as long as calyx ; fruit globose, 
carpels 5, not angular ; leaves cordate-orbicular with a longitudinal grooved 
gland at base of midrib on under side. Shrub with obtusely-angular branchlets, 
tomentose. Leaves cordate-orbicular sometimes broadly 3-lobed, irregularly 
sinuate-toothed and denticulate, or under surface strongly 5 to 7 -veined and 



THE FLOBA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 187 

reticulate with a linear grooved gland 5 to 10 mm. in length on base of midrib, 
with a dense but very short grey tomentum, green and very sparingly tomentose 
above, largest 7 by 7 cm., some broader than long, petiole 2-3 cm. 

Flowers (4) clustered in axils of small leaves at top of branch, on pedicels of 
about 3 mm. Involucre campanulate, 8 mm. long, cleft into 5-6 lanceolate 
obtusely acuminate segments of about 5 mm., recurved at tip, obscurely striate 
or 3 or more-nerved. Calyx only 6 mm. long, cleft to about middle into deltoid 
or lanceolate acuminate lobes with a prominent midrib. Petals purplish, 
2 cm. long by 8 cm., obhquely obovate and tapering into a claw, tomentose 
externally. Staminal column 1.5 cm. in length. Fruit subglobose, sHghtly 
umbonate, 5 by 4 mm., closely tomentose smooth and rounded, calyx and 
involucre closely fitting over capsules, carpels 5, not angular, seeds glabrous. 

Cullen Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

This species belongs to that section of Hibiscus in which the bracteoles 
are more or less united, but is distinguished from the other Austrahan species 
in that section by the involucre with its long lobes considerably exceeding the 
calyx in length. Its nearest affinity is H. Sturtii, but in that variable species 
the involucral lobes are not only shorter but also more numerous. The anthers 
also as far as could be observed are sessile on the upper third of the column, 
while in H. Sturtii the free portion of the filaments is much longer. 

Another character which does not appear to have been utilised in de- 
scriptive works, the presence of a gland at the base of the midrib on the underside 
of the leaf, furnishes what may be said to be conclusive evidence of specific 
difference of H. Spenceri from H. Sturtii, in which the gland is entirely absent 
in all the forms examined. In the shape and indumentum of the leaves it 
shows a resemblance to H. tiUaceus, in which also the midrib gland is found. 

15. H. Sturtii, Hook. — ^N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller ; N. of M'Doimell Rqnge, M'Douall Stuart. 

16. H. tiliaceus, Linn.—Denwm, G. F. HUl (2nd Series, 102), 3/7/1913. 
Near Darwin, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; Port 
Molle, M'GiUivray. 

Cotton Tree. From the fibre a strong paper can be made. A beautifully 
marked cabinet wood. 

17. H. Trionum, Linn. — 10 miles W. of Eva Downs, G. F. Hill (Nos. 513 
and 514), 19/8/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

18. H. zoimtus, F. v. M. — Hell Gate, Roper River, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July- August, 1911. Sandstone ranges, 16 miles S.W. of Borroloola, G F 
Hill (No. 684), 16/11/11. Near Western Creek, G. F. Hill (779), 16/2/1912. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; W. Coast of the 
Gulf, Leichhardt ; Rocky Banks of the Seven Emu, MacArthur and Nicholson 
Rivers. F. v. Mueller. 

H. Abelmoschus, L. : H. Manihot, L. ; H. brachysiphonitcs, F. v. M. ; 
H. Goldsworthii, F. v. 31. ; H. cuneiformis, D. C. ; recorded from North Aus- 
tralia in Nat. Herb. Census. 

6. THESPESIA, Soland. 1807. 

(Azanza, Alef. 1861). 

1. T. populnea, Corr. — MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 587), 18/9/1911. 
Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne. 
Indian Tulip Tree. Said to contain, in bark and wood, tannua and a fine 
red colouring matter. The sqedis said to yield a thick oil. 



188 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TEBRITOKY. 

7. CIENPUEGOSIA, Cav. 1787. 

{Fugosia, Juss.) 

Whole plant softly tomentose. 

Calyx-lobes linear or lanceolate. Bracteoles linear. — 1. C. australis. 
Calyx truncate minutely 5-toothed. Bracteoles setaceous, minute. — 
5. C. thespesioides. 
Plant glabrous or very slightly hoary-tomentose. 
Calyx deeply divided into lanceolate lobes. 

Leaves ovate or lanceolate, narrowed at the base, on very short 

petioles. — 4. C. punctata. 
Leaves orbicular, 5-nerved, on petioles of 1 in. — 2. C. latifolia. 
Calyx truncate, with small hnear lobes. Leaves on long petioles, 
cordate, acuminate. — 3. C. populntfolia. 

1. C.australis, Benth. — (Gos'sypium australe, F.v.M. ; Fugosia australis, 
Benih.). Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. HiU (No. 180), 16/5/1911. 
Alt. 3000 ft. and (No. 190), 18/5/1911. Alt. 4000 ft. 

Recorded. Barren plains, not rare, F. v. Mueller ; N.W. Coast, Bynoe, 
Maitland River, F. Gregory's Expedition ; Gulf of Carpentaria, Landsborough. 

2. C. latifolia, Benth. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

3. C. populnifolia, Benth. — GreviUe Island, Montague Sound, Isles of 
King George IV. 's Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

4. C. punctata, Benth. — ^Port Essington, A. Cunningham. 

5. C. thespesioides, Benth. — N. Coast, without any precise locality in- 
dicated, R. Brown. 

8. GOSSYPIUM, Linn. 1735. 

(Sturtia, R. Br., 1849 ; Thurberia, A. Gr., 1854 ; Xylon, Town, 1878). 

1. G. Sturtii, F. v. ilf.— Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 170), 
12/5/1911. Australian Cotton. 

Var. triloba.— 'North of 15 degrees W.S. Campbell (No. 3), 5/9/1911. 

G. Robinsoni, F. v. M. ; G. flaviflorum, F. v. M. ; recorded from North 
Australia in Nat. Herb. Census. 

Vrena lobata, L. ; Urena Armitiana, F. v. M. ; recorded from North 
Australia in Nat. Herb. Census. 



BOMBACACEffi. 

Calyx entire in the bud, afterwards 3 to 5-cleft, large woody, filled with 
mealy pulp. Leaves digitate. — 1. Adansonia. 

Calyx truncate in the bud, afterwards 3 to 5-cleft. Capsule 5-valved, 
densely woolly inside. Leaves digitate. — 2. Bombax. 

1. ADANSONIA, Linn. 

1. A. Gregorii, F. v. M.- — Sandy plains and low stony ridges, from the 
Glenelg to the Western Shores of Arnhem's Land, and rarely 100 miles inland, 
r. V. Mueller, G. Burnett, and others. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEBN TEREITOEY. 189 

2. BOMBAX, Linn. 1753. 

{Eriotheca, Schott and Endl., 1832 ; Salmalia Schott. and Endl., 1852 ; 
Pachira,Aubl., Carolinea, L.) 

1. B. malabaricum, D.C. — Point Charles, G. F. Hill (3rd Series, 18), 
14/8/1913. Recorded. Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

Kapok or Cotton Tree. Silk cotton tree. Yields kapok. 

Camptostemon Schultzii, Masters ; recorded from -North Australia in Nat. 
Herb. Census. 

STERCULIACEai. 

Anthers 5 to 15, sessile or stipitate, surroundiag the ovary at the top of a 
column or gynophore. 

Flowers unisexual or polygamous. No petals. Anthers sessile. No 
staminodia. Fruit-carpels separate, sessile or stipitate. Trees. 
Leaves simple or digitate. (Tribe Sterculieoe). 
Seeds free. — 8. Sterculia. 

Seed enclosed by and united to the inner waU of the fruit. — 
9. Brachychiton. 
Flowers hermaphrodite. Petals 5, clawed. Anthers on short fila- 
ments, surrounding or alternating with 5 teeth of the column or 
stamiaodia. Leaves simple. (Tribe Helicterece). — 7. HeUcteres. 
Stamens 5, united at the base in a short cup or ring, or rarely free, with or 
without intervening staminodia, and surrounding the sessile ovary. 
Petals flat, longer than the calyx. 

Stamens 5, united in a cup, with 5 intervening elongated flat 

staminodia. — 1. Melhania. 
Stamens 5, united at the base without intervening staminodia. 
(Tribe Hermanniee). 
Ovary 5-celled. — 2. Melochia. 
Ovary 2-celled. — 3. Dicarpidium. 
Ovary of 1 1 -celled carpel. — 4. Waltheria. 
Petals with a short, broad, very concave base, and a sessile or 

stipitate lamina. (Tribe Buettneriece). — 5. Rulingia. 
Petals small and scale-hke or none. (Tribe Lasiopetalece) . — 6. Kerau- 
drenia. 

1. MELHANIA, Foesk. 

1. M. incana, Heyne. — Recorded. York Sound, Cygnet Bay, and 
Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cunningham ; Upper Victoria River and Sturt's 
Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Albert 
River, Hemie. 

2. MELSCHIA, Linn. 1732. 

( Aleurodendron, Reinw., 1828 ; Altheria, Thou., 1806 ; Anomorpha, 
Karst., 1844 ; Glossospermum, Wall, 1831 ; Lochemia, Am., 1839 ; Meluchia, 
Medic, 1791 ; MoliicMa, Medic, 1787 ; Physocodon, Turcz., 1858 ■,Polychlaena, 
0. Don., 1838 ; Riedlea, Vent., 1807 ; Visenia, Houtt., 1777 ; Physodium, 
Prsl. ; Mougeotia, Kth.) 

Capsule very angular, pyramidal, much longer than the calyx. — 2. M. 
pyramidata. 

Capsule small, globular. — ^1. M. corchorifolia. 



190 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

1. M. corchorifolia, Linn.- — Port Essington, Armstrong ; Sturt's Creek 
and Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

2. M. pyramidata, Linn. — ^Abraham's Lagoon, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July- August, 1911. Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

3. DICARPIDIUM, P. v. M. 

1. D. monoicum, F. v. M. — Macarthur River, and Seven Emu Creek, 
P. V. Mueller. 

4. WALTHERIA, Lraif. 1737. 

{Astropus, Spreng., 1822 ; Lophanthus, Forst., 1776.) 

Calyx teeth relatively short. — 1. W. indica. 
Calyx teeth very long. — 2. W. virgata. 

1. W. indica, Linn. (W. americana. Linn.). — ^Edith Creek, GUruth and 
Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Recorded. Cambridge GuK, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River and 
Amhem's Land, P. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, R. Brown, Landsborough. 

A wide-spread weed of tropical countries. 

2. Waltheria virgata, Ewart and Goohson (Plate XIX.). — ^A small bushy 
shrub, branches glabrous when old, pubescent when young. Leaves shortly 
petiolate, alternate, fascicled, obovate, 0.5 to 2.8 cms. long, 0.2 to 0.6 cms. 
broad. Margins serrate, veins pronounced on under surface. Stellate hairs 
abundant on under surface, few on upper surface. Stipules subulate, hairy, 
persistent. 

Plowers small, about 1 cm. long, grouped in dense terminal heads, which 
are surrounded by long linear hairy bracts. 

Calyx tubular, deeply 5 cleft, calyx-tube about 0.2 mm. long, densely 
covered on the outer surface with long spreading hairs, while stellate hairs 
occur on both surfaces. Calyx-lobes dark red 06 to 0.7 mms. long hnear, 
tapering to a fine point, and bearing long simple hairs. 

Corolla shghtly shorter than calyx, petals 5, free, shghtly clawed, hmb 
dark blue and dehcate, claw, yellowish-brown and firm. 

Stamens 5 opposite the petals, epipetalous, anther-cells parallel dehiscing 
longitudinally. 

Ovary sessile, hairy, 1-celled, 2 ovulate, only one ovule, however, becoming 
a fuUy developed seed. Style in some flowers short, curved with a simple 
stigma — ^in othejrs long, with a flattened stigmatic surface ; in both cases style 
bears long simple hairs. Seed small 2 mm. long. 

N.T. Survey Camp IV., G. P. HiU (No. 413), 2/7/11. 

Nearest affinity is with Waltheria indica, L., from which it differs in having 
larger flowers, the calyx being proportionally longer and the tube shorter, and 
the petals being blue and almost as long as the calyx. 

5. RULINGIA, R. Be. 

( Achilleopsis, Turcz.) 

1. B. loxophylla, F. v. M. — Tableland between Victoria River and 
Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, P. v. Mueller. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEBN TEKRITOEY. 191 

6. KERAUDRENIA, J. Gay. 1821. 

{Seringea, SpreTig. 1818.) 

Bracts narrow. Carpels several-seeded, not always separating, the seeds 
nearly straight. Leaves mostly lanceolate, 1 to 3 ia. — 1. K. Hookeriana. % 

Lower bracts broad scarious and coloured, very deciduous. Carpels 1 to 2 
seeded, the seeds reniform. Leaves ovate or oblong. 

Leaves thick and soft, very rugose, tomentose above, mostly 1 to 

2 in. long. — 3. K. nephrosperma. 
Leaves smooth or shghtly rugose, mostly under 1 in. — 2. K. integri- 
foha. 

1. K. Hookeriana, Walp. — Amhem S. Bay, R. Brown ; Nicholson 
River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. K. integrifoUa, F. v. 1/.— 12 miles N.W. of Camp HI. (325), 12/6/1911. 

3. K. nephrosperma, Benth. — ^Desert at the sources of Victoria River, 
Sturfs and Hooker's Creeks, F. v. Mueller ; Forster's Range, M'Douall Stuart. 

K. adenolasia, F. v. 21. ; recorded from North Australia in Nat. Herb. 
Census. 

7. HELICTERES, Lmw. 

(Methorium, Schott.) 

Calyx J-in. long. Carpels spirally twisted. — 3. H. Isora. 
Calyx not above 2 hnes long. Carpels straight. 

Leaves obtuse, entire. — 1. H. cana. 

Leaves toothed, mostly acute. — 2. H. dentata. 

1. H. cana, Benth.- — Brunswick Bay and York Sound, A. Cunningham ; 
Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. H. dentata, F. v. M.- — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

3. H. Isora, Linn. — Roper River, F. v. Mueller. 

8. STERCULLA., Isss. 

Leaves digitate. Calyx-lobes 5, spreading. Stamina! column long and 
iacurved. — 1. S. foetida. 

Leaves large, entire. Calyx-lobes 4, cohering at the tips. — 2. S. quad- 
rifida. 

1. S. foetida, Linn. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown. 

2. S. quadrifida, B. Br. — Sims Island, A. Cunningham ; Amhem's Land, 
F. V. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Cape Upstart, M'GiUivray. 

9. BRACHYCHITON, Schott and Eng. 1832. 

Calyx-lobes (where known) with indupUcate margins. Seeds (where 
known) scarcely cohering. Leaves tomentose or pubescent, at least underneath. 
Flowers large, sessile. 

Leaves green and softly tomentose or pubescent on both sides. — 
4. B. parodoxus. 
Leaves white underneath. — 2. B. discolor. 



192 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Calyx-lobes strictly valvate. Outer coating of the seeds usually remaining 
adherent to the endocarp. Leaves glabrous. Flowers in short panicles. 

Calyx narrow, lobes lanceolate, shorter than the tube. Leaves palm- 

ately 5 or 7-lobed. — 6. B. trichosiphon. 
Calyx broadly campanulate, deeply lobed. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, lobeless. — 5. P. populneo-acerifoHus. 
Leaves entire, ovate or cordate, or 3-lobed, acuminate. Flowers 
tomentose outside when young, glabrous inside. Follicles 
stipitate.^ — 3. B. popuhieus. 
Leaves cordate-acuminate, entire. Flowers tomentose outside, 
hirsute inside at the base. FolKcIes nearly sessile. — 
1. B diversifoUus. 

1. B. divernfolitos, R. Br. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham; 
Victoria River and Poiat Pearce, F. v. MueUer. Fl8.me tree. 

2. B. discolor, F. v. M.- — Buckland's Tableland, A. C. Gregory. 

3. B. populneus, B. Br. — Darwin, G. F. Hill (3rd Series, No. 19), 
8/8/1913 Sterhng Creek, Gikuth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. Top 
Spring, G. F. Hill (No. 541), 31/8/1911. " Kurrajong." 

4. B. paradoxus, Schott. {Sterculia ramiflora, Benth.).- — ^Near Darwin, 
Gih-uth and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

80 miles N. of Powell's Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 443), 6/7/1911. 
Recorded. Brunswick and Vansittart's Bays, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham ; Victoria River and Point Perron, F. v. Mueller. 

5. B. populneo-acerifolius, F. v. if .—Top Spitog, G. F. Hill (No. 547), 
31/8/1911. 

^j Head of MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 559), 3/9/191 1 . A large tree. 
r" The specimen is in leaf only, and the leaves appear to agree with the. above 
species, except that the veins are somewhat tomentose. The apparent fruits 
are curious pointed insect galls, an inch or more in length. 

6. B. trichospihon, Benth. {B. platanoides, R. Br.). — Abel Tasman River, 
F. V. MueUer ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory. Broad-leaved Bottle-tree. 

Brachychiton incana, R. Br., and Heritiera litoralis, Dry. ; recorded 
from North Austraha in National Herbarium Census. 

DILLENIACE.ffi. 

Perfect stamens free or nearly so, more than 10, or, if fewer, on one side of 
the pistil.^ — 1. Hibbertia. 

Perfect stamens 10 or fewer, in a complete ring round the pistil. — 2. 
Pachynema. 

1. HIBBERTIA, Andr. 

{Hemistemma, Pleurandra and Hibbertia, D.C. ; Ochrolasia,Turcz. ; 
Hemistephus, Drummond). Guinea Flower. 

Section I. Hemistemma. — Perfect stamens and staminodia all on one 
side of the carpels, the staminodia outside. Peduncles mostly 2 or more- 
flowered. AH tropical species. 

Leaves oblong or lanceolate, flat or the margins slightly recurved. 
Leaves obtuse. — 2. H. Brownei. 

Leaves acute or mucronate, white underneath. — 4. H. dentata. 
Leaves narrow-oblong or linear, the margins revolute. 

Leaves oblong-hnear, thick, about |-in. long. — 6. H. ledifolia. 
Leaves narrow hnear, about 1 in. long. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHERN TERRITORY. 193 

Softly hairy. — 8. H. Muelleri. 
Glabrous. 

Leaves white underneath. 1. H. angustifolia. 

Section II. JEuhibbertia. — Stamens placed all round the carpels, with 
occasionally small staminodia outside. 

Leaves oval, oblong, or cuneate. • 

Leaves f to 1 in. long, with an intramarginal vein underneath. 

Peduncles 1 to 2 lines long. — 9. H. oblongata. 
Leaves J to | in., without intramarginal veins. Peduncles 1 to 2 Unes 

long. 11. H. tomentosa. 
Leaves ^ to IJ in., without intramarginal veins. Peduncles 1 to 

1| in. long.— 3. H. cistifolia. 
Leaves scabrous with scattered stellate hairs. Sepals very scaly. 
Peduncles 1 to 2 hnes.- — 5. H. echiifoha. 
Leaves narrow-hnear. 

Tomentum stellate. Peduncles i to IJ in. — 10. H. scabra. 
Tomentum of peltate scales. Peduncles 1 to 3 lines.- — 7. H. lepidota. 

1. H. angustifolia, Benth. — Amhem's Land, R. Brown, 

2. H. Brownei, Benfh. — ^N.A., R. Brown. 

3. H. cistifolia, R. Br. — GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Port Essington , 
Armstrong. 

4. H. dealbata, Benth. — ^Amhem's Land, R. Brown ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong ; A. Cunningham ; Leichhardt. 

5. H. echiifolia, R. Br. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown. 

6. H. ledifolia, Benth. — ^York Sound, A. Cunningham. 

7. H. lepidota, R. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, A. Cunningham ; 
rocky barren sandstone table-land at the sources of Roper River, at the Head of 
MacArthur River, Upper Victoria River, and near M'Adam Range, P. v. 
Mueller. 

8. H. Muelleri, Benth.- — Barren places at the Mouth of the Victoria, 
Providence HiU, etc., F. v. Mueller. 

9. H. oblongata, R. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; rockj- situa- 
tions, Sim's Island, A. Cunningham ; sandstone ravines on the table-land and 
rocks of the Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

Var. brevifolia, Benth. — ^Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

10. H. scabra, R. Br. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown. 

11. H. tomentosa, R. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

H. Holtzei, F. v. M. ; H. candicans, Benth. ; H. Goyderi, F. v. M. ; 
recorded from North Austraha in Nat. Herb. Census. 

2. PACHYNEMA, R. Br. 1818. 

(Huttia, Drumm. and Harv. 1855.) 

Stem and branches terete and rush-hke. — 3. P. junceum. 
Stem and branches flat. 

Branches 1 to 2 hnes broad, not glaucous.^ — 1 . P. complanatum. 
Branches i to |-in. broad or more, very glaucous.^ — 2. P. dilatatum. 

1. P complanatum, R. Br. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown; Melville Island, 
Eraser ; Port Essington, A. Cunningham, Leichhardt. 



194 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

2. P. dilatatum, Benth. — ^Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

3. P. junceum, Benth. — Near Darwin, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 
1911. 

Recorded. N. Coast, R. Brown ; Victoria River, Bjmoe. 

P. sphenandrum, F. v. M. ; recorded from North Australia in Nat. Herb. 
Census. * 

GUTTIFERiE. 

{Hypericinece.) 
1. HYPERICUM, TouRN. 1737. 

( Adenosepalum, Fourr, 1868 ; Adenotrias, Javb. and Spach, 1842 
Ancistrolobus, Spach, 1836 ; Androsaemum, Tourn, 1763 ; Ascyreia, Choisy 
1821 ; Brathys, Mutis., 1781 ; Elodea, Juss., 1789 ; Elodes, Adans., 1763 
Episiphis, Bafin., 1836 ; Hyporicopsis, Opiz., 1852 ; Martia, Spreng., 1818 
Pancalum, Ehrh., 1789 ; Beceveura, Veil., 1827 ; Sarothra, Linn., 1751 
Tridia, Korth.,\S'&& ; Tripentas, Gasp., 1858 ; Ascyrum). St. John's Wort. 

1. H. japonicum, Thunb. [H. gramineum, Forst). — Camp III., Lander 
Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 312), 10/6/1911. Lesser St. John's Wort. 
Recorded. GuH of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

Calophyllum iTwphyllum, Linn, and C. Soualatti, Burm ; recorded from 
North Australia in Nat. Herb. Census. 

ELATINACEffl. 

1. BERGIA, Linn. 1771. 

(Bergieria, Neck., 1790 ; Lancretia, Del., 1813 ; Merimea, Cambess, 1829 ; 
Sphonodylococea, Willd., 1820). 

Flowers smaU, clustered in the axils. Stamens of the same number as 
the petals and sepals. 

Stems pubescent. — 1. B. ammannioides. 
Stems quite glabrous. — 4. B. pusiUa. 
Flowers sohtary, pedicellate. Stamens twice the number of the sepals and 
petals. 

Erect annual. Pedioals elongated. Filaments all equal. Styles 

short. — 2. B. pediceUare. 
Stem woody, prostrate and tortuous. Pedicels short. Outer filaments 
much broader. Styles filiform.- — 3. B. perennis. 

1. B. ammannioides, Both. — Camp III., Lander Creek, 6. F. HiU (Nos. 
305 and 315), 10/6/1911. Water-fire. 

Recorded. Gravelly bed and banks of Victoria River. Sturt's Creek, and 
their affluents, F. v. Mueller. 

2. B. pedicellaris, F. v. M. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham ; gravelly beds of the Victoria and Fitzmaruice Rivers and along their 
affluents, F. v. Mueller. 

3. B. perennis, F. v. M. — Banks of the Rice Swamps, near Sturt's Creek, 
F. V. Mueller. 

4. B. pusilla, Benth. — Roper River in Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 
Elatine americana, Arnot ; recorded from North AustraUa in Nat. Herb. 

Census. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 195 

FRANEENIACEiE. 

1. FRANKENIA, Linn. 1737. 

(Beatsonia, Eoxb., 1816 ; Franca, Mich., 1763 ; Hypericopsis, Boiss., 
1845 ; Menetho, Rafin., 1836 ; Nothria, Berg., 1767 ; Streptima, Rafin., 

1836). 

1. F. pauciflora, D.C. (F. laevis, Linn., partly F. v. M.). — Growing near 
Hot Springs, Dalhousie Station, G. F. Hill (Nos. 1 and 3), 12/2/1911. 

10 mUes W.S.W. of Stuart Range, G. F. HiU (No. 226), 2/6/1911. Near 
Salt Lakes. 

Idracowra Station, Finke River, G. F. HiU (No. 32), 7/3/1911. 

60 Miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. HiU, 7/6/1911. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek, F. v. MueUer ; N.W. Coast, Bynoe. AustraUan 
Sea-heath. 

BIXACE.ffi. 

1. MAXIMILLIANA, Mart. 
(Cochlospermum, Kunih. 1822i') 
( Azeredia, Arrudea, 1846 ; Wittelsbachia, Mart., 1824). 

Calyx and inflorescence densely tomentose. — 1. M. Fraseri. 

Calyx and inflorescence glabrous or slightly glandular-pubescent. 

Leaves tomentose, with short, rounded, obtuse lobes.^ — 2. M. hetero- 
neurum. 

Leaves glabrous, divided to the base into narrow-oblong, pedate segments. 
—3. M. Gregorii. 

1. M. Fraseri, Planch. — Herbert Bros. Station, G. F. Hill (2nd Series, 
No. 63), 28/5/1913. 

Top Spring, G. F. HUl (No. 546), 31/8/1911. SmaU tree on Ranges. 
Specimens without any leaves. 
MelviUe Island, Fraser. 

2. M. heteroneurum, F. v. M. — Victoria River, F. v. MueUer, Wickham. 

3. M. Gregorii, F. v. M. — Rocky barren hiUs in the S.E. part of Arn- 
hem's Laud, F. v. MueUer. Yields a useful Kapok. 

VIOLACE.aE. 

1. HYBANTHUS, Jacq. 1760. 

( lonidium. Vent. 1803.) 

Calceolaria, Loefl., 1758; Gvhelium, Rafin., 1824; Pigea, D.C, 1824; 
Solea, Spreng., 1800 ; Clamingia, Be Vriese., 1845 ; Pigea). Shrub Violet. 

Leaves entire, or rarely toothed. Appendages of the lower filaments 
nearly glabrous. Seeds striate. — 2. H. enneaspermus. 

Leaves toothed. Appendages of the lower filaments woolly-hairy. Seeds 
smooth. — 1. H. aurantiacus. 

1. H, aurantiacus, F. v. M. — ^N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Bynoe ; 
Victoria River, F. v. MueUer. 

2. H. enneaspermus, F. v. M. ( lonidium suffruticosum, Ging.) — ^Near 
Western Creek, G. F. HiU (Nos. 753 and 756), 15/2/1912. 



196 THE FLORA OS THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Bro^vn ; Dampier.'s Archipelago, A. 
Cuimingham ; Port Essiagton, Armstrong ; Arnhem's Land, to Lat. 32 degrees 
on the E. Coast, E. v. Mueller. Spade Flower. 

PASSIFLORACEiE. 

ADENIA, EoRSK. 

Modecca, Lam. ; Clemanthus, Klotzsch. ; Kolbia,, P. de B. ; Kera- 
manthus, Hook). 

1. A. australis, {B. Br.), Engl. — Cygnet Bay, A. Cunningham ; N.W. 
Coast, Bynoe. 

THYMELAEACEffi. 

Stamens 2. Perianth-lobes, 4:. — 2. Pimelea. 

Stamens twice as many as perianth-lobes. Shrubs or small trees. — 1. 
Wikstroemia. 

1. WIKSTROEMIA, Endl. 

1. W. indica, C. A. Mey.- — Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown ; Cleveland Bay, 
N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. Poisonous to stock. 

2. PIMELEA, Banks and Soland. 1788. 

(Banksia, Forst, 1776 ; Calyptrostegia, C. A. Mey., 1845 ; Cookia, J. F. 
Gmel., 1791 ; Oymnococca, Fisch., 1845 ; Macrostegia, Turcz., 1852 ; The 
canthes, Wickstr., 1818). Riceflower. 

Section I. Thecanthes.- — Involucral bracts united into a 4-lobed cup. 
Perianth-tube glabrous, not circumsciss. Glabrous annuals. 

Involucral lobes very broad, shorter than the entire part, usually marked 
with forked veins. — 5. P. punicea. 

Involucral lobes reaching to about the middle, with the midrib also 
prominent. — 2. P. concreta. 

Section II. Dithalamia. — Flowers (small) strictly dioecious. Male 
perianth with a slender tube ; anthers with a narrow connective, the cells very 
distinct, and after they are open placed back to back ; ovary abortive or 
rudimentary. Female perianth wholly persistent with small lobes divided to 
the ovary, or rarely with a short tube and tardily circumsciss. Fruit not at 
all, or shghtly succulent. Leaves opposite, flat, or nearly so. — 4. P. micro- 
cephala. 

Section III. Epallage.- — Flowers hermaphrodite or more or less dioecious. 
Perianth-tube usually circumsciss after flowering, leaving the lower portion 
persistent round the fruit. Anthers rather flat, with a broad dorsal connective, 
the cells closely parallel on the inner face, the whole anther rolled back usually 
after floweriag. Flowers in clusters or heads, rarely sohtary, or in dense 
oblong spikes. 

Flowers strictly dioecious. Leaves alternate, softly silky- villous.-r-l. 
P. ammocharis. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, or in some specimens female. — 3. P. Holroydi. 

1. P- ammocharis, F. v. 31.- — On Sandhills, 70 miles N. of Camp IV., 
G. F. Hill (396), 28/6/1911. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. MueUer ; 20 
miles S. of Port Nichol, N.W. Coast, Maitland. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 197 

2. P concreta, F. v. M. — Camden Harbour, N.W. Coast (Herb., F. v. 
Mueller). 

3. P. Holroydi, F. v. M.- — Gorges of the Hammersley Range, N.W. 
Coast, C. Harper. 

4. P. microcephala, R. Br. — Hot Springs, DaUiousie Station, 90 miles 
N. of Oodnadatta, G. F. Hill (No. 5), 14/2/1910. 

5. P. punicea, R. Br. — Amhem N., and S. Bays, R. Brown ; Arnhem 
Land, M'Kinlay ; Sim's Island, A. Cunningham. 

Var. breviloba, F. v. 21. — East Alligator River, P. Cahill, 1914. Poison 
Plant (Collector). 

P. sanguinea, F. v. M. ; P Forrestiana, F. v. M. ; P. simplex, F. v. 31. ; 
(in Nat. Herb. Census) ; and P. Husseyana, F. v. M. (in Vict. Nat. XI., No. 
122, 1894) ; recorded from North AustraUa. 

LYTHRACE.aE. 

Annual or perennial herbs, very rarely becoming woody at the base. 

Calyx short, membranous, the ribs inconspicuous or only as many 
as primary teeth ; accessory teeth minute or none. Petals very 
small or none. — 1. Ammania. 
Calyx narrow, with twice as many ribs as primary teeth ; accessory 
teeth prominent. Petals usually conspicuous. — 2. Lythrum. 

Shrubs or trees. Stamens twice as many as petals. 

Calyx-lobes 6, with accessory teeth. Capsule enclosed in 'the calyx. 

Maritime shrub, with sohtary flowers in the upper axils. — 

3. Pemphis. 
Calyx-lobes 4, without accessory t«eth. Capsule exserted. Flowers 

ia leafy panicles. — 4. Lawsonia. 

1. AjMi\L\NNIA. Linn. 

(Rotdla, Linn. ; Ameletia, D.C.) 

Flowers sessile, solitary in the axils. Capsule opening m as many valves 
as cells. 

Leaves narrow in whorls of 3 to 8. Capsule 3 or4-valved. — .3. A; 

Rotala. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong, opposite or rarely in threes. 

Capsule 3 or 4-valved. — 4. A. pentandra. 
Leaves orbicular, opposite. Capsule 2-valved. — 2. A. diandra. 

Flowers pedicellate, solitary or in cymes. Capsule bursting irregularly or 
transversely. 

Flowers sohtary, on long fihform pedicels. Leaves oblong-hnear. 

Petals present. — 1. A. crinipes. 
Flowers 1 to 3, on short axillary peduncles. Leaves broadly oblong, 

petiolate. No petals. — 6. A. tri flora. 
Flowers several in axillary cymes. — 3. A. indica. 

1. A. crinipes, F. v. M. — About pools and lagoons, between the Victoria 
and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. MueUer. 

2. A. diandra, F. v. M. — ^Around the lagoons and moist banks of the 
Upper Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 



198 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHEEN TERRITORY. 

3. A. vaccifera, L. (indica, Lam.) — Camp III., Lander Creek, G. F. 
HiU (No. 301), 10/6/1911. 

Recorded. Careening and Brunswick Bays, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Nichol Bay, Gregory's Expedition ; Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, P. v. 
Mueller. 

4. A. pentandra, Roxh. (var. de^ussata, Benth.). — Islands of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong. 

5. ' A. Eotala, F. v. M. — Beds of streams periodically inundated, Sturt's 
Creek, E. v. M. 

6. A. triflora, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

Rotala mexicana, Cham, and Schlecht. ; R. occutiflora, Koeh. ; A. 
auricualata, Willd. ; A. multiflora, Roxh. ; recorded from North AustraUa in 
Nat. Herb. Census. 

2. LYTHRUM, Linn. 

1. L. arnhemicum, F. v. M. — ^Moist shady plains and banks of Victoria 
River and Sturt's Creek, P. v. Mueller. Northern Loose strife. 

L. Hyssopifolia, L. ; recorded from North Austraha in Nat. Herb. Census. 

3. PEMPHIS, FoRST. 

{Maclellandia, Wight.) 

1. P. acidula, Forst.— North Coast, A. Cunningham ; Port Essington, 
Leichhardt. 

4. LAWSONIA, Linn. 
1. L. alba, Lam.- — ^Melville Island, Eraser. 

LECYTHIDACE.ffi. 

Stamens twice as many as petals. 

Stamens all perfect. Fruit angular, fibrous, with a single seed. — 2. 
Barringtonia. 

Outer or inner stamens, or both without anthers. Fruit ovoid or globular, 
not angular, fleshy, with several seeds enveloped in pulp. — 1. Careya. 

Stamens indefinite. Calyx -lobes 4 to 8, without accessory teeth. Fruit 
large, fleshy. Flowers large, 1 to 3 in the upper axils. — 3. Sonneratia. 

1. CARLYA, Roxb. 1814. 
{Gumbea, Wight and Am., 1834 ; Gumbia, Buch.-Ham., 1807.) 

1. C. australis, F. v. M. (G. arborea, Roxb. ; Barringtonia Gareya, 
F. V. M.). 

Darwin, G. F. Hill (3rd Series, No. 17), 1914. 

Recorded. Brunswick Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Plains at the 
Mouth of the Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
R Brown, Henne. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEBN TBBEITORY. 199 

2. BARRINGTONIA, Foest. 1776. 

( Agasta, Miers, 1875 ; Baranda, Llanos, 1859 ; Botryoropis, Presl., 1849 
Butonica, Juss., 1789 ; Doxmnma, Miers., 1875 ; Megadendron, Miers., 1875 
Menichea, Sonner., 1776 ; Meteorite, Lour., 1790 ; Mitraria, 0. F. Gmel., 1791 
Stavadium, Juss., 1789 ; Saamstravadi, Bheede ; Michelia, Linn. ; Hultum, 
Adans.). 

1. B. acutangula, Oaertn.—BoTroloola,, G. F. HUl (No. 617), 9/10/1911. 
Tree on river banks. 

Recorded. Rivnlets of M'Adam Range, and Fitzmaurice River, F. v. 
MueUer. • 

2. B. australis, F. v. JIf .— Near McArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 589), 
17/9/11 ; Darwin, Spencer and Gilruth, 1911 ; Sir Baldwin Spencer, 1913 
(Mr. Gheel). 

3. SONNERATIA, Lnw. 

1. S. acida, Linn. — Frequent ia bogs on the North and N.W. Coast, A. 
Cunningham. 

RfflZOPHORACEiE. 

Calyx-segments longer than the tube. Seeds without albumen, germinat- 
ing before falling. 

Calyx-segments and petals 4. Stamens 8 to 12. Fruit more than half 
superior. — 2. Rhizophora. 

Calyx-segments and petals 5 or 6. Stamens twice as many. Fruit more 
than halt superior .^ — 1. Ceriops. 

Calyx-segments and petals 8 to 15. Stamens twice as many. Fruit 
inferior. — 4. Bruguiera. 

Calyx campanulate, with short teeth. Petals 5 to 8. Stamens twice as 
many. Fruit inferior. Seeds albuminous, not germinating before falling. — 3. 
Caralha. 

1. CERIOPS, Aen. 

1. C. Candolleana, Am. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Mangrove Beach of the Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; Amhem N. Bay, R. 
Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong. Grey Mangrove. Bark yields 21 to 
25 per cent, tannin. 

2. RHIZOPHORA, Linn. 

Mangrove. 

1. B. mucronata. Lam. — Port Essington, Leichhardt ; shores and islands 
of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Black Mangrove. Bark contains 27 to 28.8 per 
cent, tannin. 

3. CARALLIA, Roxb. 1814. 

(Barraldeia, Thou., 1809 ; Baraultia, Spreng., 1825 ; Catalium, Buch.- 
Ham., 1831 ; Demidofia, Dennst., 1818 ; Diatoma, Lour., 1790 ; Kare- Kandel, 
Adans, 1763 ; Petalotoma, D.G., 1828; Symmetria, Blume., 1826). 

1. O. integerrima, D.C. — -Maude Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Recorded. Brunswick Bay and York Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham; 
N. Coast, R. Brown ; Upper Roper River, M'Adam Range and Nicholson 
River, F. V. Mueller. Samples of bark examined in India yielded 15 per cent. 
tannin. Wood dense and useful for cabinet work. 



■20!) THE FIORA or THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

4. BRUGUIERA, Lam. 

Flowers above 1 in. long. Petals with several setes at the end. — 2. B. 
Rheedii. 

Mowers under 1 in. long. Petals without setae at the end. — 1. B. 
gymnorrhiza. 

1. B. gymnorrhiza, Lam. — ^N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; N. Coast, 
R. Brown ; Roper River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, and Limmen Bight 
R-iver, Leichhardt. Bark said to contain 13 to 17 per cent, tannin. 

2. B. Rheedii, Blume. — Port Essington, A. Cunningham (ra^ther doubt- 
ful) ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, Henne. Red or Orange Mangrove. 
Bark said to contain 13 to 19 per cent, tannin. Useful cabinet wood. 

MYRTACE.ffl. 

Many of this order are useful bee-plants. Dr. Joseph Lauterer remarks 
that the tan-resin gums are entirely endemic to 'Austraha, no plants of other 
countries yielding an exudation similar to them in chemical composition. 

Tribe I. Chamaelauciece.- — Ovary l-celled, with a single placenta. Fruit 
indehiscent, dry, with 1 or rarely 2 seeds. Shrubs often heath-hke. Leaves 
small. Flowers sohtary, or very rarely 2, together in the axils of the leaves 
or bracts, scattered along the branches, or forming a terminal head. 

Stamens definite, in a single series, more or less united in a ring at the base, 
and often alternating with staminodia.' — 15. Verticordia. 

Stamens indefinite, without staminodia, numerous, or, if few, not regularly 
alternate or opposite to the calyx-lobes. 

Calyx-lobes persistent, or rarely falHng off with the upper portion of 
the tube. Ovules'2, on a filiform placenta attached both to the 
base and summit of the ovary. — 12. Calycothrix. 
Calyx-lobes short, deciduous. Ovules 2, the placenta basal or adnate 
to one side of the ovary. — 13. Homalocalyx. 
Stamens 5 or 10, regularly alternate with or opposite to the calyx-lobes, 
quite distinct and without staminodia.' — 14. Thryptomene. 

Tribe II. Leftospermeie. — Ovary divided into 2 to 5, or rarely more cells. 
Capsule opening at the summit in as many valves as there are cells, or very 
rarely indehiscent, with 1 or 2 seeds. 

Stamens in a single row, definite or indefinite, shorter than or rarely ex- 
ceeding the petals, free or united in bundles, alternating with the petals. 
Leaves small or narrow. 

Leaves opposite. — 11. Baeckea. 
Leaves alternate. — 8. Leptospermum. 

Stamens exceeding the petals, indefinite, either free or united in bundles, 
opposite the petals. Leaves small or narrow, or rarely large and many-nerved. 
Flowers closely sessile. 

Anthers versatile, with parallel cells, opening longitudinally. — 9. Mela- 
leuca. 
Anthers erect, attached by the base. Stamens united in bundles 
opposite the petals.- — 10. Beaufortia. 

Stamens numerous, free or obscurely united at the base. Petals attached 
by a broad base, free or consohdated into an operculum. Leaves usually large. 
Flowers in umbels, heads or cymes, rarely sessile on the stem.^ — 7. Eucalyptus. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHEBN TEBRITOBY. lOI 

Stamens exceeding the petals, indefinite, free, or rarely united in bundles 
opposite the petals. Leaves large or myrtle-like, permiveined. Flowers in 
pedunculate heads cymes or corymbs, or rarely soUtary and pedicellate. 

Stamens united in 5 bundle 5, scarcely exceeding the petals in some 
species. Leaves alternate or in one species opposite. — 6. Tris- 
tania. 
Flowers in cymes. Stamens free, all perfect. 

Ovules numerous, horizontal or ascending, covering the placenta. 

Leaves opposite. 4. — "Metrosideros . 
Ovules in a ring round a club-shaped or peltate placenta, Leaves 
alternate. — 5. Xanthostemon. 
Stamens indefinite, free. Fruit dry, indehiscent. Ovary perfectly or 
imperfectly 2-celled or 1-celled by abortion. 

Calyx-lobes 8. Petals none. Flowers sohtary, sessile. — 3. Osbomia. 
Calyx -lobes 5, narrow. Petals 5. Flowers solitary, pedicellate. — 1. 
Fenzha. 

Tribe III. MyrtecB. — Ovary divided into 2 or more cells, or very rarely 
1-celled, with 2 parietal placentas. Fruit an indehiscent berry or drupe. — 
2. Eugenia. 

1. FENZLIA, Endl. 

1. F. retusa, Endl.- — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. EUGENIA, Mjch. 1735. 

{Myrcianthes, Stenocalyx, Hexachlamys, PhyUoccdyx, Anamomis, Jlyrtop- 
sis, Plinia, Plum., 1703 ; Acmena, Jambosa, Syzygium, Cleistocalyz, partly). 

The fruits of many are useful ia cooking. Gum Mvrtle. 

Section I. Syzygium. — ^Flowers in trichotomous panicles or cymes.' 
Calyx-tube more or less produced above the ovary, the border entire or very 
shortly sinuately-lobed, or with more prominent but very deciduous lobes. 
Petals more or less cohering in a calyptra, or rarely spreading and separately 
deciduous.^ — 3. E. Smithii. 

Section II. Jambosa. — Flowers in trichotomous panicles or cymes. 
Calyx-tube more or less produced above the ovarj^, prominently lobed, the 
lobes usually persistent. Petals free and spreading. 

Flowers large, ia a large' trichotomous terminal panicle. Leaves broad, 
obtuse, coriaceous. Calyx-tube turbinate.- — 4. E. suborbicularis. 

Flowers rather large, few in a terminal cyme. Calyx-tube turbinate ; 
lobes as long as the tube. — 2. E. eucahnstoides. 

Flowers rather small, in a corymbose terminal panicle. Calyx turbiaate- 
campanulate, under 2 lines long ; lobes small. — 1. E. Armstrongii. 

1. E. Aimstrongii, Benth.- — ^Port Essington, Armstrong ; N. Coast, A. 
Cunningham. 

2. E. eucalyptoides, F. v. M. — Gravally places on the Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller. Fruit used for jam-making under the name of Native Pear. 

3. E. Smithii, Poir. — Port Essington, Armstrong. Bark ;sields 17 per 
cent, tannin. Lilly Pilly. 

4. E. suborbicularis, Benth. — ^Darwin, G. F. HUl (3rd Series, No. 16), 
1914 ; and 1st series, No. 333. 

Cape York, F. L. Jardine. 



202 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEBN TEEBITOBY. 

E. angophoroides, F. v. M. ; E. Holteana, F. v. M. ; Port Darwin, M. 
Holtze, 1891 (in Nat. Herb. Census), and E. minutiflora, F. v. M. (in Vict. 
Nat. VIII., No. 197, 1892) ; recorded from North Australia. 

3. OSBORNIA, F. v. M. 

1. 0. octodonta, F. v. ilf.— Darwin, G. F. HUl (No. 337), 2/10/14. 
Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria and Amhem N. and S. 
Bays, R Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Trinity Bay, Henne. 

4. METROSIDEROS, Banks. 

{Nania, Miq.). 

1. M. eucalyptoides, F. v. M. — Arid banks of the Fitzmaurice River, 

F. V. Mueller. 

M. tetrapetala, F. v. M. ; recorded from North AustraUa in Nat. Herb. 
'Census. 

5. XANTHOSTEMON, F. v. M. 

(Fremya, Brogn. and Gris.) 

1. X. paradoxus, F. v. ilf .—Darwin, G. F. Hill (No. 313), 26/7/13. 
Recorded. Montague Sound, N.-W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; rooky hiUs 
on the Victoria River, Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

6. TRISTANIA, R. Bb. 

[Lophostemon, Schott. ; Tristaniopsis, Brongn. and Oris.) 

Section I. Lophostemon. — Leaves alternate. Stamens in flexed. Penta- 
■delphous, with long claws. Ovary inferior, flat-topped, with very numerous 
• horizontal or recurved ovules in each cell. Seeds hnear-cuneate. 

Staminal claws half as long as the petals. Flowers usually small. Calyx- 
lobes short and very obtuse. 5. T. suaveolens. 

Staminal claws as long as the petals. Flowers few in the cyme, rather 
large. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, acute. — 1. T. conferta. 

Section II. Eutristania.- — Leaves alternate. Stamens in flexed. Penta- 
delphous, with very short claws. Ovary adnate or half-superior, ovules all 
re flexed. Seeds very flat or expanded at the end into a flat wing, the embryo 
in the thickened base. 
Ovary adnate. 

Flowers small, white, and numerous. T. lactiflua. 
Flowers few and large. — 3. T. grandiflora. 
Ovary half superior. 

Stamens much longer than the petals, clustered but almost free. 

Seeds not winged. — 4. T. psidioides. 
Leaves opposite. Fruit of T. psidioides. — 6. T. umbrosa. 

1. T. conferta, R. Br. — Port Essington, Armstrong. Brisbane Box-tree. 

2. T. lactiflua, F. v. if .—Foot of M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller ; Port 
Essington, Armstrong. 

3. T. grandiflora, Cheel. — Lat. 18 degrees 30 min. ; Long., 132 degrees 

G. F.Hill (No. 439), 4/7/11. 

4. T. psidioides, A. Gunn. — Brunswick Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham ; Islands of the N. Coast, R. Brown. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. £03 

5. T. suaveolens, Sm. — Victoria River and Sea Range, P. v. Mueller ; 
GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown. Swamp Mahogany. A splendid wood for 
piles and underground work ; resembles Spanish mahogany. 

6. T. umbrosa, A. Gunn. — Hunter's River, York Sound, N.W. Coast, A. 
Cunningham. 

T. loTigivalvis, F. v. M. (in Nat. Herb. Census) ; and T. Brownii, Sp. leM. 
(in Journ. Bot., vol. 40, p. 25, 1902) ; recorded from North Austraha. 

7. EUCALYPTUS, L'Her. 

Series I. Jlelerostemones. — Outer stamens antherloss or with small 
abortive anthers ; anthers of the perfect ones small, globular, or truncate, the 
cells contiguous, opening in pores or in oblong slits, sometimes at length con- 
fluent. — 3. E. bicolor. 

Series II. Porantherce. — Stamens all perfect (except rarely in E. bicolor), 
in E. polyanthemo) ; anthers small and globular, or broader than long, the 
cells distinct, opening in small circular pores, sometimes extending at length into 
oblong shts. 

Ijeaves sessile, opposite, cordate or ovate. Flowers in termuial corymbose 
panicles. — 24. E. pruinosa. 

Leaves orbicular or ovate, obtuse, alternate on long petioles. 

Elowers rather large, in a terminal corymbose panicle. Calyx 

about 3 lines diameter. — 16. E. oligantha. 
Flowers small, mostly in short dense axillary or terminal panicles. 
Calyx not above 2 lines diameter. — ^23. E. polyanthemos. 
Leaves oblong or lanceolate, rather thin. — 3. E. bicolor. 

Series III. Micrantherce.- — Anthers very small, globular, or broader than 
long, with globular distinct cells opening in lateral shts. 
Leaves usually long and narrow. 

Fruit subglobose, truncate, about 3 lines diameter, scarcely contracted 

at the orifice.^ — 10. E. drepanophyUa. 
Fruit from nearly globose to narrow-ovoid, contracted at the orifice, 

not above 2 Unes diameter. — 8. E. crebra. 
Fruit hemispherical, very open, not above 2 lines diameter, the 
valves protruding. — 5. E. brachypoda. 
Leaves ovate or oblong, very obtuse. Fruit scarcely above 1 line diameter. 
4. E. brachyandra. 

Series IV. Normales. — Stamens all perfect ; anthers oblong-ovate or 
nearly globose, the cells perfectly distinct, parallel (either contiguous with the 
comiective-gland behind them), and opening longitudinally. 

Sub-series I. Bobustce. — Peduncles axiUary or lateral, or very rarely 
the upper ones in a terminal corymb, usually flattened, each with several 
(rarely only 1) large or moderate-size flowers, sessUe or tapering into thick 
pedicels. Leaves usually thick and alternate. Rim of the fruit concave, 
with a sunk capsule. — 14. E. miniata. 

Sub-series II. Exsertos. — Peduncles axillary or lateral, or rarely also the 
upper ones in a short terminal cor3rmb, terete or scarcely flattened, each with 
several, often many flowers, usuallj' pedunculate. Fruit globose or depressed, 
usually more or less contracted at the orifice, the rim convex or prominent, 
rarely flat, the capsule valves protrudiag beyond it. 



204 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Leaves orbicular ovate or lanceolate, very thick, the veins (fine and parallel 
or irregular and oblique) scarcely conspicuous. 

Calyx not 3 lines diameter. Operculum short. Tropical species. — 

18. E. pallidifolia. 
Calyx 4 to 6 lines diameter or more. Operculum as long as or longer 
than the calyx-tube.^ — 17. E. pachyphylla. 
Leaves long-lanceolate or linear, not very thick, the obhque veins fine, 
but often conspicuous! Calyx rarely above 3 lines diameter. — 27. E. rostrata. 

Sub-series III. Subexsertm. — Peduncles axillary or lateral, or also the 
upper ones more or less paniculate, terete or flattened, several- flowered. 
Calyx-tube broad at the orifice. Eruit turbinate, the orifice not contracted, 
the capsule level or slightly sunk, the valves often protruding when open. 

Leaves broad, with very diverging veins and distinctly reticulate. 
Tropical or subtropical species. 

Flowers nearly sessile or on short thick pedicels. Operculum hemi- 
spherical, short. — 22. E. platyphyUa. 
Flowers small, distinctly pedicellate. Operculum conical. — 1. E. 
alba. 
Leaves long -lanceolate, with numerous rather irregular oblique veins, and 
more or less reticulate. Fruit rather large.^ — 19. E. pateUaris. 

Sub-series IV. Incliisce.- — Umbels usually several- flowered, axillary or 
lateral and solitary or several together, in lateral clusters or very short panicles, 
and then sometimes reduced to 1 or 2 flowers each, the peduncles terete or 
rarely flattened. Fruit more or less contracted at the oriflce, the ca.psule 
sunk, the valves not protruding, excepting their points when acuminate b}^ the 
splitting of the base of the style. 

Umbels solitary and simple, axillary or the upper ones almost paniculate. — 
Leaves mostly opposite. — 2. E. aspera. 
Leaves alternate. — 20. E. phoenicea. 
Umbels several together, on very short lateral peduncles, forming short 
panicles or clusters ; operculum very short and flat. Tropical or sub-tropical 
species. 

Leaves mostly opposite, large, broad, thick, and rigid. Umbels 
irregular, each often reduced to 1 or 2 flowers. Calyx 4 lines 
diameter or more. — 12. E. grandifolia. 
Leaves from broadly cordate and opposite to broadly lanceolate, 
irregularly and conspicuously veined. Umbels many- flowered. 
Pedicels long. Calyx under 3 hnes diameter. — 6. E. clavigera. 
Leaves all narrow-lanceolate, with more regular veins. Pedicels 
shorter. Calyx small (the whole inflorescence sometimes re- 
duced to an apparently simple cluster). — 30. E. tessellaris. 

Sub-series V. Gorymbosce. — ^Flowers usually large (the umbels or very 
rarely heads) all in a terminal corymbose panicle, or rarely a few of the lower 
ones axillary. Fruit, often large, more or less urceolate, the capsule deeply 
sunk. Seeds usually large, flat, with acute edges, often more or less expanded 
in a variously-shaped wing. 

Leaves opposite, connate, large. — 21. E. perfoliata. 
Leaves opposite, sessile, cordate. 

Branchlets rusty-pubescent. Leaves large. Fruit above 1 in. long. — 

11. E. ferruginea. 
Branchlets and calyx bristly. Leaves small. Fruit | to |-in. long. 
— 28. E. setosa. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEREITORY. 205 

Leaves alternate, petiolate, broadly ovate. Fruit globose, truncate or 
with a very short neck. — 13. E. latifolia. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, atcuminate, with numerous fine, 
close, almost transverse veins. 

Tropical species. Fruit 1 to IJ in. long, prominently ribbed. — 

25. E. ptychocarpa. 
Eastern species. Fruit ^ to fin. long, not ribbed. — 7. E. corym- 
bosa. 
Leaves long-lanceolate, thick and smooth, the very fine close almost 
transverse veins scarcely conspicuous. 

Fruit oblong. Operpulum depressed, continuous with the calyx till 

the moment of separation. — ^29. E. terminaUs. 
Fruit globular or ovoid, contracted at the mouth. Operculum of E. 

terminalis. Flowers large. — 26. E. pyrophora. 
Fruit nearly globular, with a short neck. Operculum depressed. — 
9. E. dichromophloia. 

Sub-series VI. Eudesmiece. — ^Leaves, including the petiolate ones, 
mostly opposite or nearly so. Peduncles usually 3-flowered. Calyx with 4 
minute teeth, more or less conspicuous below the globular hemispherical or 
flattened operculum. Stamens sometimes in 4 clusters. 

Fruit above ^-in. long. Leaves long-lanceolate, the veins usually con- 
spicuous. Flowers rather large. — 31. E. tetrodonta. 

Fruit under ^-in. long. Leaves short-lanceolate, the veins scarcely 
prominent. Flowers small. — 15. E. odontocarpa. 

1. E. alba, Reinw. — ^N. Australia, Baudin's Expedition ; grassy valleys, 
MacArthur River, Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

2. E. aspera, F. v. M. — Sandstone table-land, Upper Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller. 

3. E. bicolor, A. Cunn. — Recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
N. Australia. Blask Box. 

Recorded in National Herbarium Census from N. Australia. 

4. E. brachyandra, F. v. M. — ^Rocky dechvities of the Upper Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller. 

5. E. brachypoda, Turcz. — ^N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; tableland of 
the Upper Victoria River, also in the scrub between Flinders and Albert Rivers, 
GuK of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller ; MacdonneU Ranges, McDouall Stuart's 
Expedition. Box-tree. 

6. E. clavigera, A. Cunn. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; and Rocky Hills, near Macadam 
Range, F. v. Mueller ; Albert River, Henne. 

7. E. corymbosa, Sm. — From N. AustraUa in National Herbarium 
Census. Boxtree. Bloodwood. 

8. E. crebra, F. v. M. — ^Between the Flinders and LjTid Rivers, GuU of 
Carpentaria, F. v. MueUer ; Ironbark Tree. 

9. E. dichromophloia, F. v. M. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; Abel Tasman, McArthur, and Roper Rivers, F. v. MueUer. 

10. E. drepanophyUa, F. v. M.- — N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Iron- 
bark. 

11. E. ferruginea, Schau. — Copeland Island, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham ; Victoria River and Amhem's Land, F. v. MueUer. 



206 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

12. E. grandifolia R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

13. E. latifolia, F. v. M. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
upper part of the Roper River, P. v. Mueller. 

14. E. miniata, A. Gunn. — Hunter's River, York Sound, and GreviUe 
Island, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown ; sandy plains and rocky tablelands round the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
F. V. Mueller ; between the Lynd and Port Essington, Leichhardt. 

15. E. odontocarpa, F. v. M.- — Sturt's Creek Desert, F. v. Mueller. 

16. E. oligantha, Schau.- — Copeland Island, N. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

17. E. pachyphylla, F. v. M. — Sandy Desert at Hooker's Creek, F. v. 
Mueller. 

18. E. pallidifolia, F. v. M. — Sandstone tableland on the Upper Victoria 
River and Sturt's (>eek, F. v. Mueller. 

19. E. patellaris, F. v. M. — ^Dry banks of the Roper River, F. v. Mueller. 

20. E. phoenicea, F. v. M. — Sandstone tableland on the Victoria and Upper 
Roper Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

21. E. perfoliata, R. Br. — Barren Hills, Rae's River, N.W. Coast, A. 
Cunningham ; N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

22. E. platyphylla, F. v. M. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

23. E. polyanthemos, Schau. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown. Red Box. 

24. E. pruinosa, Schau. — ^Islands of the GuU of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
Henne ; dry ridge on the Victoria River and near Sea Range, F. v. Mueller. 

25. E. ptychocarpa, F. v. M. — Dry river-beds and rocky streams at the 
sources of the Wentworth, Wickham, and Limmen Bight Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; 
Melville Island, Fraser ; Port Essington, Gilbert. 

26. E. pyrophora, Benth. — ^Nichol Bay, Gregory's Expedition ; Upper 
Victoria River and Depot Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Depuech Island, Bynoe. 

27. E. rostrata, Schlecht. — Recorded from North AustraUa in National 
Herbarium Census. Valuable durable timber. Red gum. 

28. E. setosa, Schau. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Sweers Island, Henne. 

29. E. terminalis, F. v. M. — Amhem's Land and Gulf of Carpentaria, 
F. V. Mueller. 

30. E. tesselaris, F v. M. — Careening and Vansittaft's Bays, N.W. 
Coast, A. Curmingham ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown : S.E. 
Coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

31. E. tetrodonta, F. v. M. — Entrance to Victoria River and elevated 
sterile districts of Amhem's Land, F. v. Mueller ; N. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong. Stringy-bark. 

E. gamophylla, F. v. M. ; E. Foelscheana, F. v. M. (in Nat. Herb. Cen- 
sus) and E. pastoralis, Sp. le Moore; (in Joum. Bot. XL., p. 27, 1902) re- 
porded from North Australia. With the four species added by Mr. Maiden 
(Appendix III.) the total would be 35 and possibly 38 species (E. iatertexta, 
R. T B. ; E. papuana, F. v. M. ; E. Spenceriana, Maiden ; E. Hauseana, 
Maiden). 



THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHERN TERRITORY. 207 

8. LEPTOSPEKMUM, Forst. 

(Fabricia, G-aertn. ; Macklpttia, Korth. ; Homalospermum, Schau. ; Peri- 
calymma, Endl.). Teatree. 

1. L. abnorme, F. v. M. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

9. MELALEUCA, Linn. 1767. 

(Asteromyrtus, Schau., 1843 ; Gymnagathis, Schau., 1843 ; Meladendron, 
St. Lag., 1880; Melanoleuce, St. Lag., 1881; Cajuputi, Adans.) 
Common name for genus, Teatree or Paperbark. 

Series I. Laterales. Leaves alternate. Flowers usually small, in 
axillary or lateral clusters, the axis very rarely growing out, the rachio 
woolly-pubescent or rarely glabrous. 

Leaves lanceolate, flat. Calyx glabrous. — 2. M. alsophila. 

Leaves broadly-oblong to lanceolate, flat, obtuse or scarcely mucronate. 
Calyx pubescent. — 1. M. acacioides. 

Series II. Circumscissae. Leaves alternate (usually above lin. long). 

Flowers in axillary, lateral, or rarely terminal globular heads. Oalyx- 
tube circumsciss at the top of the ovary after flowering, and falling ofp with 
the lobes (persistent in the other series). Fruits more or less cohering in a 
globular head. — 9. M. symphyocarpa. 

Series III. Spiciflorae. Leaves alternate or opposite. Flowers either 
solitary or few and distinct, or in more or less interrupted oblong- 
cylindrical spikes, sometimes at first terminal, but the axis usually growing 
out before the flowering is over, rarely in dense lateral or cyhndrical spikes. 
Rachis glabrous pubescent or villous. 

Leaves flat, often vertical, several-nerved, mostly above lin. long. Spikes 
interrupted. 

Leaves 2 to Sin. long, broad or narrow. Stamens glabrous, 5 to 9 in 

each bundle. — 7. M. Leucadendron. 
Leaves 1 to 2in. long, narrow. Stamens pubescent, 12 to 20 in each 
bundle. — 6. M. lasiandra. 

Leaves flat, concave or undulate, several-nerved, acute or pungent-pointed, 
under 1/2™- or rarely %in. long. — 4. M. genistifolia. 

Leaves flat and semiterete, narrow, obscurely 1 or 3-nerved. — 3. M. dissiti- 
flora. 

Series IV. Capitatae. Leaves alternate or opposite. Flowers, at 
least the males, in terminal globular heads, the perfect ones occasionally in 
oblong or cylindrical dense spikes, the axis not growing out until after the 
flowering is over, the rachis usually woolly-hirsute. Fruiting spike usually 
very dense, globular or oblong, rarely reduced to 2 or 3 fruits. 

Sub-series I. Longifoliae. Leaves linear, terete, or flat, mostly 
above lin. long. Flowers usually white or yellow. — 5. M. glomerata. 

Sub-series II. Peltatae. Leaves very small, often scale-like, more 
or less peltately attached. Flowers small, in dense heads or spikes. — 8. 

M. minutifolia. 

1. M. acacioides, F. v. ilf. —Pandanus Swamps, Else's Creek, Amhem's 
Land, and dry plains at the sources of the Roper River, F. v. Mueller. 



208 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEBN TEREITOEY. 

2. M. cdsophila, A. Cunn. — ^N.W. Coast, Usborne's Harbour, Voyage of 
the Beagle ; Liverpool River and Cambridge Gulf, A. Cunningham. 

3. M. dissitiflora, F. v. M.- — Between the Bonney and Mount Morphett, 
McDouall Stuart's Expedition. 

4. M. genistifolia, 8m. — Sturt's Creek, Van Alphen and Upper Gilbert 
Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; also McDouall Stuart's Expedition. 

5. M. glomerata, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

6. M. lasiandra, F. v. M. — Arid country, on the Upper Victoria and Pitz- 
maurice Rivers, P. v. Mueller. 

7. M. Leucadendron, Linn. — Providence Knoll, and Drififield Creek, 
Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

Maude's and Sterling Creeks, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; common from 
the Victoria River to the Gulf of Carpentaria, I', v. Mueller and others. 

Cajaput. Broad-leaved Tea Tree. Poisonous, according to Smith and 
Lyon. An excellent stimulant, containing cajaputol C10H16H2O. The leaves 
of all the species yield an oil of commercial value, which was considered by Dr. 
Joseph Lauterer to be a valuable antiseptic. Wood useful for underground 
work in water. 

8. 31. minutifolia, F. v. M. — Track to Bacon Swamp, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July-August, 1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

9. M. symphyocarpa, F. v. M. — Near Darwin, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July-August, 1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown i on the main- 
land, P. V. Mueller. 

M. trichostachya, Lindl ; M. linophylla, F. v. M. ; recorded from North 
Australia in Nat. Herb. Census. Mr. Cheel (Appendix II.) adds M angustifolia, 
Gaertn., and M. hakeoides, F. v. M., to the Northern Territory Flora. 

10. BEAUFORTIA, E. Bb. (Schizopleura, Lindl.). 
1. B. elegans, Schau. N.W. Cape, Martin. 

11. BAECKEA, LisTN. 

(Astartea, D.C. ; Jungia, Gaertn. ; Imbricaria, Sm. ; Schidiomyrtus ; 
Rinzia; Euryomyrtus; Camphoromyrtus ; Tetrapora; Harmogia; and 
Oxymyrrhuie, Schau .; Babingtonia, Lindl. ; Ericomyrtus, Turcz. 

Sub-genus. Baechea. Stamens free, rarely exceeding 20, and usually 
much fewer. Flowers small. 

Section I. Euryomyrtus. Filaments filiform or very slightly dilated. — 
2. B. polystemonea. 

Section II. Harmogia. Anther-cells distinct, nearly globular, deeply 
furrowed, parallel or divergent, and opening more or less in longitudinal 
slits in the furrows. Ovary 3-celled, with several ovules in each cell. Eastern 
species. — 3. B. virgata. 

Sub-genus Astartea. Stamens united in bundles, alternating with 
the petals. Flowers small. — il. B. intratropiea. 



THE FLOBA OF THE NOETHERN TEEEITOEY. 209 

1. B. intratropica {F.v. M.), Ndz. — Ravines of the sandstone tableland 
at the head of the Roper and Limmen Bight Rivers, F. v. M. 

2. B, polystemonea, F. v. M. — Brindley's Bluff, McDouall Stuart's 
Expedition. 

3. B. virgata, Andr. — Sandstone precipices, Victoria River, rare, F. v. 
Mueller. Twiggy Heath Myrtle. 

12. CALYTRIX, Labill. 1806. 

(Calycothrix, Meissn., 1837 ; Trichocalyx, Schau., 1840 ; Calycothiix, 
Labill, 1806; Calythrix.) Fringe Myrtle or Hair cup. 

A. Calyx-tube slender, slightly fusiform and adnate to the ovary below 
the middle, the upper slender part terete, free, enclosing the base of the style, 
which is usually persistent, the staminal disk forming a ring round it, but 
free from it. 

Leaves from under V2 line to about 1 line long, minutely ciliate and 
usually acute and prominently keeled. Petals narrow, acute. — 7. C. micro- 
phylla. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, 4 to 6 lines long, not ciliate. — 
6. C. megaphylla. . 

B. Calyx-tube cylindrical, attenuate at the base, but not contracted above 
the ovary, the free part scarcely longer than broad. Bracteoles more than 
half as long as the calyx-tube. Calyx-lobes short and broad, with a long hair- 
like awn. — 4. C. conferta. 

Bracteoles not half as long as the calyx-tube. Calyx-lobes ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, tapering into a short awn. — 3. C. arborescens. 

C. Calyx-tube pubescent, oblong, more or less contracted above the 
ovary, the free part short ; lobes with very short awns or points. 

Calyx-tube 2 to 2^/2 lines long, slightly contracted above the ovary. — 
3. C. brachychaeta. 

Calyx-tube 1 line long, much contracted above the ovary. — 1. C. aehaeta. 

Calvx-tube nearly glabrous, 1% lines long, slightly contracted above the 
ovary. Leaves very fine, 2 to 3 lines long. — 5. C. laricina. 

1. C. aehaeta, F. v. M. — ^Track to Roper River, and Melville Island, 
Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

North of 15°, W. S. CampbeU, 5/9/1911. 

Upper Glenelg River, N.W. Coast, Marten ; Victoria River and guUies, 
and low stony ridges on Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. C. arborescens, F. v. M. — ^Amhem's Land, F. v. Mueller : Port Essing- 
ton, Armstrong. 

3. C. brachychaeta, F. v. M. — Sandstone tableland, Amhem's Land, F. v. 
Mueller. 

4. C. conferta, A. Cunn. — ^Port Keath, Cambridge Gulf, A. Cunningham ; 
N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

5. C. laricina, R. Br. — ^Amhem's Land and islands of the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, R. Brown. 

6. C. megaphylla, F. v. M. — ^McAdam Range, A. C. Gregory. 

7. C. microphylla, A. Cunn. — ^Darwin, G. P. Hill (2nd Series 103) 
3/7/1913. 



210 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Overland telegraph Une, near Elsie Creek, on poor sandy country, G. F. 
HiU (842), 10/4/1912. 

Near Darwin and Greville IsJaiid, Gilruth and Spencer, July -August, 1911. 

Eecorded. Glenelg Eiver, and Eoebuek Bay, JST.W. Coast, Marten ; Vic- 
toria Eiver and Amliem's Land, F. v. Mueller; Melville Island (not Port 
Macquarie), Fraser; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, E. Brown; exposed 
cli£Fs of Port Essiugton, A. Cunningham, Armstrong. 

13. HOMALOCALYX, F. v. M. 

Leaves linear, mucronate. Calyx-tube cylindrical, lobes and petals acute. 
Stamens 9 to 15. — 1. H. ericaeus. 

, Leaves oblong-triquetrous, obtuse. Calyx-tube broadly turbinate, lobes 
and petals broad, obtuse. Stamens 20 to 30. — 2. H. polyandrus. 

1. H. ericaeus, F. v. M. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
elevated tableland between the Roper and Limmen Bight Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

2. H. polyandrus, F. v. M. — ^N.A., Leichhardt, no station given. 

14. THEYPTOMElSrE, Endl. 
(Paryphanta, Schau. ; Astraea, Sohau., Eremopyxis, Baill.) 

A. Calyx-tube hemispherical or shortly campanulate, rugose, and 
pitted without prominent ribs. — 1. T. Maisonneuvii. 

B. Calyx-tube ovoid turbinate or cylindrical, not rugose, often ribbed. 
Stamens 5. — 2. T. oligandra. Heath Myrtle. 

1. T. maisonneuvii, F. v. M. — ^Fincke River, McDouall Stuart's Ex- 
pedition. 

2. T. oligandra, F. v. M. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

Var. parviflora, F. v. M.- — Barren places, Gilbert River, Gulf of Carpentaria 
F. V. Mueller. 

15. VEETICOEDIA, DC. 1826. 
(Chrysorrhoe, Lindl., 1836 ; Diplachne, R. Br., 1819.) 

A. Calyx-lobes 5, spreading, without reflexed accessory lobes or her- 
baceous appendages. Racemes short, mostly terminal, almost corymbose. 
Leaves linear-triquetrous or semiterete. — 1. V. Cunninghamii. 

B. Calyx-lobes 5, spreading, with subulate plumose divisions, 5 acces- 
sory lobes outside and alternating with the primary ones, thin and trans- 
parent, reflexed on the tube, fringed or densely ciliate and turned up again 
from the base of the tube, and 6 herbaceous reflexed appendages on the tube 
under the spreading lobes. Flowers forming racemes or spikes below the ends 
of the branches or rarely short terminal racemes. Leaves obovate or 
orbicular, usually glaucous. — 2. V. grandis. 

1. V. Cunninghamii, Schau. — ^North of 15°, Finnis River, W. S. Camp 
bell (1), 5/9/1911. 

Recorded. York Sound, . A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, Bj^noe ; 
islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, A. Brown ; Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller ; • 
Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. V. grandis, Drumm. — ^Lagrange Bay, N.W. Coast, Marten. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 211 

COMBRETACEAE, 

Calyx-tube not produced above the ovary. Petals none. Stamens 10. — 
1. Terminalia. 

Calyx-tube produced above the ovary. Petals 5. Stamens 10 or 

fewer. 
Bracteoles smaU. Ovules 2 to .5. Maritime shrubs. — 2. Lumnitzera. 
Bracteoles enlarged and forming wings to the fruiting calyx. Ovule 
10 to 12. Silkjr or tomentose shrubs. — 3. Maeropteranthes. 

1. TERMINALIA, Linn. 1767. 

(Aristoteha, Comm., 1784 ; Badamia, Gaertn., 1791 ; Bueeras, P. Br., 
1756 ; Buchenavia, Eichl., 1866 ; Bucida, Linn., 1759 ; Catappa, Gaertn., 
1791; Chicharronia, A. Eieh., 1845; Chuncoa, Pav., 1789; Fatrea, Juas., 
1804; Gimbernatea, Ruiz, and Pav., 1794; Hudsonia, Robins, 1814; 
Kniphofia, Scop., 1777 ; Myrobalanus, Gaertn., 1791 ; Pamea, Aubl., 1775 ; 
Pentaptera, Roxb., 1814; Eesinaria, Comm., 1784; Tanibouca, Aubl., 1775; 
Vicentia, Allem., 1844.) 

Section I. Catappa. — ^Fruit with 2 longitudinal membranous or 
coriaceous wings, or rarely in the first 3 species, with a third narrow wing or 
prominent nerve. 

Fruit, including the wings, much broader than long. 

Fruit, including the wings, three times as long as broad ; wings quite 
distinct. Leaves velvety-pubescent underneath. — 14. T. platy- 
ptera. 
Fruit, including the wings, not twice as broad as long; wings often 
confluent above and below. Leaves nearly glabrous. Spike 
slender, interrupted. 

Leaves obovate, much reticulate. Fruit Agings scarcely con- 
fluent. — 16. T. volucris. 
Leaves obovate, much reticulate. Fruit wings scarcely con- 
confluent. — 11. T. oblongata. 
Fruit, including the wings, rather longer than broad and quite surrounded 
by the confluent wings. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblong, silky-pubescent. Spikes elongated, 

dense. Fruits under %in. long.— 2. T. bursarina. 
Leaves lanceolate or oblong, mostly silky-pubescent. Spikes 
short, dense. Fruits % to above lin. long. — 3. T. circumalata. 
Leaves obovate, glabrous. Spikes short, dense. Fruits % to above 
lin. long. — 14. T. pterocarya. 

Section II. Myrobalanus. — Fruit globular or more frequently ovoid, 
terete or slightly compressed, or surrounded by a prominent acute angle, but 
not distinctly winged. 

Leaves very obtuse, usually broad. Flowers rather small; stamens not 
above 3 lines long. 

Leaves quite glabrous. 

Leaves large, narrowed into a short petiole. — 9. T. melano- 

carpa. 
Leaves large, with a short, broad, flat petiole. Calyx tomentose. 

Drupe ovoid, without any angle. — 8. T. latipes. 
Leaves large, with a petiole of 2 to Sin. Drupe acuminate, with 
2 slightly prominent angles. — 5. T. edulis. 

H 



212 THE TLOEA OF THE NOETHEKN TEEEITOEY. 

Leaves minutely hoary underneath. Drupe ovoid-globular, without 

angles. — 4. T. discolor. 
Leaves loosely tomentose-pubescent, at least underneath. — 13. 
T. platyphylla. 
Leaves mostly shortly acuminate, flowers rather small. Stamens not 
above 3 lines long. 

Leaves ovate. 

Leaves 3 or 4 times as long as the petiole, the pellucid dots 

very conspicuous under a lens. — 10. T. microcarpa. 
Leaves not twice as long as the petiole, the pellucid dots quite 
microscopic— 12. T. petiolaris. 
Leaves lanceolate or narrow oblong-elliptical. Drupe acuminate. — 
6. T. erythrocarpa. 
Leaves narrow, obtuse. Flowers large. Stamens 5 to 6 lines long. 
Fruit beaked. — 7. T. grandiflora. 
Fruit without a beak. — 1. T. arostrata. 

1. T. arostrata, Ewart and Davies. Plate XII. — Specimens in fruit 
only. Glabrous. Leaves Hnear-oblong, obtuse, 1 to 2in. long, narrowed into a 
petiole of | to lin. Drupe globular lin. or more in diameter, without vraigs, 
angles or beak. 

Hodson Downs, Nutwood Downs, McMinn's Bar, Roper River, G. F. Hill 
(834), 7/4/1912. 

2. T. Bursarina, F. v. iW.— Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (477), 17/7/191 1 . 
Tree 30ft. high. Camel poison. 

On creek at head of Kilgour River, G. F. HiU (536), 30/8/1911. Tree 
35ft. high and Sin. in diameter. 

Recorded. Dry gravelly banks of Victoria River and frequent in low 
place round the Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

A useful cabinet wood. 

3. T. circumalata, F. v. M.S. of Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (482), 
29/7/1911. 

Recorded. Cape Pond, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Depuech Island, 
Bynoe ; maritime rocks, Niehol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition ; in the in- 
terior, lat. 18° 35', McDouall Stuart's Expedition. 

Quinine Bush. Yields a clear gum. 

4. T. discolor, F. v. M. — ^Hearson Island, Niehol Bay, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. 

5. T. eduUs, F. v. M. — Sterling Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July -August, 
1911. 

Recorded. Victoria, Fitzmaurice and AUigator Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; 
South Goulbum Island, A. Cunningham. 

6. T. erythrocarpa, F. v. ilf.— Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

7. T. grandiflora, Benth. — ^Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, and Arn- 
hem S. Bay, R. Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; between Fitzmaurice 
and Victoria Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

8. T. latipes, Benth. — Victoria River, Bynoe. 

9. T. microcarpa, Dene. — ^N.A., Baudin's Expedition. 

10. T. melanocarpa, F. v. M. — Shaded valleys, islands of the N. Coast, 
R. Brown. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHEBN TERRITORY. 213 

11. T. oblongata, F. v. M. — A specimen, in leaf only, from the scrub, lat. 
17° 30 ', in McDouall Stuart's CoUection. 

12. T. petiolaris, A. Gunn. — Point Cunningham, Cygnet Bay and York 
Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

13. T. platyphylla, F. v. i/.— Borroloola, No. 666, G. F. HiU, 8/11/11. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Henne ; Vic- 
toria, Ktzmaurice, and Roper Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Arm- 
strong. 

14. T. platyptera, F. v. M.— Hodson Downs, G. F. HiU (828), 5/6/1912. 
Recorded. Amhem's Land, F. v. Mueller ; Lynd River, Leichhardt. 

15. T. pterocarya, F. v. M. — Copeland Island, A. Cunningham ; sand- 
stone tableland between the Upper Victoria River and Macadam Range, F. v. 
Mueller. 

16. T. volucris, Herb. R. Br. — ^Port Keats and Cambridge Gulf, N.W. 
Coast, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Sweers Island, Henne ; in the interior, lat. 18° 35', 
McDouall Stuart's Expedition. 

2. LUMNITZERA, Willd. 

1. L. racemosa, Willd. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
Henne. 

3. MACROPTERANTHES, F. v. M. 1862. 
1. M. Keku'ickii,F. v. Jlf.— Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (475), 17/7/1911. 
Recorded. Newcastle Waters, lat 17° 30', McDouall Stuart's Expedi- 
tion. "Bulwaddy" Tree. 

MELASTOMACEAE. 

Tribe I. — Osbeckieae. — ^Leaves with 3, 5 or more ribs. Anthers opening 
in a single terminal pore. Ovary more or less adherent except the convex or 
conical summit, 2 to 6-celled. Fruit capsular or rarely pulpy. Seeds coch- 
leate. 

Anthers all similar and equal or nearly so. Fruit capsular, opening in 
valves. — 2. Osbeckia. 

Anthers alternately smaller or dissimilar. Fruit succulent or pulpy, 
bursting irregularly. — 1. Melastoma. 

Tribe II. — Memecyleae. — ^Leaves with the midrib prominent, the veins 
pinnate or inconspicuous. Anther-cells adnate to a much thickened connective, 
and opening in separate slits or pores. Ovary adnate, 1-celled, with a central 
placenta. Fruit a berry — 3. Memecylon. 

1. MELASTOMA, Burm. 
1. M. malaiathricum, Linn. — Between Providence Hill and McAdam 
Range, and Adelaide River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. OSBECKIA, Linn. 1753. 
(Amblyanthera, Blume, 1849 ; Asterostoma, Blume, 1849 ; Beckia, Rafin, 
1838; Ceramicalyx, Blume, 1849; Hedusa, Rafin, 1838; Kadali Adans' 
1763.) 

1. 0. Australiana, Navd. — Edith Creek, Gilruth and Spencer Julv 
August, 1911. ' ^ 

H 2 



214 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHERN TERRITORY. 

North of 15°, W. S. Campbell, 5/9/1911. 

Recorded. Melville Island, I'raser; McAdam Range and Arnhem's 
Land, P. t. Mueller; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

0. perangusta, P. v. M. ; recorded from Worth Australia in N'at. Herb. 
Census. 

3. MEMECYLON", Linn. 

1. M. umbellatum, Burm. — ^North-west Coast, A. Cunningham. 

ONAGRACEAE. 

Stamens twice as many as calyx-lobes or petals. — 1. Jussieua. 
Stamens of the same number as calyx-lobes or petals. — 2. Ludwigia. 

1. JUSSIEUA, Linn. 1737. 

(Corynostigma, PresL, 1850; Cubospermum, Lour, 1790; Oldenlandia, 
R. Br., 1756.). Clove-strip. 

1. J. suffruticosa, Linn. — Edith Creek, Gibnith and Spencer, July- 
August, 191 L 

Recorded. Victoria River and McAdam Range, F. v. Mueller ; Strang- 
ways River, McDouaU Stuart ; Albert River, Henne. 

2. LUDWIGIA, Linn. 

1. L. parviflora, Roxh. — Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; Port Essiagton, 
Armstrong. 

HALOREHAGIDACEAE. 

Petals, at least in the males, induplicate, keeled. Fruit a nut-like or 
rarely spongy, undivided drupe.— 1. Haloragis. 

Petals in the males imbricate. Fruit separable into 2 or 4 nut-like 
carpels. Aquatic or mud-phiiils. — 2. Myriophyllum. 

1. HALORAGIS, Fokst. 
(Cercodia, Murr. ; Gonocarpus, Thunb.) Raspwort. 

Western species. Flowers minute. Racemes paniculate, glabrous or with 
a few scattered hairs. Leaves oblong or cuneate, nearly entire. Racemes 
filiform, paniculate. Bracis minute or none. — 2. H. triehostachya. 

Eastern species. Scabrous or hirsute. Leaves broadly toothed or crenate. 
Leaves oblong, often 1 in. long. Fruit small, narrow. Bracts minute. — 
1. H. acanthocarpa. 

1. H. acanthocarpa, Brogn. — ^Victoria River, P. v. Mueller ; Port Essing- 
ton, Armstrong ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Sims Island, 
A. Cunningham ; Gould Island, McGiUivray. 

2. H. triehostachya, Benth. — ^N. A. Drummond, N. 205. 

H; heterophylla, Brogn. ; H. Gossei, F. v. M. ; recorded from North Aus- 
tralia in National Herbarium Census. 

Ceratophyllum demersum, Linn. ; recorded from North Australia in 
Nat. Herb. Census. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEBN TEKH.ITORY. 215 

2. MYRIOPHTLLUM, Ponted, 1735. 

(Enydria, Veil., 1825 ; Hylas, Bigel, 1828 ; Pelonastes, Hook, 1847 ; Pen- 
tapteris, Hall, 1742; Poutamogeton, Walt., 1788; Purshia, Rafin.). 
Water Milfoils. 

Leaves all in whorls of 3 to 8, the submerged ones pinnatiseet with 
capillary segments, the emerged floral ones entire, toothed or shortly lobed. — 
4. M. verrucosum. 

Leaves all alternate. 

Submerged leaves pinnatiseet with capillary segments. Stamens 8. 
Carpels 2, smooth. — 1. M. dicoccum. 
Carpels 4, tuberculate. — 3. M. trachycarpum. 
Leaves all linear and entire. Minute filiform plants. — 2. M. fili- 
forme. 

1. M. dicoccum, F. v. M. — ^Robinson River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. M. filiforme, Benth. — Gulf of Carpentaria, mainland oppoate Groote 
Island, R. Brown. 

3. M. trachycarpum, F. v. M. — Gulf of Carpentaria, opposite Groote 
Island, R. Brown ; ponds near McAdam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

4. M. verrucosum, Lindl. — Hermansburg, Fiake River, G. P. Hall (68), 
11/3/1911. 

Victoria River, Bynoe ; Albert River, GuU of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

UMBELLIFERAE. 

Creeping perennials or slender annuals with scarious stipules. — 1. 
Hydro cotyle. 

Annuals or perennials, with dissected or toothed leaves without 
stipules. Fruit very flat. — 2. Trachymene. 

1. HYDROCOTYLE, Linn. Pennywort. 
1. H. grammMocarpa, F. v. M. — Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

2. TRACHYMEISTE, Rudge. 

(Didiscus, DC; Dimetopia, DC; Pritzelia, Walp. ; Huegelia, Reichb. ; 
Cesatia, Endl. ; Hemicarpus, F. v. M.) 

Coarse erect annuals or biennials. Leaves divided or lobed. Flowers 
numerous in the umbel. 

One carpel winged, the other usually abortive. — 3, T. villosa. 
Fruit not winged. — 2. T. glandulosa. 
Rootstock perennial, with elongated branching stems.- — 1. T. hemiearpa. 

1 . T. hemiearpa, Benth. — Barren plains from Point Pearce to the mouth 
of the Victoria River. 

Var. major, Benth. — ^Lacrosse Island, Cambridge Gulf and Vansittart 
Bay, A. Cunningham ; elevated land, Cape Lambert, Nichol Bay, Gregory's 
Expedition ; Glenelg district, Martin. 

Var. rotundifoUa, Benth. — ^Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. T. glandulosa, Benth. — ^Nicholson River, Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. 
Mueller. 



216 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

3. T. villosa, Benth. — Tableland between the Upper Victoria River and 
Hooker's and Start's Creeks, F. v. Mueller. 

Eryngium plantagineum, F. v. M. ; and Daneus brachiatus, Sieb. ; re- 
corded from North Australia in Ifational Herbarium Census. 

EPACRIDACEAE. 

1. LEUCOPOGON^, R. Br. 
(Perojoa, Cav. ; Phanerandra, Stschegl.). Beard Heath. 
1. L. acuminatus, R. Br. — N. Coast, R. Brown. 

MYRSINACEAE. 

1. AEGICERAS, Gaertn. 1788. 

(Malaspinaea, Presl. 1830.) 

1. A. majvs, Coerfw.— Borroloola, G. F. HUl (583), 12/9/1911. 
Recorded. Albert River, Henne; Port Essington, Armstrong. 
River Mangrove. Poisonous according to Greshoff, Ernst and Radlkofer, 
The bark contains a large quantity of saponin. 

PBEVIULACEAE. 

1. ANAGAXLIS, Linn. 
(Euparea, Gaertn.; Micropyxis, Duby.) Pimpernel. 
1. A. pumila, Swartz. — GuM of Carpentaria, F. v. MueUer. 
Samolus repens, Pers. ; recorded from IsTorth Australia in E'ational 
Herbarium Census. 

PLUlVIBAaiNACEAE. 

1. PLUMBAGO, Linn. 

1. P. zeylanica, Linn. — ^Port Essington, Armstrong ; Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller. Roots considered a dangerous irritant poison. 

Statice salicornicea, F. v. M. ; and .^Egialitis annulata, R. Br. ; recorded 
from JSTorth Australia in ITational Herbarium Census. 

SAPOTACEAE. 

Many plants of this order yield Caoutchouc. 

Calyx-segments, stamens and corolla-lobes 5 or 6^ with small scales in 
the throat of the corolla alternating with the lobes. No hypogynous disk — 
1. Sideroxylon. 

Calyx-segments 6 or 8. Corolla-lobes twice or three times as many. 
Stamens as many as calyx-lobes, with petal-like staminodia between them. 
Seeds albuminous. — 2. Mimusops. 

1. SIDEROXYLON, Linn. 

(Robertia, Scop. ; Achras, Benth. ; Sersalisia, R. Br. ; Planchonella, 
Pierre.) 

Seeds without albumen; cotyledons thick and fleshy. — 3. S. sericea. 
Seeds albuminous; cotyledons thick and broad. 

Flowers sessile or on peduncles shorter than the flowers. — 1. S. 

Arnhemica. 
Pedicels longer than the flowers. — 2. S. myrsinoides. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 217 

1. S. arnhemicum, Benth and Hook. — Sea range, F. v. Mueller 

2. S. myrsinoides, A. Cunn. — Sea range, F. v. Mueller. 

3. S. sericeum, Ait. — (Sersalisia sericea, R. Br. ; Luouma sericea, Benth, 
and Hook.) 

Barren hills, Roe's River, York Sound, A. Cunningham ; Upper Victoria 
and Gilbert Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. MIMUSOPS, Linn. 
1. M. parmfolia, B. Br. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham,, 

EBENACEAE. 

Calyx and corolla-lobes 4 to 6 each. Ovary-cells equal or twice as many, 
with 1 or 2 ovules in each. — 2. Diospyros. 

Calyx-lobes, corolla-lobes, and ovary-cells 3 each, with 2 ovules in each 
cell. — 1. Maba. 

1. MABA, FoEST. 

Leaves (mostly 2 to 3 in.) strongly reticulate. Berry globular. — 1. 
M. compacta. 

Leaves not much reticulate. Berry ovoid. Fruiting-calyx cup-shaped. — 
2. M. humilis. 

1. M. compacta, B. Br. — ^Islands of the N. coast of Amhem's Land, R. 
Brown. 

2. M. humilis, B. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Sweers Island, Henne. Ebony-wood of Queens- 
land. 

M. reticulata, E. Br.; M. geminata, E. Br.; M. buxifolia, Pers. ; recorded 
from North Australia in National Harbarium Census. 

2. DIOSPYEOS, Linn. 
{Cargillia, B. Br.) 

Calyx and corolla-lobes 4 to 6 each. Ovary-cells usually twice as many, 
with 1 ovule in each cell. — 1. D. eordifolia. 

Calyx and corolla-lobes 4 or 5 each. Ovary-cells the same number, with 
2 ovules in each cell. — 2. D. maritima. 

1. D. eordifolia, Boxb. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. D. maritima, Blume (C. argillia laxa, B. Br.). — Gulf of Carpentaria, 
opposite Groote Island, R. Brown ; Escape Cliffs, Hulls. 

D. hebecarpa, Cunn.; recorded from North Australia in National 
Herbarium Census. 

mCINEAE. 

1. BYRONIA, Endl. 

1. B. arnheminsis, F. v. M. — ^Valley near Providence Hill, Amhem's 
Land, F. v. Mueller. 

OLEACEAE. (JASMINEAE.) 
1. JASMINUM, Linn. 1735. 
(Jacksonia Hort., 1854; Mogorium Juss., 1789.) Jasmine. 
Leaves all or almost all 3-foliolate. Calyx truncate or very shortly and 
obtusely toothed. 



218 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TEEBITORY. 

Leaflets mostly, ovate, 2 to 3 in. Panicle usually broad. — 2. J. 
didymum. 

Leaflets mostly linear or lanceolate. Panicles siort. — 3. J. lineare. 
Leaves simple (uuifoliolate), the petiole articulate below the middle. 
Calyx-teeth much shorter than the tube^ or obsolete. — 4. J. 

simplicifolium. 
Oalyx-teeth subulate, much longer than the tube. — 1. J. aemulum. 

1 . J . aemulum, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria and Amhem's 
Land, R. Brown ; Adam's Bay, Hulls ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. J. didymum, Forst.—BovYoloola., G. P. HUl (581), 12/9/1911. 

Eecorded. Victoria Eiver, P. v. Mueller; Islands of the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, P. Brown, Henne ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Quail Island, 
Flood; Escape Cliffs, Hulls. 

3. J. lineare, R. Br. — ^Nichol Bay, Gregory's Expedition ; Gregory 
River, Landsborough. 

4. J. simplicifolium, Forst. — ^MacArthur River, Black Rocks, G. F. Hill 
(641), 22/10/1911. 

Recorded. Arnhem's Land, R. Brown. 

J. calcareum, F. v. M. ; and Mayepea axillaris, F. v. M. ; recorded from 
North Australia in ITational Herbarium Census. 

LOGANIACEAE. 

Herbs. Corolla-lobes valvate. Capsules 2-lobed or truncate. 

Flowers 5-merou3, in dichotomous cymes. — 1. Mitreola. 

Flowers 4-merous, on simple solitary or clustered pedicels. — 2. 
Mitrasacme. 
Shrubs or trees. Corolla-lobes imbricate-contorted. — i. Fagraea. 
Shrubs, trees or woody climbers. Corolla-lobes valvate. 
Fruit a berry. Leaves 3 or 5-nerved. — 3. Stryehnos. 

1. MITREOLA, Linn. 
1. M. oldenlandioides, Wall. — Amhem's Land, F. v. M. 

2. MITRASACME, Labill. Mitre-wort. 

Annuals. Leaves all radical, rosulate, usually withering as the 
flowering advances. Corolla- tube cylindrical. 

Corolla-tube about % in. long. Anthers included. 

Calyx-lobes short and broad. Capsule nearly globular.^ 

8. M. bngiflora. 
Calyx-lobes long, narrow and acute. Capsule twice as long as 
broad. — 2. M. elata. 
Corolla-tube about Jin. long. Anthers exserted. — 3. M. exserta. 
Corolla-tube under Y^ in. long. Anthers included. 

Corolla-tube 2 or 3 times as long as the calyx. — 14. M. tenuiflora. 
Corolla-tube shortly exceeding the calyx, rather broad, the lobes 
very short. — 11. M. nudicaulis. 
Annuals. Stems erect, leafy at least at the base. Pedicels long and 
slender, the upper -ones usually forming an umbel. 

Corolla-tube cylindrical, 4 to 5 inches long, lobes rather shorter. — 1. 
M. eonnata. 



THE FLOBA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITORY. 219 

Corolla-tube broad, scarcely exceeding the calyx; lobes as long as or 
longer tban the tube. 

Very glabrous. Stems often slightly twining. 
Corolla-tube l^/^ to 2 lines long. — 6. M. laevis. 
Grlabrous or pubescent, not twining. Corolla-tube about 1 line 
long. — 5. M. indica. 
Corolla-tube ovoid or cylindrical, the lobes much shorter than the 

tube. 
Umbels dense and many-flowered, on pedicels long and solitary. 
Umbels loose and few-flowered, on pedicels long and solitary. 
Leaves obtuse or scarcely acute. — 9. M. lutea. 
Leaves and calyx-lobes subulate-acute. Plants under 3 in. high. 
Stem branching. Capsule ovoid. — 10. M. multicatilis. 
Stem usually simple. Capsule globular. — 7. M. laricifolia. 

Annuals. Stems leafy, densely branched, under 2in. high, the flowers 
shorter than or scarcely exceeding the leaves. 

Calyx very angular, with short, divaricate, very acute lobes. — 12. 

M. prolifera. 
Calyx with long, linear, very hispid lobes and a very short tube. 
— 4. M. gentianea. 

1. M. connata, R. Br. — ^Rocky bills and along streams, Victoria River. 
Hooker's and Start's Creeks, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the N. Coast of Am- 
hem's Land, R. Brown ; barren elevated cliffs, Goulbum Island, A. Cunning- 
ham ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. M. data, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Port 
Essington, Armstrong. 

3. M. exserta,F. v. M. — Recorded. Sandy, rocky, often inandated places 
on the Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

4. 31. gentianea, F. v. M. — Inundated banks of Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

5. M. Indica, Wight. — Swamps at the foot of Providence Hill and Vic- 
toria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

6. M. laevis, Benth. — Grassy plains near Steep Head, Victoria River, P. v. 
Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

7. M. laricifolia, B. Br. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

8. M. longifhra, F. v. M. — Grassy rocks, Wickham River, and Depot 
Creek, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

9. M. lutea, F. v. M. — ^Moist, grassy places, head of Sturt's Creek, F. v. 
Mueller. 

10. M. multicaulis, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown; 
Main Camp, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

11. M. nvdicaulis. Rein. — Providence HiU and near Me Adam Range, F. v. 
Mueller. 

12. M. prolifera, R. Br. — Victoria River, near the main camp, F. v. 
MueUer. 

13. 21. stellata, R. Br. (var. latifolia, R. Br.). — ^Port Essington, Arm- 
strong ; Depot Creek, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

M. phascoides, R. Br. — ^Recorded from North Australia in National 
Herbarium Census. 



220 THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHERN TEREITOEY. 

3. STRYCHNOS, Linn. 1735. 

(Atherstonea, Pappe., 1862 ; Brehmia, Harv., 1842 ; Chemicia, Scop 
1777 ; Curae, Humb. 1819 ; Ignatia, Linn., 1781 ; Ignatiana, Lour., 1790 
Lasiostcma, Schreb., 1789 ; Narda, Veil., 1825 ; Rouhamon, Aub., 1775 
Unguacha, Hochst., 1844.) 

S. lucida, B. Br. — ^Near Darwin, GUruth and Spencer, July-August, 
1911. 

Recorded. Islands of. the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Cambridge 
Gulf, Regent's River, and Goulbum Island, A. Cunningham ; Treachery 
Bay and Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; N. W. Coast, Marten. 

The Austrahan Species have not been found to contaia any poisonous 
substance. Strychnine and Brucin occur in the seeds of S. Nux-vomica and S. 
Ignatii, the seeds of S. Rheedii and S. aculeata contain Brucia only, while 
those of S. potatorum and others contain no poisonous alkaloids. 

4. PAGRAEA, Thunb. 
1. F. racemosa, Jahk. — Providence Hill, E. v. Mueller. 

GENTIANACEAE. 

Tribe I. Eugantianeae. Terrestrial plants. Leaves opposite. Corolla 
lobes contorted or otherwise imbricate in the bud. Testa of the seeds mem- 
branous. 

CoroUa-tube cylindrical or short ; lobes spreading, contorted in the 

bud. Styles deciduous. — 1. Erythraea. 
Corolla-tube cylindrical ; lobes spreading, imbricate in the bud. 
Calyx narrow, tubular, shortly 4-toothed. — 2. Canscona. 

Tribe II. Menyantheae. Aquatic or marsh plants. Leaves radical or 
alternate, sometimes floating. Corolla-lobes with broad margins, induplicate 
in the bud. Testa of the seeds crustaccous. — ^3. Limnanthemum. 

1. ERYTHRAEA, L. C. Rich, 1796. 

(Centaurella, Delarb., 1800 ; Centaureum, Rupp., 1745 ; Centaurium, 
GUib., 1781 ; Gyrandra, Griseb., 1845 ; Hippocentaurea, J. A. Schultes, 1814 ; 
Schenkia, Griseb., 1853 ; Xanthera, Reichb., 1841.) 

1. E. austrodis, R. Br. (E. spicata,persoon). — Camp III. Lander Creek, 
G. F. Hill (311), 10/6/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown; Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller; Mchol Bay, IST. W. Coast, Ridley's Expedition. 

Australian Centaury. Useful Tonic-herb. 

2. CAlSrSCORA, Lam. 

{Orthostemon, R. Br.) 

1. G. diffusa, R. Br. — Between Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. 
Mueller. 

3. LIMNANTHEMUM, S. P. Gmel., 1770. 

(Limnanthus, Neck., 1790 ; Nymphoides, Tourn., 1789 ; Schweyckerta, 
C. Gmel., 1805 ; Trachysperma, Ra'hi., 1808 ; Villarsia, J. F. Gmel., 1791 ; 
Waldschmidia, Wigg , 1780 ; Liparophyllum.) Marsh-wort. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 221 

Leaves almost sessile under the cluster of pedicels, which appear as if 
inserted on the petiole. Flowers white. 

Leaves 2 to 8 in. diameter. Calyx 3.to 4 lines long. — 3. L. iudicum. 
Leaves under 1 in. diameter. Calyx 1 line long. Stems filiform. — 
4. L. minimum. 
Leaves all on long petioles. Pedicels usually 2 together at the nodes 
of almost leafless stems. Flowers yellow. 

Leaves mostly crenate. Corolla-lobes with a longitudinal central 

wing inside. — 1. L. crenatum. 
Leaves entire. Ck»rolla-lobes without any longitudinal wing. — 2. L. 
geminatum. 

1. L. crenatam, F.v. M. — ^Five Mile Bar, MacArthur River. G. F. Hill 
(728), 10/1/1912. 

Recorded. Albert River and Bentinck Island, Henne. 
Fringed Water Lily (yellow). 

2. L. geminatum, Griseb. — ^Albert River and Bentinck Island, Henne ; 
stagnant waters near McAdam Range, F. v. MueUer. 

3. L. indicum, Thw. — ^Ponds near S. AUigator River towards McAdam 
Range, F. v. Mueller. 

Fringed Water Lily (white). 

4. L. minimum, F. v. M. — ^York Sound, N. W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
lagoons on the Fitzmaurice River, F. v. MueUer. 

APOCYNACEAE. 

Many plants of this order yield Caoutchouc. 
Anthers wholly included in the corolla-tube, and usually free. 
Ovary single, the carpels completely united from the base. — 1. Carissa. 
Ovary of 2 distinct carpels united only by the whole or the summit of 

the style. 
Ovules few (4 to 6 to each carpel . Fruit of 1 or 2 indehiscent 

drupes or berries. Mostly trees or shrubs. — 4. Alyxia. 
Ovules numerous. Fruit follicular, dehiscent or without any 
hardened endocarp. 

Follicles short, usually pulpy and scarcely dehiscent. Seeds 
without hairs. Erect trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite. — 
3. Tabernaemortana. 
Follicles long and linear, dehiscent. Seeds bordered by hairs, 
very long at one or both ends. Erect trees or shrubs. 
Leaves whorled or opposite. — 2. Alstonia. 
Anthers exserted and cohering or connivent in a cone or ring round the 
stigma. Stems twining. Seeds with a coma. 

Throat of the corolla with a corona of scales sometimes united in 
a ring. Carpelsdistinct or nearly so. Pappus at the end furthest 
from the hilum. — 5. Wrightia. 
No corona. Carpels united in a 2-celled ovary. Pappus at the 
hilum. — 6. Parsonsia. 

1. CAEISSA, Linn, 1T67. 
(Antura, Forsk., 1775 ; Arduina, Mill., 1759.) 

Leaves ovate, rhomboidal or orbicular, those of the smaller branches 
broadly elliptical. — 2. C. ovata. 



222 THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHESN TEERITOEY. 

Leaves lanceolate or narrow-elliptical. — 1. C. lanceolata. 

1. G. lanceolata, R. Br. (C Brownii, F. v. M.). — Camp III., Lander 
Creek, G. F. HiU, 10/6/1911 . 

Macdonnell Eanges, G. I'. Hill (169), 12/5/1911. 
60 miles IST.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill, 7/6/1911. 
Five Mile Bar, MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (723), 19/1/1912. 
Eecorded. Victoria Eiver, F. v. Mueller; islands of the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, R. Brown; Strangways River, Waterhouse. 

2. C. ovata, R. Br. — Victoria River, Bynoe. 

2. ALSTONLA., R. Br., 1809. 
(Blaberopus, A.DC, 1844 ; Pala, Juss., 1825.) 
Corolla-lobes with the left-hand margin overlapping. 

Leaves whorled, with transverse parallel vems. — 3. A. vertioiUosa. 

CoroUa-lobes with the right-hand margin overlapping. 

Veins numerous, nearly transverse and parallel.- — 2. A. ophioxy- 

loides. 
Veins distant, more or less arcuate and anastomosing. 

Leaves oval, eUiptical or oblong, softly villous underneath.— 

4. A. villosa. 
Leaves linear, glabrous. — 1. A. linearis. 

1. A. linearis, Benfh. — Cliffs of Brunswick Bay and Regent's River, 
N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

2. A. ophioxyloides, F. v. M. — ^Upper Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, 
F. V. Mueller. 

3. A. verticillosa, F. v. M.- — ^Rocks, Montague Sound, A. Cunningham ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong ; rocky gullies, sources of the Roper River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

4. A. villosa, Blwne. — ^Eleven MUe Creek, near Katharine, Gilruth and 
Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

3. TABERNAEMONTAISTA, Blum. 

Quite glabrous. Calyx-segments scarcely obtuse.- — 1. T. orientahs. 
Foliage pubescent. Calyx-segments very obtuse. — 2. T. pubescens. 

1. T. orientalis, B. Br. — Arnhem's Land, R. Brown ; Sims Island and 
common along the coast, A. Cunningham ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. T. pubescens, R. Br. — ^N. Coast, R. Brovra. ; Goulbum Islands, A. 
Cuimingham. 

4. ALYXIA, E. Br.— Chain Fettit. 

1. A. spicata, R. Br. — Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown; 
Henne. 

5. WRIGHTIA, R. Br., 1809. ;Balfouria, R. Br., 1809.) 
Pubescent. Leaves ovate or elliptical. Corona of 10 distinct scales. — 

1. W. pubescens. 

Glabrous. Leaves linear or lanceolate. Corona a truncate or toothed 

ring. — 2,. W. sahgna. 

1. W. pubescens, R. Br. — Islands off the N. Coast of Arnhem's Land, R. 
Brown ; Port Essington Armstrong ; Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. W. saligna, F. v ilf.— Borroloola, G. F. Hill (660),-7/ll/1911. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHERN TEEEITOEY. 223 

Long. 132 (about), lat. 18° 27, G. F. Hill (451), 6/7/1911. 

Eeeorded. Barren ridges, Sea Eange, Victoria Eiver and McAdam 
Range, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, E. Brown ; Port 
Essington, Armstrong; Albert Eiver, Henne. 

Milk Bust. "Wood resembles English Elder; useful for engraving and 
carving. 

6. PAESOISTSIA, E. Bb. 
{Heligme, Blume.) 

1. P.velutina, R. Br. — ^Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 
Cerbera Odollam, Gaertn. ; and Ichnocarpus frutescens, R. Br. ; recorded 
in ISTational Herbarium Census from Worth Australia. 

ASCLEFIADACEAE. 

Many of this order yield Caoutchouc. The stems (but not the seed- 
pods) of many yield good fibre. 

Tribe I. Periploceae. Pollen-masses (1, 2 or 4 to each anther) 

granular, evidently consisting of 4 or more agglomerated granules. 

Filaments more or less free (connate in all the other tribes). — '1. 
Gymnanthera. 

Tribe II. Secamoneae. Pollen-masses smooth, 4 to each anther. — 5 
Secamone. 

Tribe III. Euasclepiadeae. Pollen-masses smooth, 2 to each anther, 
pendulous. Corolla-lobes imbricate in the bud, usually contorted. 

Corona of 5 distinct saccate or inflated segments at the back of the 
anthers, with an exterior corona below them, consisting of 5 protuberances 
or a slightly prominent ring. Corolla nearly rotate. 

Outer corona very prominent. Plant with succulent leafless 

blanches (in the Australian species). — 3. Saroostemma. 
Outer corona scarcely prominent. Leaves (in the Australian 
species) linear. — 4. Pentatropis. 
Corona membranous, the segments either distinct but not saccate or 
united in a lobed cup round the gynostegium. Corolla nearly rotate. — 2. 
Cynanchum. 

Tribe IV. Marsdenieae. Pollen-masses smooth, 2 to each anther, 
horizontal or erect. Corolla-lobes contorted-imbricate (very slightly so in 
some Tylophorae). 

Pollen-masses small, globular, laterally attached. CoroUa rotate. Corona 
of 5 segments more or less fleshy adnate to the gynostegium, and sometimes 
forming a ring round it. — 8. Tylophora. 

Pollen-masses oblong, erect. CoroUa urceolate or rotate. Corona of 5 
segments usually fleshy or saccate and adnate at the base, with a short erect 
free or adnate point. — 9. Marsdenia. 

Pollen-masses erect. Corolla (smaU) with a short, broad tube and spread- 
ing lobes. Corona none or of 5 scarcely prominent glands at the base of the 
gynostegium. — 7. Gymnema. 

Tribe V. Stapelieae. Pollen-masses smooth, 2 to each anther, erect 
Corolla-lobes valvate (often induplicate) . — 6 Mierostemma. 



224 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

1. GYMISTAJSTTHERA, R. Be. 

1. G. nitida, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R Brown; 
Sandy Island, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Sweers Island, Henne ; Forster's 
Range and Daly Waters, Waterhouse. 

2. CYNANCHUM, Linn., 1737. 

(Diploglossum, Meissn., 1840 ; Endotropis, Endl., 1838 ; Exostegia, Boj., 
1844 ; Psanchum, Neck., 1790 ; Symphyoglossum, Turcz., 1848 ; Ziervoglia, 
Neck., 1790 ; Vinoetoxicum, Mnch. ; Cynoctonum, E. Mey ; Orthosia, Dene. ; 
Blyttia, Arn. ; Seutera, Rchb. ; Cyathella, Dene. ; Bunburya, Harv. ; Lyonia, 
BL). 

Corona of 5 segments, quite distinct In the Australian species (Vinoetoxi- 
cum). — 1. C. camosum. 

Corona with 5 or 10 marginal lobes and 5 or 10 additional protuberances 
or lobes inside the margin. 

Corona-lobes 20, subulate-acuminate, much exceeding the anthers. 

No stipule-like leaves. — 2. 0. floribundum. 
Corona lobes 20 ; 10 short, obtuse, denticulate or partially acuminate, 
and 10 inner rather longer acuminate keels. A pair of stipule- 
like leaves usually at the base of the petioles. 
Glabrous or the inflorescence minutely pubescent. — 3. C. 

pedunculatum. 
Whole plant softly pubescent. — 4. 0. puberulum. 

1. C. camosum (Benih.) Schum. — Cygnet Bay, N. W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria", R. 
Brown. 

2. C. floribundum, JR. Br. — Charlie Creek, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill 
(173), 14/5/1911. 

Recorded. Nichol Bay, N. W. Coast, Gregory's Expedition. 

3. C. pedunculatum, R. Br. — Montague Sound, N. W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown. 

4. G. puberulum, F. v. M. — -Rocks, upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 
C. elegans, Benth. ; recorded from North Austraha in National Herbarium 

Census. 

3. SARCOSTEMMA, R. Br. 

1. S. australe, R. Br. — Intercourse Island, Dampier's Archipelago, A. 
Cunningham. 

Caustic-vine ; a noxious weed, poisonous to stock. 

4. PENTATROPSIS, R. Br., 1814. 

(Eutropis, Falc, 1839 ; Rhyncharrhena, F. v. M., 1859.) 

1. P. quinquepartita, Benth. {Daemia quinquepartita, F.v. M.). — Lat. 29° 
27', Survey Route, G. F. Hill (430), 3/7/1911. 

5. SECAMONE, R. Br. 

Leaves ovate-acuminate or lanceolate. — 1. S. elHptica. 
Leaves ovate, obtuse or scarcely acute. — 2. S. ovata 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHEBN TERRITORY. 225 

1. S. elliptica, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. 8. ovaJta, R. Sr.— Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

6. MICROSTEMMA, R. Br. 

Corolla bearded inside. — 2. M. tuberosum. 
Corolla quite glabrous. — 1. M. glabriflorum. 

1. M. glabriflorum, F. v. J/.— Sea Range, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. M. Tuberosum, B. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 

7. GYMlSrEMA, R. Bb. 

(Bidaria, Endl.) 

Sect. I. Gymnema. Corolla with small scales in the throat alternating 
with the lobes. No corona. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate. Umbels mostly in pairs. — 3. G. 
sylvestre. 

Leaves narrow-lanceolate. Umbels mostlj' solitary. — 1. G. MueUeri. 

Sect. II. Bidaria. Corolla without scales in the throat. Corona none 
or of very obscure glands at the base of the gynostegium. 

Leaves oval-oblong or lanceolate, 1 to 2 in. long, the veins very oblique. 
— 4. G. trinerve. 

Leaves narrow-linear.. — 2. G. stenophyllum. 

L G. Muelleri, Benth. — ^Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. G. stenophyllum, A. Gray. — ^Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

3. G. sylvestre, B. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

4. G. trinerve, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
also in Leichhardt's collection without the locality. 

8. TYLOPHORA, R. Bb., 1809. 

(Belostemma, Wall., 1834 ; Homolostyles, Wall., 1834 ; Hybanthera 
Endl., 1833 ; Iphisia, Wight., Amblyglossum, Turcz.) 
Stems erect pubescent. 

Leaves narrow -lanceolate. — 1. T. erecta. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate. — 3. T. macrophylla. 
Twiners. 

Flowers (scarcely 1^ lines diameter) in several umbels, sessile along the 
slender simple peduncles. — ^2. T. flexuosa. 

1. T. erecta, F. v. M. — Eleven Mile Creek, near Katharine, Gilruth and 
Spencer, July- August, 1911. Specimens in fruit without flowers. Vegetation 
agrees with T. erecta. Fruit not ripe, resembles T. macrophylla, Benth., but is 
broad at the base, and would be larger when ripe. 

2. T. flexuosa, R. Br. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; islands of 
the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

Z. T. macrophylla, Benth. — Darwin, G. F. Hill (3rd Series, I.), 15/1/1914. 
Recorded. Port Essington, Armstrong ; Adams Bay, Hulls. 



226 THE FLORA OIT THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

9. MARSDENIA, R. Br. 

(Baxtera, Reichb., 1828 ; Chlorochlamys, Miq., 1848 ; Cionura, Griseb., 
1844 ; Harrisonia, Hook., 1826 ; Koelreuteria, Medik., 1782 ; Leichhardtia, 
R. Br., 1849 ; Ruehssia, Karst., 1849 ; Sicyocarpus, Boj., 1837 ; Sphinctostoma, 
Benth., 1876 ; Tetragonocarpus, Hassk., 1857 ; Verlotia, Toum.) Dowbah. 

Flowers small in compound cymes. Corolla rotate. Leaves broad or 
narrow, not cordate.^ — 1. M. cinerascens. 

Mowers often rather large, in cymes or in simple umbels. Corolla more or 
less urceolate (except M. HuUsii). Leaves large, cordate. 

Flowers in cymes. Stigma short. — 4. M. velutina. 
Flowers in simple umbels. — 2. M. Hullsii. 
Flowers in simple umbels. Corolla more or less urceolate. Leaves broad 
or narrow, not cordate. 

Stigma narrow-cyUndrical, nor much exceeding the anthers. ^ — 3. 

M. Leichhardtiana. 
Stigma very short and obtuse. — 5. M. viridiflora. 

1. M. cinerascens, B. Br. — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe, Cygnet Bay and S. Goul- 
bum Island, A. Cunningham ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. M. Hullsii, F. v. ilf.— Adam's Bay, Hulls. 

3. M. Leichhardtiana, F. v. Jf.— 20 miles N.W. by N. of Meyer's Hill, 
Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (218), 1/6/1911. 

Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, F. v. Mueller. 
Pods eaten by Queensland natives. Dowbah. 

4. M. velutinM, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong ; Adam's Bay, Hulls. 

5. M. viridiflora, R. £r.— Western Creek, G. F. Hill (756), 14/2/1912. 
Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Adam's Bay, Hulls. 
Dischidia timorensis, Decais. ; Dischidia Rafflesiana, Wall. ; recorded 

from North Austraha in National Herbarium Census. 

CONVOLVULACEAE. 

Sepals free, style filiform undivided to the stigma or stigmatic lobes. 
Corolla-limb 5-angled or 5-lobed. 

Stigma or stigmatic lobes globular or nearly so. — 6. Ipomoea. 
Stigmatic lobes, linear, oblong, or rarely ovate. 

Stigmatic I6bes 2. Ovary completely or imperfectly 2 -celled, 

with 2 ovules in each cell. — 7. Convovulus. 
Stigmatic lobes 4 to 8 or rarely 2. Ovary 2-ceUed, with 1 ovule 
in each cell. — 8. Polymeria. 
Style more or less branched below the stigmas or divided to the base. 
Style-branches 2, with globular stigmas. 

Corolla-limb 5 angled, or shortly 5-lobed, folded in the bud. 

Flowers axillary. — 2. Breweria. 
Cbrolla-limb of 5 divisions, imbricate in the bud. Flowers in 
terminal heads or spikes. — 3. Cressa. 
Style-branches 2, more rarely 3, with discoid stigmas. — 4. Carpentia. 
Style-branches, 4, with linear stigmas. — 5. Evolvulus. 
Ovary itself divided into 2 carpels, each with a basal style and con- 
taining 1 or 2 ovules. — 1. Dicbondra. 



THE ELOBA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 227 

1. DICHOKDRA, Fokst. 
1. D. renews, J'orst.— Port Essington, Axmstrong. Kidney weed. 

2. BREWERIA, R. Br., 1810. 

(Bonamia, A. Gr., 1862 ; Calycobolus, WiUd., 1819 ; Codonanthus, G. 
Don., 1856 ; Dethardingia, Nees., 1823 ; Dufourea, H.B. and K., 1818 ; Pre- 
vostea, Choisy., 1825 ; Reinwardtia, Spreng., 1825 ; Seddera, Hochst., 1844 ; 
Stylisma, Rafin., 1825 ; Trichantha, Karst. and Triana., 1856 ; Wiiberforcia. 
Hook., 1848.) 

Silky-pubescent or sbortly hirsute. Bracteoles minute. 
Leaves linear or lanceolate. — 2. B. linearis. 
Lower leaves somewbat cordate, upper lanceolate. — 3 B. media. 
All tbe leaves regularly beart-sbaped. — 1. B. brevifolia. 
Densely rusty-tomentose or villous with long hairs. Bracteoles at least 
as long as the calyx. 

Sepals slightly unequal. Corolla pink, about 1 in. long, — 5 

B. rosea. 
Outer sepals much larger than the inner. Corolla (blue) under 
%, in. long. — 4. B. pannosa. 

1. B. brevifolia, Benth. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. B. linearis, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Upper Victoria River, P. v. Mueller ; mainland Carpentaria, Landsborough. 

3. B. media, R. Br. — S. Amhem Bay, R. Brown ; Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

4. B. pannosa, R. 5r.— Borroloola, G. F. Hill i716), 13/1/1912. 

Recorded. — Islaaids of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

5. B. rosea, F. v. M. — Hajnonersley Range, N.W. Coast, R. Brown. 

3. CRESSA, Linn. 

1. C. cretica Linn. — ^Islands of tbe Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown; 
mouth of Victoria River, F. v. Mueller; Albert River, Henne. Rosin weed. 

4. CARPENTIA, Ewart. Plate XX. 

Garpentia, Ewart (Plate XX.). — Calyx polysepalous, sepals resembling 
foliage leaves, coroUa campanulate five-lobed. Ovary bicarpeUary unilocular ; 
styles usually 2, sometimes 3, with discoid stigmas curved on tbe upper 
surface ; 4 ovules attached at base of ovary, 2 to each carpel. 

Garpentia floribunda, Ewart and Davies. — ^Erect spreading woody shrub, 
about 9 inches to 1 foot in height, stems and leaves covered with silky white 
hairs. Leaves alternate, crowded on upper branches shortly petiolate, small, 
lanceolate to ovate centric from one-tenth inch to ^-incb in length ; flowers 
solitary terminal, sepals hairy. Calyx lobes almost glabrous, protruding beyond 
bracts. Anthers saggitate. Ovary covered with long white hairs ; styles 
slightly longer than ovary. 

Affinities. — ^Distinguished from Breweria and Cressia by the infloresence 
which is soUtary and terminal, and by the variable number of styles A^ith discoid 
stigmas. Whole plant bears a superficial resemblance to Wilsonia, but the 
sepals are free. 



228 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Locality. — Observation Island, Gulf of Carpentaria. G. F. Hill (No. 637)' 
21/10/11 

5. EVOLVULUS, Linn. 1763. 

(Camdenia, Scop., 1777 ; Cladostyles, Humb. & Bonpl., 1808 ; Leucomalla, 
Phil. Sert. Mendoc, 1871 ; Meriana, Veil., 1825 ; Plesilia, Rafin., 1836.) 

1. E. alsinoides, Linn. — (E. linifolius, linn.) Near "Western Creek, G. 
F. Hill (775), 16/2yi9'12. Driffield Creek, Gilrath and Spencer, July-August 
1911. 60 milea N.E. of Clamp II., G. P. Hill (281), 7/6/1911. About 30 
rodles N.W. of Twitchera Gap, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (162), 
10/5/1911. 

Islands of the Gulf of Oarpentaria, R. Broiwu ; North-west Coast, Bynoe, 
Gregory's Expedition, etc. ; Victoria Eiver, and Arnhenx's Land, F. v. M. ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong, A. Cunningham; in the interior, M'Douall 
Stuaxt's Expedition. 

6. IPOMOEA, Linn., R. Br. 

(Pharbitis, Batatas, Calonyction, Skinnera.) (Aniseia, Choisy, 1833 ; 
Apopleumon, Rafin., 1836 ; Bombycospermum, PresL, 1831 ; Calboat, Cav., 
1799 ; Calycanthemum, Klotzsch., 1861 ; Clitoeyamos, St. Lag., 1880 ; Convol- 
vuloides, Moench., 1794 ; Elythrostamna, Boj., 1837 ; Euryloma, Rafin., 1836 ; 
Exogonium, Choisy, 1833 ; Leptocallis, G. Don., 1837 ; Macrostema, Pers., 
1805 ; Marcellia, Mart., 1844 ; Mina, Cerv., 1824 ; Morenoa, La Llave, 1824; 
ML, Medic, 1791 ; Operculina, Silva, 1836 ; Piptostegia, Reichb., 1841 , 
Quamoolit, Moench., 1794 ; Trivolvulus, Moc. and Sesse., 1845. 

Series I. — Digitatae. Leaves digitately divided into deep lobes or 
distant segments or leaflets. Flovi'ers of the Speciosae, or rarely of the Cam- 
panulatae. 

Leaves paimajtely or almost pedately Leveral-lobed. Flowers large in 
loose cymes. — 20. I. paniculata. 

Leaves divided into 3 (or 5?) distinct obovate lobed segments. Flowers 
rather large. Plant stellate-tomentose. — 7. I. Davenporti. 

Leaves divided into 5 or 7 ovate or lancelate cntiie _egments. Flowers 
large. Plant glaibrous or hairy. — 21. I. quinata. 

Leaves divided into 3 to 7 Imear usually pinnatifid segments. 

Corolla nearly 2 in. long. Ovary 2-oelled. — 9. I. diversifolia. 
Corolla scarcely \ in. long. Ovary 3-celled. — ^8. I. dissecta. 

Series II. — Pharbitides. Leaves emtire or 3-lobed. Ovary usually 3-celled. 
Sepals usually long and narrow. Corolla of the Speciosae. — 15. I. hederaeea. 

Series HI. — Calycinae. Leaves entire or lobed at the base. Ovary 
2-oelled. Sepals large, obtuse (attaining | to 1 in. after flowering). Corolla 
large (1| to 3 in. long). 

Glabrous or nearly so. Dracteoles small. bepaJs very large. Corolla 
broadly campanulate, about 2 in. long. — 2. I. alata. 

Glabrous or sparingly pubescent. Bracteoles small. Corolla about 3 in. 
long, contracted into a tulbe at the base. 

Leaves acuminate. Outer sepals rather longer than the others.— 

18. I. longiflora. 
Leaves very obtuse, almost reniiform. Outer sepals rather smaller 
than the others. — 6. I. costaita. 
Seiries IV. — Speciosae. Leaves ent'rc, toothed or lobed at the base. Ovary 
2-celled or spuriously 4-celled. Sepals moderiate or small (rarely attaining 
i in.). Corolla large (IJ to 3 in. long), often more or less tubular at the 
base, usually pink, purple, or white. 



THE FLORA 01' THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOBY. 229 

StemB prostrate or creeping, and rooting at the io^wer nodes. 
Maritime plants. Seeds woolly-haiiy. 

Leaves rather thick, very obtuse or emarginate. Ovary more or less 
4-C6lled. 
Leaves biToad, 2 to 3 in. long, the veins prominent. — 4. I. 

bilo'ba. 
Leaves sm'all or narrow, the veins scarcely prominent. — 5. I. 
carnosa. 
Leaves rather thin. Ovary 2-celled. — 22. I. reptans. 
Stems twining. 

Corolla 2J to above 3 in. long. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, not cordate. Stems slender. — 14. I. 

graminea. 
Leaves broadly ovate>-cordate. Stems woody at the bsse. 
Pubescent or villous. — 23. I. velutdna. 
Glabrous. — -I. abrupta. 
Corolla 1 J to 2 in. long or scaroely more. Leaves cordate or hastate. 
Peduncles usually much shorter than the rather long pedicels. 

— 13. I. gracilis. 
Peduncles mostly longer than the short pedicels. Leaves cor- 
date. — 19. I. Muedleri 

Series V. — -Campanulate. Leaves enitdre toothed or lobed at the base. 
Ovary. 2-celled. Ck>rolla moderate or small (rarely exceeding 1 in.), usually 
bwoadly campanulate, yellow, white, or pimk. 

Stems twining. Flowers, several together in pedunculate cyr-es or 
racemes, the pedicels usually short. — 12. I. flava. 

Stems twining. Flowers, solitary or rarely 2 or 3 together, the peduncles 
and pedicels mostly longer than the calyx. 
Leaves petiolate. — 17. I. incisa. 

Leaves sessile, narroiw, toothed at the base or hastate.- — 3. I 
angustifolia. 
Stems twining. Floweirs smaJl, solitary or several together, sessile or with 
very short peduncles and pedioela. 

Leaves from cordate to lanceolate. — 11. I. eriocarpa. 
Stems eireot or ascending, not twining. Leaves not cordate, usually 
narrow. Fowers small. 

Planit hairy. Leaves entire toothed or lobed. Flowers nearly ses- 
sile.— 16^ I. heterophylla. 
Plant tomentose or densely villous.. Leaves entire. Fowers solitary 
or in sm.all cymes on a more or less elongated peduncle. — 10. 
I. ©recta. 

1. I. abrupta, R. Br. — ^North Coast, Bauer ; Escape Cliffs, Hulls ; 
Gloster Island, Henne. 

2. I. data, R. Br.— Ten miles north of Eva Downs, G. F. Hill (517), 
19/8/1911. 

Recorded. Islands off Cape Wilberiorce, R. Brovra. 

3. /. angustifolia, Jacq. — ^Montague Sound, North-west Coast, A. Cun- 
ningham ; Camden and Brecknock Harbours, Martin ; upper Victoria River 
F. V. Mueller ; islands of the GuU of Carpentaria, R. Brovm, Henne ; Port 
Essington, Armstrong. 

4. /. biloba, Fors. {I. Pescaprae, Roth.). — Observation Island, Gulf of 
Carpentaria, G. F. Hill (637a), 21/10/1911. 

Near beaches, MelviUe Island, G. F. HiU (3rd Series, 13), 19/4/1914. 



230 THE FLOEA OF TFB ISTORTHERN TEREITOBY, 

Recorded. Glenelg River and Brecknock Harbour, North-west Coast, 
Marten ; Nichol Bajr, Ridley's Expedition ; North Coast, R. Brown ; Sweers 
and other islands, and Albert River, Henne ; Escape Cliffs, Hulls. 

5. /. carnosa, R. Br. ( /. stolonifera, J. F. Gmel.). — Islands of the GuU of 
Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

6. /. costata, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Attack Creek, 
M'Douall Stuart. 

7. /. Davenporti, F. v. M. — Davenport Range, M'Douall Stuart. 

8. /. dissecta, Willd. — ^Islands off Cape Wilberforce, R. Brown ; Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. Contains Prussic Acid. 

9. /. diversifolia, B. Br.- — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

10. 7. erecta, B. Br. — Maude's Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July-August, 
1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the GuK of Carpen- 
taria, R. Brown, Henne ; near Caledon Bay, B. Geell ; in the Strangways 
River, etc., M'Douall Stuart. 

11. I. eriocarpa, B. Br. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

12. I. flava, F. v. M. — Albert River and its tributaries, F. v. Mueller. 

13. I. gracilis, B. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria and off Cape 
Wilberforce, R. Brown. 

14. I. graminea, B. Br.- — Islands off Cape Wilberforce, R. Brown. 

15. /. hederacea, Jacq. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

16. /. heterophylla, B. Sr.— Darwin, G. F. Hill (3rd Series, 6), 3/2/1914. 
Near Western Creek, G. F. HiU (754), 15/2/1912. 

Recorded. Victoria River, P. v. Mueller ; islands of the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, R. Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

17. /. incisa, B. Br. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

18. /. longiflora, B. Br. — ^Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Escape Chffs, Hulls. 

19. I. Muelleri, £em<^.— Hugh River, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (141 ), 
5/6/1911. 

Recorded. Nichol Bay, Walcott ; Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; in the 
interior, lat. 18° 30', M'DouaU Stuart's Expedition. 

20. I. digitata, Linn. {I. paniculata, B. Br.). — ^Amhem Bay, R. Brown. 

21. /. quinata, B. Br. — ^North Coast, R. Brown, Henne ; Arnhem N. 
Bay, R. Brown. 

22. I. aquatica, Forsh. ( I. reptans, Pair). — Upper Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller ; Adams Bay, Hulls. 

23. /. velutina, B. Br. — Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

I. Turpethum, R. Br. ; I. denticulata, Chois. ; I. sepiaria, Koem. ; I. 
Robertsoni, J. Hook ; I. Niemanni, F. M. Reader, 1904 ; recorded from North 
Austraha ui National Herbarium Census. 

7. CONVOLVULUS, Linn., 1735. 

(Bueharea, Rafin., 1836 ; Merrenia, Demist., 1818 ; Pantoosekia, Griseb 
1873 ; Rhodorhiza, Webb, 1841 ; Stevogtia, Neck., 1890. Bindweed. 
Flowers solitary or rarely 2 together. Sepals obtuse. 



THE M.ORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 231 

Leaves either very narrow or toothed or lobed. — I. C. erubescens. 
Flowers in cymes. SepaJs acuminate. Leaves ooi-date, entire. 

Softly tomentose. Pedicels short. — 2. C. multivalvis. 

Glabrous or pubescent. Pedicels rather long. — 3. C. parviflorus. 

1. C. erubescens, Sims. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (76) 
11/3/1911. Maiden's Blush. 

2. C muUivalvis, B. Br. — Regent's River, North-west Coast, A. Cun- 
ningham ; Bynoe ; Glenelg district, Martin. 

3. C. parviflorus, Vahl. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, Hulls ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

8. POLYMERIA, R. Br. 

Leaves linear or lanceolate. 

Stigmatttc lobes 6 to 8. — 2. P. angiista. 

Stigmatic lobes 2. Stems erect. Peduncles 2-flowered. — 3. P. di- 
stigmia. 
Leaves cordate, ovate or oblonig. — 1. P. annbigua,. 

1. P. amhigua, B. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

2. P. angusta, F. v. J/. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

3. P. distigma, Benth. — Glenelg district, N.W. Coast, Martin. 

Porana sericea, F. v. M. ; recorded from North Australia in National 
Herbarium Census. One or more species of Wilsonia probably oecur in the 
Northern Territory, but there are no records from deSnite localities. 

HYDROPHYLLACEAE. 

1. HYDROLEA, Linn. • 
1. H. zeylanica, Vahl. — Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. BlueUer. 

BORRAGINACEAE. 

Fruit a drupe, indivisible or separable into pyrenes. 

Trees, shrubs, or woody cLi-mbeirs (rarely herbs in species not Australian). 

Style twice forked. — 1. Cordia. 

Style 2 lobed, without any thick' ring. — 2. Ehretia. 

Style simple, with a fleshy ring round the entire or sHghtly 2-lobed 
summit. — 5. Tournefortia. 

Fruit, dry (except in Halga,nia), separable into 4 nuts or into two 2-seeded 
carpels. Herbs, uudershruibs or low shrubs. 

Style 2-loibed. Prostrate herb with lobed leaves. — ^^3. Coldenia. 
Style simple, with a fleshy ring round the summit or at the base of 

a terminal cone or point. — 6. Heliotropium. 
Style simple, filiform, with a miaute stigma. Anthers exserted, 
oonnivent in a long cone or cylinder. 

Fruit separable into two 2-celled carpels. Seeds albuminous. 
Anther-points straight. — 4. Halgania. 

Fruit 4-lobed, the lobes forming separable nuts, the centre un- 
divided ajad persistent. No albumen. Anther-points long 
and twisted. — 7. Trichodesmia. 



:232 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHBEN TEERITOBY. 

1. CORDIA, Linn. 

1. C. subcordata, Lam. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
Henne ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Escape Cliffs, Hulls. 

2. EHRETIA, Linn. 

1. E. saligna, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. Wood useful in turnery. False Cedar. 

3. COLD'ENLA,, Linn. 

1. C. procumbens, Linn. {Lobophylhom, F. v. M.). — Victoria River. 
Sturt's Creek, and upper Roper River, F. v. M. 

4. HALGAJSriA, Gaud., 1826. 

Scabrous-pubescent or nearly glabrous shrubs or undershrubs. 

Leaves entire or obtusely toothed. Corolla-lobes broad, usually obtuse. — 
1. K. solanacea. 

Glandular-glutinous, small branching shrubs, nearly glabrous or with a 
very short appressed pubescene. — 2. H. cyanea. 

■1. H. solanacea, F. v. Jf.— Camp IV., Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (368), 
21/6/1911. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; 
between the Bonney River and Mount Morphett, M'Douall Stuart. 

2. H. cyanea, lAndl. {H. strigosa, Schlecht). — Forty miles N.N.W. of 
Meyer's HiU, G. F. Hill (229), 2/6/1911. 

5. TOURNEFORTIA, Linn. 

Corolla lobes longer than the tub©, imbricate in the bud. Foliage ajid 
inflorescence densiely silky tomentose. — 1. T. argemtea. 

Corolla lobes shorter than the tube, plicate and induplioate in the bud. 
Foliage tomentose hirsute or nearly glabrous. — 2. T. mollis. 

1. T. argentea, Linn. — Islands of the GuH of Carpentaria, R. Brown 
Henne ; Sweer's Island, A.' Cunningham. 

2. T. mollis. F. v. M. — ^Montague Sound, A. Cunningham. 

6. HELIOTRO'PIUM, Linn. 1735. 

Bourjotia, Pomel., 1874 ; Bucanion, Stev., 1851 ; Dialion, Rafin., 1838 
Euploca, Nutt., 1837; Heliophytum, DC, 1845 ; Hieranthemum, Spach., 1840 
Piptoclaina, G. Don., 1837 ; Preslaea, Mart., 1827 ; Preslea, Spreng., 1827 
Sarcanthus, T^derss., 1855 ; Schleidenia, Endl., 1839 ; Schobera, Scop., 1877 
Tiaridium, Lehm., 1818.) Heliotrope. 

Sectioitt I. — Platygyne. Stigma nearly sessile, umbrella-shaped, with- 
out' any distinct central cone. — 5. H. curassavicum. 

Section II. — Euheliofropium. Stigma, a thick ring at the base of or 
round a central cone or point. Anthers obtuse or shortly acuminate, not 
cohering. Throat of the corolla not bearded. 

Flowers in soorpioid forked or rarely simple spikes, without bracts. 
Leaves petiolate or contracted at the base. 

Style shorter than the stigma. — 15. H. undulatuir. 
Style longer than the stigma. — 3. H. crispatum. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 233 

Flowers few, sessile within the uppermost leaves or forming leaiy spikes. 
Leaves sessile, small. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, rather crowded. Anthers scarcely pointed. 

Style longer than th© stigma. — 8. H. fasciculatum. 
Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, crowded. Anther points short. 
Stigma all but sessile. — 7. H. epocrideum. 

Section IIL — Schleidenia. Stigma a thick ring round a central cone or 
point. Anthers acuminate, cohering by their minutely hairy tips. Corolla- 
throat bearded ot pubescent inside. 

Corolla-tube scarcely swollen. Style shorter than the stigma. Calyx 
segments very unequal. 

Leaves obovate oblong or lanceolate, flat. Spikes without bracts. — 

9. H. ovalifolium. 
Leaves linear -with revolute margins. Spikes bracteate. — 13. H. 
strigosuns.. 
Corolla-tube scarcely swollen. Style longer than stigma. Calyx seg- 
ments about equal. — 17. H. ethelium. 

Corolla-tube swollen round the anthers at or above the middle. Style as 
long or longer than the stigma. 

Leaves lanceolate. Fruit of a single conical nut, the others inostly 
acute and above J in. long. Bracts leaf-like. Plant hirsute or 
pubescent. 
Stems long and prostrate. Corollar-limb longer than the tube. 

Bracts small. — 13. H. prostratum. 
Stems diffuse. Bracts longer thjun the calyx, petiolate or con- 
tracted at the base. — 1. H. bracteatum. 
Stems ascending or erect. Bracts longer tnan the calyx, sessile. 
Leaves rather crowded, narrow. Nuts usually 4. — 11. H. 
pauciflorum. 
Leaves lanceolate. Fruit of a single conical nut, the others abortive. — 

2. H. conocarpum. 
Leaves aU narrow -linear, with revolute margins. Bracts rarely ex- 
ceeding the calyx, usually few and small. Nuts usually scabrous- 
pubescent. 

Stigmatic cone very short. 

Erect slightly -branched annual. Hairs spreading. LA)rolla- 

tube very slender. — 16. H. ventricoeum. 
Stem paniculately branched. Hairs appressed. 
Calyx-segments acuminate. 

Calyx 2 lines long. Leaves linear. — 14. H. tenui- 

foHum. 
Calyx 1 line long. Leaves filiform. — 10. H. panicuJa- 
tum. 
Stigmatic cone long and narrow. Oalyx-segments 1 line long. 
Leaves linear. — 4. H. Cunninghamii. 
Lower leaves ovate, petiolate; crowded. Flowering branches elon- 
gated, with few narrow small bract-like leaves. Nuts very 
hispid. — 6. H. diveirsifoUuim. 

1. H. bracteatum, R. Br. — Edith Creek and Eleven Mile Creek, near 
Katherine, GUruth and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

Borroloola, G. F. HiU (711), 13/1/1912. 
Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. H. conocarpum, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 



234 THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHEElSr TEERITOEY. 

3. H. crispatum, F. v. M. — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Hammersley Range, 
M. Brown. 

4. H. Cunninghamii, Benth. — Dampier's Archipelago, N.W. Coast, 
A. Cunningham. 

5. H. curassavicum, Linn. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. P. Hill (72), 
11/3/1911. Smooth Heliotrope. 

6. H. diversifolium, F. v. M.- — Cygnet Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham' 
Bynoe ; Sturt's Greek, F. v. Mueller. 

7. H. epacrideum, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

8. H. fasciculatum, B. Br. — Rocky sandstone ranges, Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

9. H. ovalifolium, i^orsA.— Camp III., Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (317), 
10/6/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the GuH of Car- 
pentaria and opposite mainland, R. Brown, Henne, and Landsborough. 

Var. gracik, B. Br.— Forty miles N.N.W. of Meyer's HiU, G. F. HiU 
(230), 2/6/1911. Leaves more linear than type. 

Recorded. Islands of the GuU of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Keppel Bay 
Thozet. 

10. H. paniculatum. — Near Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. 
HiU (206), 26/5/1911. 

Recorded. York Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Cygnet Bay, 
Bynoe ; Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the GuH 
of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

11. H. pauciflorum, B. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown. 

12. H. prostratum, B. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

13. H. strigosum, Willd. — Cygnet Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Hooker's Creek, F. v. M. 

14. H. tenuifolium, B. Br. — Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; islands of the 
GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; and on the mainland, Landsborough. 

15. H. undulatum, Vahl. — ^Nicholson and Albert Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

16. H. ventricosum, B. Br.- — Depot Creek, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; 
Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong, Leichhardt. 

Var. longifloru7n.—'Da,vwm, G. F. Hill (3rd Series, 5), 3/3/1914. 

17. H. ethelium, Ewart and McLennan (Plate XX.). ■ — Stems 
branched with a woody base, hirsute. Leaves sessile, linear, the margins 
slightly revolute, |-lin. long. Flowers distant, forming interrupted once or 
twice-forked spikes, bracts small. 

Calyx segments not as acute as in H. tenuifolium, strigose. 

Corolla*- tube about as long as the calyx, not ventricose above the middle, 
bearded in the throat. Anthers acuminate, the points cohering by their hairy 
tips. Style longer than stigma, the stigmatic ring broad with a conspicuous 
central cone. 

MaoArthur River, at Black Rocks, N.T., G. F. Hill (642). 

H. indicum, L. ; H. asperrimum, E. Br. (in National Herbarium Census), 
and H. heteranthum, F. v. M. (in Proc. Roy. Soc, S.A., 1890), recorded from 
North Australia. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 235 

7. TRICHODESMA, R. Br. 1810. 

(Borraginoides, Moench., 1794 ; Friedrichsthalia, Fenzl., 1839 ; Leio- 
carya, Hochst., 1844 ; PoUicMa, Medikus., 1783 ; Spiroconus, Stev., 1851 ; 
Streblanthera, Steud., 1844.) 

Calyx -segments short and broad, almost cordate, but not auriculate. — 1. 
T. latisepaleum. 

Calyx-segments lanceolate, acuminate, or broad without auricles. — 2. T. 
zeylanicum. 

1. T. luUsepaleum, F. v. M. {Pollichia latisepalea, F. v. J/.).— -Ten miles 
W. of Eva Downs, G. F. Hill (625), 19/8/1911. 

Recorded. Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, F. v. Mueller. 

2. T. zeylanicum, E. Br. {Pollichia zeylanica, F. v. M.). — Batchelor 
Farm, G. F. HUl (2nd Series, 68), 17/7/1913. 

110 miles N. of N.T. Survey Camp IV., G. F. Hill (410), 1/7/1911. 

Maude Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Twelve miles S. of AUce Springs, G. F. HiU (127), 23/4/1911. 

Near Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (78), 12/3/1911. 

Recorded. N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham and others; "Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria and adjoining mainland, R. 
Brown and others. A favourite cEimel fodder. 

Cynogloesum Drummoudii Benth. ; recorded from North Australia in 
National Hi&rbarium Census. 

VERBENACEAE. 

Tribe I. — Vf-rheneae. Ovules ascending from the base of the cells. 
Flowers in racemes or spikes sometimes contracted into heads, solitary within 
each bract, without braoteoles. 

Ovary 2-celled, with one ovule in each cell. Spikes dense, usually con- 
tracted into heads.- — 2. Lippia. 

Ovary 4-celled, with one ovule in each cell. Spike elongated. — 1. Ver- 
bena. 

Tribe II. — Viticeae. Ovules laterally attached above the base or neai 
the top. Flowers in cymes, or if solitaiy or in spikes usually accompanied by 
two bracteoles besides the subtending bract or leaf. 

Sub-tribe I. — Chloantheae. Ovary not lobed. Fruit small, dry, or rarely 
drupaceous. Shrubs or herbs usually very cottony or woolly, rarely nearly 
glabrous, glutinous, or resinous. Seeds where known always albuminous. 
Corolla small, regular, or nearly so. Stamens isomerous. 

Style entire or minutely 2-lobed. Flowers in dense woolly spikes. — 

8. Newcastlia. 
Style deeply 2-lobed. Flowers S-merous in heads, cymes or panicles. 
— 7 . Dicrastyles . 
Corolla more or less 2-lipped, or unequally 5-lobed. Stamens 4. 
Anthers with a basal appendage.— 4. Pityrodia. 
Anthers without any basal appendages. 

Calyx-lobes much enlarged, spreading and veined after flower- 
ing. — 6. Cyanostegia. 
Corolla small, the tube narrow, the upper Up erect. Leaves 
mucronately toothed. — 5. Denisonia. 
Perfect Stamens 2. — 3. Stachytarpheta. 



236 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHERN TERRITORY. 

Sub-tribe II. — Euvitaceae. Ovary not at all or scarcely lobed. Fruit a 
drupe. S'hrubs or trees. Seeds without albumen (or rarely in Vitex with if 
scanty albumen). 

Corolla small, usually 4-lobed, -with a short tube. 

Stamens included or not much exserted. 

Cymes axillary. Style dilated at the top or truncate. — 9. Callioarpa. 
Cymes or panicles terminal. Style 3- lobed. — 10. Premna. 

Corolla 4-lobed, with a slender tube. Stamen.s long. IVuiting calyx en- 
larged and spreading. — 13. Clerodemdron. 

Corolla-tube broad, lim,b 4 or 5 lobed. Stamens not exceeding the upper 
lip. Drupe with a bony 4-celled putamen. Leaves sim.ple. — 12. Gmelina. 

Corolla-tube short, limb 5-lobed. Stamens often exserted. Drupe with 
2 or 4 distinct pyrenes. Leaves often digitately compound (sometimes simple). 
—11. Vitex. 

Tribe III. — Avicennieae. Fruit a 2-valved capsule. Seed solitary, with- 
out integuments; embryo with large folded cotyledons. — 14. Avicennia. 

1. VERBENA, Iaws., 1737. 

(Billardiera, Moench., 1794 ; Burseria, Loefl.; 1758 ; Glandularia, J. F. 
Gmel., 1791 ; Obletia, Rozier, 1773 ; Patya, Neck., 1790 ; Shuttleworthia, 
Meissn., 1840 ; Uwarowia, Bunge., 1840.) 

1. V. officinalis, Linn. — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (59), 
11/3/1911. 

Common Vervain. Poisonous according to Smith and Lyon. Irritant. 

2. LIPPIA, Linn. 
(Zapania, Scop.) 
1. L. nodiflora, Rich. — ^Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

3. STAGHYTARPHETA, Vahl. 1805. 

(Abena,Neck., 1790 ; Cymburus, SaHsb., 1806 ; Melasanthus, Pohl., 1827; 
Stachytarpha, Link., 1827 ; Tarpheta, Rafin., 1836 ; Valerianoides, Medic, 
1789 ; Vermicularia, Moench., 1802.) 

1 . 8. dichotoma, Vahl. — ^Near Darwin, Gilruth and Spencer, July -August, 
1911. 

A naturaUsed alien, native to Tropical America. 

4. PITYRODIA, R. Br. 

1. Pityrodia hemigenoides, F. v. M. — Edith's Creek, Spencer and Gilruth, 
July- August, 1911. 

5. DENISONIA, F. v. M. 

1 . D. tenuifolia, F. v. M.' — Towards the sources of the Seven-Emu and 
M' Arthur Rivers, Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

6. CYANOSTEGIA, Tuecz. 
{Bunnya, F. v. M.) 
1. C. Bunnyana, F. v. M. — Roebuck Bay, N.W. Coast, Martin. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 237 

7. DICRASTYLES, Drum. 1855. 

(Dicrastyles). 

1. D. ochrotricha, F. v. Jf.— Haast's Bluff, G. F. Hill (187), 17/5/1911. 
Alt. 4000 ft. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek, near Mount WiHord, F. v. Mueller. 

D. Camegiei, Hemsl. (in Hook. Icones, 1899) ; recorded from N. Australia. 

8. NEWCASTLIA, F. v. M. 1857. 

Wool loose. Corolla-lobes short. Stamens shorter than the corolla. — 1 . 
N. cladotricha. 

Tomentum close. Corolla-lobes ending in a fine point. Stamens ex- 
serted. — 2. N. spodiotricha. 

1. N. cladotricha, F. v. M.- — Sturt's Creek, near Mount Mueller, F. v. 
Mueller. 

2. N. spodiotricha, F. v. Jf.— Lat. 190°, long. 132°, G. F. HiU (433), 
4/7/1911. 

The specimens are more densely tomentose than originally described. 
Recorded. Between lat. 17° 30' and 18° 30'. M'Douall Stuart. 
N. cephalantha, F. v. M. ; recorded from North Australia in National 
Herbarium Census. 

9. OAIXICARPA, Linn. 

1. C. carta, Linn. — ^Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Groote Island, Gulf of 
Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

10. PREMNA, Lura. 

Calyx very shortly and obtusely 3-lobed or obscurely 2-lipped. 

Leaves very obtuse. Corolljt-tube scarcely exceeding the calyx. — 3. 

P. obtuaifolia. 
Leaves shortly acuminate. CoroUa-tube nearly twice as long as the 
calyx. — 2. P. integrifoUa. 
Calyx 5-toothed, the margin not dilated. — 1. P. acnminata. 

1. P. acumiruda, R. Br. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria and adjoia- 
ng mainland, R. Brown, Henne ; Point Cunningham, Cygnet Bay, and Goul- 
bum Islands, A. Cunningham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Escape Cliffs, 
HuUs ; also from M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

2. P. integrifoUa, Linn. — ^Islands of the GuU of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. P. obtusifolia, R. Br. — ^Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, and shore of 
the maialand, R. Brown, Henne, HuUs. 

11. VITEX, LiNU. 

Leaves white underneath, undivided or of 3 or 5 leaflets. — 3. V. trifolia 
Leaves green on both sides, of 3 or 5 leaflets. 

Flowers in loose thyrsoid panicles, mostly terminal. — 1. V. acumi- 
nata. 
Flowers in very loose dichotomous cymes on axillary peduncles. — 2. 
V. glabrata. 

1. V. acuminata, R. Br.- — Vansittart and Careening Bays, N.W. Coast. 
A. Cunningham ; Amhem Bay and Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R 
Brown. Wood useful for cabinet work. 



238 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHEBN TEEEITOBY. 

2. V. glabrata, B. Br. — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers and Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller ; Groote 
Island, GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Adams 
Bay, Hulls. 

3. V. trifolia, Linn. — ^Victoria River, F. v. MueUer ; islands of the GuK of 
Carpentaria, Henne ; and mainland, F. v. Mueller, Landsborough. 

12. GMELINA, Linn. 

1. G. macrophylla, Benth. — Port Essington, Armstrong. Queensland 
Beech. 

13. CLERODENDRON, Linn., 1737. 

(Agricolaea, Schrank., 1808 ; ClerodendrUm, Burm., 1737 ; Cornacchinia, 
Savi., 1837 ; Cyclonema, Hoohst., 1842 ; Cyrtostemma, Kunze., 1843 ; 
Douglassia, Adans., 1763 ; Egena, Rafin., 1836 ; Ovieda, Linn., 1737 ; Rotheca, 
Rafin., 1836 ; Siphonanthus, Linn., 1742 ; Spironema, Hochst., 1842 ; Torreya, 
Spreng., 1821 ; Valdia, Plum., 1763 ; Volkameria, Linn., 1735 ; Volkmannia, 
Jacq., 1798 ; Elerodendron ; Glossocarya). 

Oalyx minutely toothed. — 3. C. inerme. 
Calyx 5-lobed to the miiddle. 

Corolla-tuibe f to nearly 1 in. long. Stamens long. Leaves usually 

tomentose. — 5. 0. tomentosum. 
Leaves usually narrow. Flowers mostly in axillary cymes. — 4. C. 

lanoeolatum. 
Corolla-tube 1 to 1| in. long. Stamens long. Leaves usually 

glabrous or tomentose only when young. — 2. C floribundum. 
Corolla-tube 2 in. long or more. Staanens long. Leaves of C. 
floribundiun. — 1. C. Cunninghamii. 

1. C. Cunninghamii, £ew<^.— Borroloola, G. F. Hill (797) ; 1/3/1912. 
Fruits only. 

Recorded. S. Goulbum Island, A. Cunningham ; Escape Chffs, Hulls. 
Native name Nobooralla. Sticks used by the natives for making fire. 

2. G. floribundum, R. 5r.— Camp II., G. F. Hill (241), 4/3/1911. 
Finke River, G. F. Hill (88 and 91), 13/3/1911. 

Recorded. N. Coast, R. Brown ; N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Upper Victoria 
River, F. v. MueUer ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, Henne. 

3. G. inerme., Oaertn. (G. nereifolium, Wall.).- — ^North Island, Gulf of 
Carpentaria, G. F. HiU (620), 20/10/1911. 

Borroloola, 0-. F. Hill (580), 13/&/19ai. Woody creeper. 
Recorded. Island of the Gnilf of Carpentaria, E.. Brown ; Albert River, 
F. V. Miueller; Port Essington, Armstrong; Adams Bay, Hulls. 

4. G. lanceolatum, F. v. M. — N.W. Coast, Nichol Bay, Gregory, Walcott ; 
Depuech Island, Bynoe. 

5. G. tomentosum, R. Br. ( Var. mollissima, Benth). — Roebuck Bay, 
N.W. Coast, Martin ; near Caledon Bay, Gulf of Carpentaria, R. GuUiver. 

C. Holtzei, F. v. M. (in Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., XXIV., 1890) ; recorded 
from North Australia. 

14. AVICENNIA, Linn. 

1. A. officinalis, Linn.- — ^N. Australia, R. Brown. 
White Mangrove. Malacca Bean. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 239 

Tatea acaulis, F. v. M. ; Hemiphora Elderi, P. v. M. ; Chloanthes hemi- 
genioides, F. v. M. ; Chloanthes loxocarpa, F. v. M. ; Chloanthes atripUcina, 
F. V. M. ; Chloanthes lepidota, F. v. M. ; Spartothamniis teucriiflorus, F. 
V. M. ; recorded from North Australia in National Herbarium Census. 

LABIATAE. 

Tribe I. — -Ocimoideae. Stamens 4, declinate. Anthers 1-celled by the 
confluence of the two cells into one. Nuts dry, smooth or minutely granular. 
Corolla lower lobe flat or nearly so, not longer than the upper lobes. 

Fruitdng calyx deflexed with a broad decurrent upper lobe. False- 
whorls equal, G-flowered. — 9. Ocimum. 
Fruiting calyx erect, spreading or deflexed, the upper lobe scarcely 
decurrent. Flowers very small in one-sided racemes. — 8. Mos- 
ohosma. 
Corolla lower lobe concave or boat-shaped, longer than the upper lobes. 
Filaments free. Corolla sometimes spurred. — 6. Plectranthus. 
Filamenits united at the base in a sheath round the style. Corolla 
never spurred. — 7. Coleus. 
Corolla lower lobe saccate, contracted at the base and abruptly deflexed. 
— 5. Hyptis., 

Tribe II. — Satureieae. Stamens 4 or 2, eirect and equal or ascending in 
pairs, the upper pair the shortest. Anthers 2-c6lled or 1-celled by the con- 
fluence of the two' cells, into one. Nuts dry, smooth or minutely granular. 
CoroUa-lobes all equally spreading, or if 2-lipped the upper lip scarcely 
concave and not hoodshaped.^ — 4. DysophyUa. 

Tribe III. — Stachydeae. Stamens 4, lascending in pairs, the lower ones 
the longest. Anthiers, at least the upper ones, 2-celled. Nuts dry, smooth 
or granular-tuberculate. Calyx usually 5 or 10 nerved. Corolla upper lip 
concave or hoodshaped. — S. Anisomeles. 

Tribe IV. — Prostanthereae. Stamens 4, in pairs; anthers all with two 
perfect cells, or one cell of all the anthers or also both ceUs of the lower pair 
sterile or abortive. Nuts prominently reticuate rugose. Seeds albuminous. 
Calyx various. Corolla upper Up erect, usually short, throat broad. — 2. 
Prostanthera. 

Tribe V. — Ajugoideae. Stamens 4, in pairs exserted from the very short 
truncate or deeiply slit upper lip of the corolla. JN uts prominently reticulate- 
rugose, not succulent. S^ds without albumen. — 1 . Teucrium. 

1. TEUCRIUM, Linn. 

1. T. integrifoUum, F. v. M. — ^Dry lagoons, Amhem's Land, Hooker's 
Creek, F. v. Mueller. Germander. 

T. racemosum, R. Br. (Grey Germander), and T. grandiusculum, F. v. M. 
and Tate ; recorded from North Austraha in National Herbarium Census. 

2. PROSTANTHERA, Labill. 1806. 

(Chilodia, R. Br., 1810 ; Cryphia, R. Br., 1810 ; Klanderia, F. v. M. 
1852). Mint Bush. ' 

1. P. striatiflora, F. v. M. — On granite hiUs, 60 miles N.E. of Camp n 
G. F. Hill (269), 7/6/1911. 

Shrub 6 ft. high. 

P. Schultzii, F. V. M. ; recorded from North Austraha in National Herbar- 
ium Census. 



240' THE FLORA OF THE NOETHBRN TERRITORY. 

3. AOTSOMELES, R. Br. 1810. 

1, A. scdvaefolia, R. 5r.— Okey Creek, G. F. HiU (763), 16/2/1912 
Recorded. From the N.W. CJoast to tbe Gkilf of Carpentaria ; islands of 
the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown; Amhem's Land, M'Kinlay; Victoria 
River and Sturfc's Creek, F. v. Mxieller; Escape Cliffs, Hulls; N.W. Coast 
and Port Eissington, A. Ounningliain ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

4. DYSOPHYLLtA, Bl. 

1. D. verticillcda, Benth. — {Pogostemon verticillatus, Miq.) Boggy situa- 
tions, S. Goulbum Island, A. Cunningham ; Lagoons, Mitchell's River, Gulf of 
Carpentaria, Leichhardt. 

5. HYPTIS, Jacq. 

1. H. suaveolens, Poit. — Garden Bay, Port Essington, Leichhardt. 

6. PLECTRANTHUS, Lhee. 

1. P. parviflorus, Willd. — ^Port Essington, Armstrong ; Gilbert River, 
P. V. MueUer ; Kennedy district, Gaintree. Cockspur flower. 

7. COLEUS, Lour. 1790. (Mitsa, Chap., 1832). 

1. C. scutellarioides, Benth. — Edith Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Recorded. N. Australia, R. Brown and others. 

Var. angustifolia, Benth. — ^Table Hill, Victoria River, and Macadam Range, 
F. V. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

Var. laxa, Benth. — ^Roe River, York Sound, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Roebuck Bay, N.W. Coast, Martin ; Amhem's Land, Mackinlay. 

Var. limnophila, F. v. M. — ^Nicholson and MacArthur Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

8. MOSCHOSMA, Reichb. 1828. 

(Lehmannia, Jacq., 1841 ; Lumnitzera, Jacq., 1825 ; Basilicum, Moench., 
1802.) 

Fruiting-calyx reflexed or very spreading, campanulate. Racemes loose. 
• — 2. M. polystachyum. 

Fruiting-calyx erect or slightly spreading, tuibular-campanulafce. Racemes 
dense. — 1. M. australe. 

1. M. australe, Benth. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Upper Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. MueUer ; Liverpool River, N. 
Coast, A. Cunningham. 

2. M. polystachyum, Benth.— At Tungiegi Waterhole, G. F. Hill (510) 
10/3/1911. 

Newcastle Waters, near waterhole, G. F. Hill (470), 17/7/1911. 
Lower MacArth-ur River, G. P. Hill (678), 8/11/1911. 
Recorded. Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

9. OCIMUM, Linn. 

1 . 0. sanctum, Linn. — Victoria River, Hooker's Creek and Sturt's Creek, 
F. V. Mueller ; Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller, Landsborough ; N. Kennedy 
district, Daintree ; in the interior, lat. 18 deg. 30 min., M'Douall Stuart's 
Expedition. Sacred Balm. Supposed mosquito-fuge. 

Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. ; Mentha australis R. Br. ; Leucas flaccida 
B. Br. ■ recorded from North Australia in National Herbarium Census. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NOBTHERN TEBEITORY. 241 

SOLANACEAE. 

Fruit an indehiscent berry. 

Calyx, if enlarged after flowering, not inflated. Corolla rotate or very 
open. Anthers opening in terminal pores or sUts. — 2. Solanum. 
Calyx inflated over the fruit. Corolla campanulate. Anthers open- 
ing in longitudinal slits. — 1. Physalis. 
Fruit capsular, opening in valves. Corolla folded in the bud or with 
induplicate lobes. 

Calyx tubular, drcumaciss after floiwering, leaving a broad persis- 
tent base. Corolla large. Caipsule prickly. — 3. Datura. 
Calyx entirely persistent. Capsule smooth. — 4. Nicotiana. 

1. PHYSALIS, Linn. 

Stock perennial, the whole plant softly pubescent. — 2. P. peruviana. 
. Annual, sparingly pubescent. Flowers very small. — 1. P. minima. 

1. P. minima, Linn. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. P- peruviana, Linn. — Sturt River, F. v. Mueller. 
Cape Gooseberry. Useful fruit. 

2. SOLAISrUM, Linn. 1735. 

(Androeera,Nutt., 1818 ; Aquartia, Jacq., 1760 ; Ceranthera, Rafin., 1818 
Chocarpus, Miers., 1849 ; Diamonon, Rafin., 1836 ; Dulcamara, Moench., 1794 ; 
Normania, Lowe, 1868 ; Nycterium, Vent., 1803 ; Pseudocapsicum, Medic- 
1789; Psolanum, Neck., 1790.) 

The species of Solanum are mostly of a poisonous character. Nightshades. 

I. — No prickles. Whole plant glabrous or pubescent with simple hairs 
(nat stellate). — '14. S. nigrum. 

II. — No prickles. Stellate pubescence or tomentum on the whole plant 
or rarely on the flowers only. — 19. S. tetrandrum. 

m. — Prickles slender on the branches and leaves (numerous, few, or 
very rare), none on the calyxes. Stellate pubesoemce or tomentum on tJie 
whole plant or rarely on the flowers only. 

Leaves glabrous above except along the veins, tomentose underneath. — 
6. S. discolor. 

Leaves closely whitish tomentose on both sides (bhe tomentum rarely 
disappearing at length on the upper side). Calyx teeth very graall {.!; the 
time of flowering. 

Leaves ovate, oblong, or lanceolate, entire or sinuate-toothed. 

Corolla deeply lobed (J to j in. diameter.) — 9. S. esuiiale. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, mostly lobed at the base. 
Oorolla-lobes rather short (| in. diameter). — 3: S. chenopodium. 
Leaves oblong or lanceolate, entire. Corolla with short broad lobes 
(I to 1 in. diameter). — 18. S. Sturtianum. 
Leaves densely and softly tomentose or velvety hirsute on both sides or at 
least underneath, sometimes greener and shortly tomentose above. — 13. S. 
nemophilum. 

IV. — Prickles slender or rarely thickened at the base on the calyxes, as 
well as on the branches and generally on the leaves. Stellate pubescence 
rarely mixed with simple hairs, on the whole plant or oca the corolla only. 

Leaves green and glabrous or sprinkled with stellate hairs or hirsute on 
the upper or both sides, sinuate-lobed or pinnatifid. — 2. S. cataphractum. 



242 THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHEBH TEREITORY. 

Leaves nearly equally tomentose on both sides, sinuate-lobed or pinnatifid. 
Calyx-lobes with very prominent keels or midribs. Leaf -lobes short, 

very undulate. — 15. S. petrophilum. 
Calyx-lobes without pro-minisnt ri'bs. Leaf-lobes deep, very obtuse 

or spathulatei. — G. S. diversiflo'rum;. 
Calyx-lobes broad, oibtuse or acute, much enlarged round the fruit 

after flowering. 

Leaves narrow, shortly tomentose, with very numerous long 

prickles.-— 1 . S. carduiforme. 
Leaves broad, very densely and softly tomentose, with few 

prickles.. — 12. S. melanospermum.. 

Leaves nearly equally, densely, and softly tomentose on both sides, entire 
or slightly sinuate. 

Leaves acute or scarcely obtuse, mostly undulate (1 to 2 in. long), 

with very numerous long prickles. — 10. S. horridum. 
Leaves obtuse (mostly under 2 in. long), entire or sinuate, with few 
or no prickles. 

Fruiting calyx membranous, globular, very prickly, completely 

enclosing the fruit. Leaves ovate or oblong. — 7. S. 

echinatum. 
Fruiting calyx globular, thick, neiarly enclosing the fruit. Leaves 

orbicular or broadly ovate. — 11. S. lasiophyllum. 
Fruiting calyx open, 6 to 8 lines diameter. Ovary 3-celled. — 

8. S. ellipticum. 
Leaves mostly acumdinat© or acute (3 in, long or more), entire, not 
at all or scarcely prickly. 

Flowering oalyx under 3 lines. long; fruiting calyx 6 to 8 lines 

diameter. Ovary 4-oell©d. — 17. S. quadriloculatum. 
Flowering caljrs ^ in. long; fruiting calyx nearly 3 in. diameter 
— ^16. S. phlomoides. 
Leaves lanceolate, rather obtuse (1 to 3 in. long), entire. Calyx 
with a globular, very prickly tube and long linear lobes. Flowers 
large. — 4. S. Cunninghamii. 

1 . S. carduiforme, F. v. M. — Sandy and rocky banks of Nicholson River, 
Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

2. S.cataphr actum, A. Cunn. — Bat Island and Regent River, N.W. Coast, 
A. Cunningham ; Montague Sound, A. Cunningham. 

3. S. chenopodium, F. v. M. — ^In the interior, between Mount Blight and 
Mount Fisher, lat. 20 deg. 20 min., M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

4. 8. Cunninghamii, Benth.- — Lat. 19 deg., long. 132 deg., G. F. HiU 
(436), 4/7/1911. 

Recorded. Cygnet Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham, Bjiioe ; Glenelg 
district, Marten. 

5. S. discolor, B. Br. — Coen River, Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

6. S. diversiflorum, F. v. Jf.— Borroloola, G. F. Hill (616), 9/10/1911. 
Recorded. Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; La Grange Bay, N.W. 

Coast, Marten ; Port Waloott, Harper. 

7. 8. echinatum, B. Br. — ^N.W. Coast, Bsoioe ; Upper Victoria River, 
F. V. Mueller ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

8. 8. ellipticum, B. Br.— Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill (167), 12/5/1911. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 243 

Recorded. Hammersley Range, N.W. Coast, Maitland Brown ; Sea 
Range and Sturt's Creek, P. v. Mueller. 

Poisonous according to GreshofE ; principle unknown. 

9. S. esuriale, lAndl. — Sturt's Creek, P. v. Mueller. 

10. 8. horridum, Dun. — ^N. Australia, Baudin's Expedition ; Depuech 
Island, N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

11. S. laswphyllum. Dun. (var. crassissimum, Benth.). — N.W. Coast, 
Bynoe. 

12. S. mdanospermum, F. v. M. — ^Abel Tasman River, P. v. MueUer. 

13. S. nemophilum, F. v. M. — ^Forty miles W. of Camp IV., Lander Creek, 
G. P. Hill (359), 21/6/1911. 

Sepals sHghtly more pointed in this specimen than usual. 

14. S. nigrum, Linn. — ^North of 15 deg., W. S. Campbell, Sept. 1911. 
Recorded. Gilbert River, P. v. MueUer. 

Poisonous according to Greshoff, Maiden, Rusby, Miquel, Comevin. 
Narcotic. 

Black Nightshade. Blackberry of Queensland children, and sometimes 
eaten by them without iU efieots, at other times causing illness. 

Common Nightshade or Stubbleberry. — Stubbleberries are occasionally 
cultivated for their fruit. They are sometinLes sold as huckleberries, and 
used for pies and preserves. The fruit should, howei\'er, be used with caution, 
especially before it is lipe. . . . The amoamt of poison preeent in amy part 
of this plant varies with the conditions of growth. . . . The use of Black 
Nightshade for food is certaanly not to be recommended. Cases of poisoning 
are recorded for calves, sheep, goats, and swine. The chaxact&ristic synup- 
toms are about the same in man and animals. They are stupefaction, stag- 
gering, loss of speech, feeling and consciousniess, cramps, and sometimes con- 
vulsions. The pupil of the eye is generally dilated. Death is directly due 
to a paralysis of the lungs, but fortunately few cases are fatal. 

15. S. petrophilum, F. v. M. {var. pedicdlatum, Ewart and Davits. Plate 
XXI.).— L&t. 19 deg., long. 132 deg., G. P. Hill (435), 4/7/1911. 

Pedicels and petioles much longer than usual. Comparative lengthe : S. 
petrophilum, average langth of leaf 3.8 cm., average length of petiole 1.2 
cm., average length of pedicel .8 cm. ; var. pedicellata, average length of leaf 
4.5 cm,., average length of petiole 4 cm., average length of pedicel 2 to 2.5 
cm., so that in the variety the pedicels axe mtich longer than in the type, and 
the petioles are almost as long as the leaves. The sepals are not quite as 
aarrow in the variety. 

16. S. pfdomoides, A. Cunn. — Enderby Island, N.W. Coast, A. Cun- 
ningham ; Hammersley Range, M. Brown. 

17. S. quadriloculalum, F. v. M. — ^Twelve mUes N.W. of Camp III., G. P. 
Hill (328), 12/6/1911. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River and Nicholson River, Gulf of Carpentaria, 
P. V. Mueller ; in the interior, lat. 22 deg., M'DouaU Stuart. 

18. 8. 8turtianum, F. v. M. — Glenelg district, N.W. Coast, Marten. 

19. 8. tetrandrum, B. Br. — ^Amhem N. Bay, and islands of the GuU of 
Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Goulbum Islands, A. Cunningham ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong. 

S. Lucani, P. v. M. ; in Vict. Nat. IX., 1893, recorded from North Australia. 

I 



244 THE FLOBA OF THE NOBTHERN TERRITORY. 

3. DATURA, Linn. 

1. D. Leichhardtii, F. v. M. — Gulf of Carpentaria, Landsborough ; Ash- 
burton River, Walcott. Poisonous to stock. 

4. NICOTIANA, Linn. 

1. N. suaveolens, Lehm. — N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Mchol Bay, Gregory's 
Expedition. 

Native tobacco; poasonoTos to stock. 

Duboisia Hopwoodi, F. v M. ; recorded from North Australia in National 
Herbarium Census. 

SCROPHULARIA CE^. 

Sub-order I. — Antirrhinidae. Corolla 5-lobed or 3-lipped, imbricate in 
the bud, the upper lip or two upper lobes outside. Inflorescence centripetal 
or, in genera not Australian, compound. 

Sub-tribe I. — Eugratioleae. Leaves, at least the lower ones, opposite. 
Stamens all inserted in the tube and (in the Australian genera) entirely 
included. Capsule (in the Australian genera) opening loculicidally in two 
entdre or bifid valves or 4-valved, or septicidal with bifid valves. 

Calyx tubular, 5-angled, 5-toothed. Anther-cells contiguous. — 1. 
Mimulus. 

Calyx divided to the base or nearly so. Anther-cells more or less stipitate 
or separated Tfrom each other. 

Dissepiment of the capsules splitting and forming the inflexed mar- 
gins of the valves, leaving the two placentas free and separate. 
Anthers of the longer stamens 1-celled. — 5. Adenosma. 
Anthers all 2-oelled. — 4. Stemodia. 
Diseeipiiment of the capsule splitting, but leaving the placentas con- 
solidated in a single column. — 3. Morgiania. 
Dissepiment of the capsule remaining entire, at least at the base, 
and forming wiiiigs to the placental column. — 2. Ambulia. 
Calyx divided to the base, the outer segment much broader than the 
others. Anther-oells contiguous. — 6. Baoopa. 

Sub-tribe II. — Linderndeae. Stem-leaves opposite. Upper stamens per- 
fect and included in the tube. Lower sptamems inserted in the throat, either 
reduced to staminodia or with long arched filaments with an angle or small 
liobe or appendage near the base, the lanthers contiguous or cohering under 
the upper lip. Capsule opening in two entire valves parallel to the dis- 
sepiment. 

Perfect stamens 4. — 9. Lindemia. 

Perfect stamens 2. Staminodia 2. Calyx divided to the base. — 10. 
Ilysanthes. 

Sub-tribe III. Limoselleae. Small creeping or prostrate herbs, with 
opposite or clustered leaves. Corolla (minute) with a short tube and five 
aearly equal lobes. Anthers 1-celled. Capsule various. 

Capsule indehiscent or bursting irregularly or obscurely 4-valved. — 8. 
Peplidium. 

Capsule loculicidally 2-valv6d. — 7. Microcarpia«a. 

Suborder II. — Bhinanthideae. Corolla either with 4, 5 (or rarely more 
in genera not Australian) spreading lobes, variously imbricate in the bud, 
the upper onea very rarely outside, or 2-lipped with the upper lip inside. 
Inflorescence centripetal, or very rarely in genera not Australian, compound 



THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHBBN TEEEITORY. 245 

Corolla rotate, 4-lobed. Stajn«ns 4. Anthers equally 2-celled, sagit- 
tate. — 11. Scoparia. 

Corolla with a distinct tube or broaxily campanulate, lobes 5, nearly 
equal. Stamens 4. — 12. Centranthera. 

Corolla with a distinct tube, often long, the limb 2-lipped. 

Cbrolla-tube, slender. Stamens 4. Ajithers, with one ve«rtdcal 
usually linear obtuse cell. 

Corolla-tube, straight. Capsule obtuse. — 13. Buchnfera. 
Cofollartube beat above th© middle. Capsule obtuse. — 15. 

Striga. 
Corolla- tube elongated. Capsule acuminate, the beak often 

oblique. — 14. Rhamphicarpa. 
Corolla-tube slender. Stamens 2. Anthers with one large mucron- 
ate or aristate cell. — 16. Hemiarrhena. 

1. MIMULUS, Umt. 
(Uvedalia, E. Br.) Monkey flower. 
1. M. Uvedaliae, Benth., var. lutea, Benih.- — Swamps at the sources of the 
MacArthur River, Providence Hill, and Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller. 
^■/:a M. debilis, F. v. M. ; M. gracilis, R. Br. (Slender Mon'-ey flower) ; re- 
corded from North Australia in National Herbarium Census. 

2. AMBULIA, Lam. 

{LimnopMla, R. Br.). 

Lower leaves (or all) deeply divided. Flowers pedicellate. 
Calyx segments l-nerved. — 1. A. gratioloides. 
Leaves all undivided. 

Flowers pedicellate. Calyx-segments several -nerrved, striate. — 2. A. 

hirsuta. 
Flowers sessile. CaJyx-segments united at the base, slightly striate. 
3. — A. serrata. 

1. A. gratioloides, R. Br. — {LimnopMla gratioloides, R. Br.)- — Gulf of 
Carpentaria, F. v. MueUer. 

2. A. hirsuta, Benth. (Stemodia hirsuta ; Limnophila hirsuta, Benth.). — 
Thirty-five N.W. of Camp IV., Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (376), 24/6/1911; 
Amhem's Land, F. v. MueUer. 

3. A. serrata. Gaud. {Stemodia tenuifhra, Benth. ; LimnopMla serrata. 
Gaud.). — Cullen Creek, Gilnith and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

Recorded. Victoria, Upper Roper and Fitzmaurice iiivers, and swamps 
near Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller. 

A. sessiliflora, F. v M. ; A. Kingii, F. v. M. ; recorded from North Aus- 
tralia in National Horbariuim Census. 

3. MORGANIA, R. Br. 

Flowers sessile or the pedicels rarely as long as the calyx. Corolla lips 
as long as the tube, the upper one entire. 

Plant glabrous or nearly so. — 1. M'. floribunda. 
Plant hoaiy-pubeeceait. — '4. M. pubescens. 
Pedicels mostly longer than the calyx. 

Flowers rather large, the lips shorter than the tube, the upper one 

entire. — 2. M. glabra. • 

Flowers small, the Hps as long as the tube, the upper one shortly 
2-lobed. — 3. M. parviflora. 
12 



246 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

1. M. floribunda, Sereife.— Charlotte Waters, G. F. HiU (12), 21/2/1911. 
Idracowra Station, Finke River, G. F. HiU (31), 0/3/1911. 

Ten miles W. of Eva Downs, G. F. Hill (524), 19/8/1911. 
This plant has been suspected of poisoning stock. Blue Rod. 

2. M. glabra, R. Br. — Upper Roper River and AUigator Point, F. v. 
Mueller ; Albert River, Henne ; Gulf of Carpentaria, Landsborough. 

3. M. parviflora, Benth. — Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

4. M. pvbescens, R. Br. — Roper River, F. v. Mueller. 

4. STEMODIA, Linn. 1759. 

(Cybranthera, Buch., Ham. 1825 ; Diceros, Lour., 1790 ; Honottia, 
Reichb., 1737 ; Hydropityon, Gaertn., 1805 ; Tala, Blanco., 1845 ; Dickia, 
Scop., 1777 ; Gomphipus, Rafin., 1836 ; Matourea, Aubl., 1775 ; Poarium, 
Desv., 1825 ; Unanuea, Ruiz, and Pav., 1846.) 

Flowers sessile or very shortly pedicellate. 

Corolla (about 3 lines long) sihortly exceeding the calyx. — 2. S. 

lythrifolia. 
Corolla (about 6 to 7 lines long) twice as long as the calyx. — 1. S. 
grossa. 
Flowers on pedicels longer than the calyx. — 3. S. viscosa. 

1. 8. grossa, Benth. — ^Desert Island, of the N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Nichol 
Bay, Walcott. 

2. 'S. lythrifolia, F. v. if .—North of 15 deg., W. S. CampbeU, 9/19/1911. 

Recorded. Comraon in the rocky islands of the N".W. CJoast, A. Cun- 
ningham, Bynoe; Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller; islands of the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. S. viscosa, i?oa;6.— Haast's Bluff, G. F. Hill (183), 17/5/1911. Alt 
4000 ft. 

Henmansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (63), 13/3/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller; Gulf of Carpentaria, Lands- 
borough. S. debUis, Bemth. ; recorded from North Australia in. National 
Herbarium Census. 

5. ADENOSMA, R. Br. 

{Pterostigma, Benth.) 

1. A. Mudleri, Benth. — ^Macarthur River, F. v. Mueller. 

6. BACOPA, AuBL. 
(Herpestis, Gaertn.) 

1. B. floribunda (R. Br.), Wett. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller; South 
Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham. B. indica (Lam.), Wett. ; recorded from 
North Australia in National Herbarium Census. 

7. MICROCARPAEA, R. Br. 
1. M. rrmscosa, R. Br. — ^Near Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

8. PEPLIDIUM, Dbule. 
Flowers sessile or nearly so. Capsule globular, obtuse. — 1. P. humi- 
fusum. 

Flowers distinctly pedicellate. Capsule ovoid, acute. — 2. P. Muelleri. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TBERITOEY. 247 

1 . P. humifusum, Delile. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. P Mudleri, 5e7i<4.— Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

9. LINDERNIA, All. 

(Vandellia, Linn., 1767 ; Anagalloides, Krock., 1790 ; Diceros, Blume., 
1826 ; Homemannia, Link, and Otto., 1820 ; Ilyogeton, Endl., 1839 ; Mit- 
ranthus, Hochst, 1844 ; Pyxidaria, Rupp., 1745 ; Tittmannia, Reichb., 1824 ; 
Vrisea, Hassk., 1842.) 

Calyx-segments united in a 5-tootlied calyx, at least at the time of 
flowering. Stems diffuse. Leaves ovate. — 1. L. Crustacea. 
Calyx-segments separate from the first. 

Leaves ovate, chiefly near the base of the stem. 
Plant pubescent or hirsute. — 2. L. pubescens. 
Plant glabrous. — 3. L. scapigera. 
Leaves linear-subulate, f»w and mostly small. — 4. L. subulata. 

1. L. Crustacea (Benth.), Wett. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. 
Brown. 

2. L. pubescens (Benth.), Wett. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

3. D. scapigera, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
near Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

4. L. subulata (Benth.), TFe«.— Newcastle Waters, G. P. ffill (507) 
^/8/1911. Specimen with sepals longer than usual and somewhat scabrous. 

Recorded. Elsey's River, F. v. Mueller; Port Essington, Armstrong. 
L. pyxidaria L. ; recorded from North Australia in iNTafeional Herbarium 
Census. 

10. ILYSANTHES, Rafin. 
(Bonnaya , Link, and Otto.) 

Staminodia, acute, with aji angle tooth or lobe near the base. Capsule 
globular, or broadly ovoid. — 2. I. lobeHoides. 

Staminodia, linear and obtuse, entire. Capsule oblong or linear. — 1. 
I. clausa. 

1. I. clausa (F. v. M.), With. — Sand Plains, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. /. lobelioides, Benth. — Victoria Range, F. v. Mueller. 

11. SCOPARIA, Linn. 1748. (Kreidek, Adans., 1763.) 

1. <Sf. dulcis, Linn. 1748. — ^Ranges near Western Creek, G. F. Hill (768), 
15/2/1912. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

A common tropical weed, probably of American origin. 

12. CENTRANTHERA, R. Br. 

1. C. hispida, R. Br. — ^Alluvial flats near Fish River, Glenelg district, 
N.W. Coast, Marten ; Victoria River and moist grassy flats, Arnhem's Land' 
F. V. M. 

13. BUECHNERA, Roth. 1821. 

(Buchnera, Linn., 1737 ; Bonnetia, Neck., 1790 ; Chytra, Gaertn., 1805 ; 
McaUa, Rafin., 1736 ; Piripea, Aubl., 1775 ; Striga, Campuleia.) 

Flowers in short dense 4-sided spikes, the imbricate bracts very broad 
and as long as the calyx. — 4. B. tetragona. 



248 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 



Flowers in slender interrupted spikes, the bracts either narrow or much 
shorter than the calyx. _ 

Radical and lower leaves broad, rosulate; upper ones naiTow, acute, 

corolla glabronis. — 5. B. urticifolia. 
Leaves all narrow, the lower ones oblong, the upper ones linear, 
mostly acute. Corolla glabrous. 

Corolla-tube 3 to 4 lines long. — 1. B. linearis. 
Corolla-tube not 2 limes long. — 3. B. tenella. 
Leaves all narrow and obtuse, usually hoary, the lower ones oblong. 
— 2. B. ramosissiima. 

1. B. linearis, R. 5?-.— Batohelor Farm, G. F. Hill (2nd Series, 68), 
17/7/1913. 

Recorded. Islands of the G-ulf of Cafl-pentaria, R. Brown; South Groul- 
burn Island, A. Cunjiingham ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Victoria River 
and near Miacadam Range, F. v.. Mueller; King's Ponds, in the interior, 
M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

2. B. ramosissima, R. Br. — Hunter's River, York Sound, N.W. Coast, 
A. Cunningham. 

3. B. teriella, R. Br.- — South Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; head of 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

4. B. tetragona, R. Br. — Sterhng Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 
1911. 

Recorded. Port Essington, Armstrong. 

5. B. urticifolia, R. Br. — North Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, G. F. HUl 
(623), 20/10/1911. 

Roper River, Gdlrnth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 
Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller; Glenelg district, IST.W. Coast, 
Marten. 

14. RHAMPHICARPA, Bbnth. 

1. R. longiflora, Benth. — ^N. Australia, F. v. Mueller ; lat. 17 deg. 58 mia. ; 
M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

15. STRIGA, Lour. 

Corolla above |in. long, the upper lip more than half as long as the lower. — 
2. S. multi flora. 

Corolla nearly or fuUy fin. long, the upper lip less than half as long as the 
lower. — 1. S. curvi flora. 

1. S. curviflora, Benth. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
N.W. Coast, Bynoe. 

2. 8. multiflora, Benth. — Victoria River and Sturt's Greek, F. v. Mueller ; 
on aU the islands to the west of Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Port 
Essiagton, Armstrong ; Camden Harbour, Glenelg district, N.W. Coast, 
Marten. 

S. parviflora, Benth. ; recorded in National Herbarium Census from 
North Australia. 

16. HEMIARRHENA, Bbnth. 

1. H. plantaginea, Benth.- — ^Mount King, Glenelg district, N.W. Coast, 
Marten ; between Providence Hill and Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller ; Am- 
hem's Land, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHEEN TERRITORY. 249 

Gratiola peruviana Linn. ; Gloseostigma Drummondii Benth. (in National 
Herbarium Census) ^and Bradshawia macrosiphonia, F. v. A^. (in Proc. linn. 
Soc, N.S.W., 1891); recorded from North Australia. 

LENTIBULARIA CE^SE. 

1. UTBICULARIA, Linn. 
Bladderworts. 

§ I. Steins floatiag. Leaves submerged, divided into capillary segments 
mostly interspersed with bladders. Flowers yellow, on axillary peduncles. 

Peduncle bearing about the middle a cluster or false whorl of oblong 
or linear vesicles. — 6. U. stellaris. 

Peduncles without vesicles. 

Pedicels thickened and re flexed after flowering. Corolla rather large. 

Style about 1 line long. — 4. U. flexuosa. 
Peduncles filiform, pedicels slender and erect in fruit. Corolla 
small. Stigma almost sessile. Seeds winged. — 3. U. exoleta. 
§ n. Limosae.- — 'Plants growing in mud (sometimes under water), with 
erect leafless scapes. Leaves radical, often accompanied by filaments, of 
which some bear utricles, or no leaves at all at the time of flowering. 
•Flowers yellow, several ia a raceme. 

Spur horizontal. Palate spotted with red. — 5. U. fulva. 
Spur descending. — 1. U. ohrysantha. 
Flowers blue or white, several in a raceme. Pedicels short, not winged. 
Calyx-segments rather acute. — 2. U. cyanea. 

1. U. chrysantha, E. Br. — Regent River, Brunswick Bay, N.W. Coast, 
A. Cunningham ; Glenelg River, N.W. Coast, Marten ; Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. U. cyanea, B. Br. — ^Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller. 

3. U. exoleta, B. Br.- — Victoria River, and swamps near Sea Range, F. v. 
Mueller. 

4. U. flexuosa, Vdhl. — Robinson River, Gulf of Carpentaria, and near 
Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller. Yellov.' Bladder wort. 

5. U. fulva, F. V. M. — Around stagnant waters near Macadam Range, 
F. V. Mueller ; Strangways River, M'Douall Stuart. 

6. V. stellaris, Linn. — ^Nicholson, Robinson, and Gilbert Rivers, Gulf of 
Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

U. leptoplectra, F. v. M. ; U. lasiocaulis, F. v. M. (in National Herbarium 
Census) ; U. Bluelleri, Kram. (in Ber. der Deutsch. bot., XII., 1894) ; U. 
capiUiflora, F. v. M. (in Trans. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., XXIV., 1890) ; U. WaUi- 
chiana, Wight (in Icon. PI. Ind., 1850); U. Singeriana, P. v. M. (ia Trans. Roy. 
Soc. N.S.W., XXIV., 1890) ; U. Kamienski, F. v. M. ; and U. Holtzei, F. v. M. 
(in Vict. Nat. IX., 1893) ; recorded from North Australia. 

BIGNONIACEiE. 

Calyx truncate or slightly toothed. Woody climbers. — 1. Tecoma. 
GaJyx spathaceous, split longitudinally, iirect trees. 2. DoHchandrone. 

1. TECOMA, Jusa. 1789. 

(Astianthus, D. Don., 1823 ; Campsidium, Seem., 1862 ; Campsis, Lour., 
1790 ; Dendrophila, Zipp., 1848 ; Ducoudraea, Bur., 1864 ; Kokoschkinia, 



250 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

Turcz., 1849 ; Leucoxylon, Rafin., 1838 ; Pandorea, Spach., 1840 ; Platolaria, 
Rafin., 1838; Stenolobium, D. Don., 1823; Tecomaria, Spach,, 1840; 
Tecomella, Seem., 1862.) 

1. T. australis, B. Br. — Simpson's Creek, Macdonnell Ranges, G. T. Hill 
(124). 

Recorded. Ma.cdonnell Ranges, in the interior, M'Douall Stuait. 

2. DOLIOHANDRONE, Fbnzl. 1862. 
(Spathodea Beauv. 1805 partly ; Doliohandra pajtjy.) 

Leaves simple or pinnate, mostly whorled, lanceolate, or linear, as well 
as their leaflets. — 2. D. heterophylla. 

Leaves pinnate; leaflets long, terete, almost filiform. — i. D. filiformis. 

1. D. filiformis, Fenzl. (Spathodea filiformis, DC.).- — Copeland Island, 
A. Cunniagham ; Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. D. heterophylla, F. v. M. [Spathodea heterophylla, E. Br.). — 50 miles 
from Anthony's Lagoon, G. F. HiU (532), 29/8/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, Herine ; Vic- 
toria River, P. v. Mueller; Careeninig Bay, N'.W. Coast, A. Cunningham; 
Roebuck Bay, N'.W. Coast, Marten ; King's Poinds, in the interior, M'Douall 
Stuart. 

PEDALIACE.^. 

1. JOSEPHINIA, Vent. 

Leaves pubescent underneath, the lower one coarsely toothed. Ovary 
usually 6-^elled. Flruit with a triangular beak. — 2. J. imperatricis. 

Plant densely villous. Lower leaves divided into three distinct seg- 
ments. Ovary usually 4-celIed. Fruit not beaked. — 1. J. Eugenia. 

1 . J. Eugenia, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

2. J. imperatricis, Vent. — N.W. Coast, Baudia. 

ACANTHACEiE. 

Tribe I. — Nelsonieae. CoroUa-limb of 5 nearly equal lobes or 2-lipped, 
imbricate in the bud, the upper lobes or lip outside. Seeds globular. 
Retiruicula none or reduced to minute papiUae. 
Corolla lobes nearly equal. Stamens 2. — 2. Nelsonia. 
Corolla lobes nearly equal. Stamens 4. — 1. Ebermaiera. 

Tribe II. — Euellieae. CoroUa^lobes 5, nearly equal cr 2-lipped, con- 
torted in the bud. Seeds flat. Retinacula prominent. 

Corolla 2-lipped. Stamens 4. Ovules several in each cell. — 3. Hygro- 
phila. 

Corolla-lobes nearly equal, spreading. Stamens 4. Ovules 6 or more 
in each cell. — 4. Ruellia. 

Tribe III. — Justicieae. OoroUa 2-lipped or I-lipped by the reduction of 
the upper one or rarely nearly equally 5-lobed, the lobes variously imbricate, 
but not contorted in the bud. Seeds flat, Retinacula prominent. 

Corolla with one broad flat (lower) lip. Stamens 4. Leaves usually 
prickly-toothed. — 5. Acanthus. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHBBN TERRITORY. 251 

Corolla 2-lipped. Stamens 2. 

Bracts amall or not enclosing the flowers. — 8. Justicia. 
Bracts in two paiis, formiiing an involucre enclosimg one to three 
flowers. 

Inner involucral bracts broad and appressed. Outer ones spread- 
ing subulate or spinous. Anithors 2-celled. — 6. Ddcliptera. 

Involucre cylindrical, the two pairs of bracts nearly equal and 
usually connate, one pair within the other. Anthers 1- 
celled. — 7. Hypoestee. 

1. EBERMAIERA, Nees. 1832. 

(Erythracanthus, Nees. ; Staurogyne, Wall. ; Striftia, Pohl.) 

1, E. glauca, Nees. — ^Edith Creek and Abraham's Lagoon, GLlruth and 
Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

E^oorded. Providence Hill and Macadam Range, towards Fitzmaurice 
River, F. v. MiueUer. 

2. NELSONIA, R. Br. 1810. 

1. N. campestris, R. Br. — Driffield Creek, Darwin, Gilruth and Spencer, 
July- August, 1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the G-ulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; between Vic- 
toria amd Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. Mueller; Albert River, Henne. 

3. HYGROPHILA, R. Br. 1810. 

(Asteracantha, Nees., 1832 ; Bahel, Adans., 1763 ; Eberlea, Riddell, 
1847 ; Polyechma, Hochst, 1841 ; Tenoria, Dehnh. and Giord., 1829.) 

1. H. angustifoUa, E. Br. (H. salicifolia, Nees.). — Edith Creek, Gilruth 
and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Recorded. Van Diemen's Gulf, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

4. RUELLIA, Plum. 1735. 

(AntheUema, Rafin., 1836 : Aphragmia, Nees., 1841 ; Aubletia, Neck., 
1790 ; Copioglossa, Miers., 1863 ; Cyrtacanthas, Mart., 1847 ; Dizygandra, 
Meissn., 1840 ; Fabria, E. Mey., 1843 ; Gymnacanthus, Oerst., 1854 ; Holtzen- 
dorffia, Klotzseh and Karst., 1847 ; Larysacanthus, Oerst., 1854 ; Neowedia, 
Schrad., 1821 ; Pattersonia, J. F. Gmel., 1791 ; Scorodoxylun, Nees., 1846 ; 
Stephanophysum, Pohl., 1831.) 

CoroUa with a slender tube of 1 in., the broader portion or throat half 
as long. Capsule | in. Flowers pedunculate. 1. R. bnacteata. 

Corolla-tube very shortly slender at the base, the throat much longer. 
Capsule Jill. long. Flowers nearly sessile. — 2. R. primulacea. 

1. B. bracteata, B. Br. — ^Amhem N. and S. Bay, R. Brown. 

2. B. primvlacea, F. v. M. — Henbury Station. Finke River, G. F Hill 
(49), 40/3/1911. 

Will thrive under the shade of trees. Mr. Ooghlan reports it as a valu- 
able plant for stock, especially horses. 



252 THE IXOBA 01" THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

5. ACANTHUS, Linn. 
{Dilivaria, Juss.). 

1. A. ilicifolius, Linn. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Albert River, 
Henne. Bear's breech. 

6. DICLIPTERA, Juss. 
{Brochosiphon, Nees.) 

1. D. glabra, Dene. — Glenelg River, N.S. Coast, Marten ; Upper Victoria 
River and Stirling Creek, P. v. Mueller ; S. Goulbum Island, A. Cunningham. 

D. spicata, Decaisne ; recorded from North AustraHa in National Her- 
barium Census. 

7. HYPOESTES, Soland. 1810. 

1. H. floribunda, R. Br. (var. densiflora, Benth.). — Lagrange Bay, N.W. 
Coast, Marten. 

Var. distans, Benth. — ^Hunter's River, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 
Var. paniculata, Benth. — Near Darwin, Gihuth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. South Goulbum Island, A. Cunningham ; Cape Upstart, 
Bynoe ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

H. rosea, Decaisne (in Ann, du Mus. III., 1834) ; and H. moschata, E. v. 
M. (in Select. Extra-Trop. PL, 1891) ; recorded from North Austraha. The 
latter jdelds a strong musk scent on distillation. 

8. JUSTICIA, HoNST. 1737. 

(Adeloda, Rafin., 1836 ; Aphatoda, Nees., 1847 ; Athhanthus, Endl., 
1842 ; Campylostemon, E. Mey., 1843 ; Diplanthera, Schxank, 1819 ; Ecbol- 
ium, Riv., 1735 ; Geunsia, Neck., 1790 ; Hamieria, Sohns., 1864 ; Monechma, 
Hoctet, 1841 ; Raphidosperma, G. Don., 1839 ; RosteUularia, Reichb., 1837 ; 
Rostellaria.) 

1. /. procumbens, Linn. — ^Haast's Bluff, MacdonneU Range, G. F. HUl 
(210), 26/5/1911. 

60 miles N.E. of Camp n., G. F. Hill (286b), 7/6/1911. 

Okey Creek, G. F. Hill (760), 16/2/1912. 

Five Mile Balr, B'orroloola, G. F. Hill (695), 16/12/1912. 

Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown; Victoria ajod Fitzmaurice 
Rivers, F. v. Mueller; Cooper's River, A. C. Gregory. 

Justicia Kempeana F. v. M. ; Thunbergia, fragrams J. Koen. ; Strobi- 
lanthes Tatei F. v. M. ; recorded from North Australia in National Her- 
barium Census. 

MYOPORACEffi. 

Corolla usually campanulate, nearly regular, rarely shortly cylindrical 
at the base. Ovary usually 2 to 4 or more celled, with one ovule in each 
cell, rarely 2-oeIled with two oviUes in each cell. — 2. Myoporum. 

Corolla usually tubular at the base, with a more or less irregular limb. 
Ovary 2-celled, with two or three superposed pairs, or rarely one pair only of 
ovules in each cell. — 1. Eremophila. 

1. EREMOPHILA, R. Bk. 1810. 

(Eremodendron, DC, 1840 ; Stenochilus, R. Br., 1810 ; Pholidia ; Pseudo- 
phoUdia ; Sentis ; Duttonia ; Phohdiposis.) 

Several speciesi supposed to be poisonous to stock. 

Sect. I. — Eremocosmos. Calyx-segments not at aJl or scarcely overlapping 
at the base, more or less enlarged, veined, and scarious after flowerrag. Ovary 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEBN TEBEITOEY. 253 

■with two or 4 pairs of ovules in eaoli cell. Fruit (where known) dry, the 
endocarp separating into distinct pyrenes. 

Enlarged caJyx-segmente more or less cuneate and obtuse. — 9. E. Sturtii. 
Enlarged caJyx-segments oblong or lanceolate, acute. Leaves linear or 
linear-lanceolate. 

Corolla upper lobes rather acute. Stamens exserted. — 5. E. Latro- 

bei. 
Corolla upper lobe deltoid, semi-lanceolate. Stamens included. — 3. 
E. Gilesii. 
Sect. n. — Platycalyx. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed. Flowers and fruit 
of Platychilufi. — 7. E MaodonelUi. 

Sect. in. — Flatychilus. Calyx-segments much imbricate at the base, 
the outer ones usually broader. Corolla-lobes all broad and obtuse, or the 
upper ones scarcely acute. Stamens included or scarcely exserted. Ovules 
iu two or three pairs in each cell. Fruit of Stenochilus. 

Oalyx-segments small or narrow and acute, not enlarged after flowering. 
Leaves long, linear or lanceolate. — 6. E. longifoUa. 

Calyx-segments ovate or lanceolate, acute, not exceeding tJiree lines in 
flower, nor much enlarged afterwards. PlaJits very glabrous, often drying 
blue. — 1. E. bignonlaefloiFa. 

Calyx-segments broad-lanceolate, four to six lines long, more or less 
hirsute. 

Leaves linear or lanceolate. — 4. E. Gtoodwinii. 
Leaves obovate or oblong, serrulate. — 10. E. Willsii. 

Sect. IV. — Stenochilus. Calyx-segments imbricate at the base, usually 
enlarged after flowering. CoroUa, four upper lobes short and acute, the fifth 
lowest more deeply separated and sometimes narrow. Stamens exserted. 
Ovules two or three pairs, or rarely only one pair in each cell. Drupe succu- 
lent, with a thick bony putamen not separating into nuts. 

Lowest corolla-lobe obtuse. Calyx much enlarged after flowering. — 2. 
E. Duttoni. 

Lowest corolla-lobe acute. Calyx-segm.ents acute, scarcely enlarged 
after flowering. — 8. E. maculata. 

1 . E. bignoniflora, F. v. ilf.— Newcastle Waters, G. F. Hill (479), 17/7/1911. 
30 miles N.E. of Anthony's Lagoon, G. F. Hill (583), 2G/o/iall. Fruit 

only. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek and Gilbert River, F. v. Mueller. 
Wood fragrant; useful for cabinet work. Bignonia Berrigan. 

2. U. Duttoni, f. V. If.— 35 miles N.E. of Camp 11., G. F. Hill (244), 
7/6/1911. 

20 nules N.W. of Charlotte Waters, G. F. HiU (21), 24/3/1911. 

3. E. Gilesii, F. v. M. — ^Macdonnell Ranges, E. Giles. 

Var. argentea, Fwart.—GO nules N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (286), 
27/6/1911. 

The leaves are broader, hardly viscid, but covered with a dense covering 
of small white hairs, also more abundant on the outside of the corolla. The 
corolla is rather larger, and the plant almost distinct enough for separate 
specific description. 

Var. filiforme.—S5 mUes N.E. of Camp II., G. F. HiU (245 and 2426), 
7/6/1911. 

With very narrow channelled leaves. 

4. E. Goodwinii, F. v. M. — 40 miles S.S.W. of Newcastle Waters, G. F. 
HiU (458a), 8/7/1911. 



254 THE FLORA OT THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

5. E. Latrobei, F. v. M.—UO miles N. of Camp IV. G. F. HiU (415) 
3/7/1911. A small bush. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek and Newcastle Bange, F. v. Miueller; between 
Strangways River and Rupert's Rajige, M'Douall Stuart. 

6. E. longifolia, F. v. 'jf.— Jay Creek, G. F. HiU (112), 21/3/1911. 
Recorded. Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller; in the interior, M'Douall 

Stuart's Expedition. 

7. E. Macdondlii, F. v. M.—12 miles N.W. of Charlotte Waters, G. F. 
HiU (19a), 24/2/1911. 

Var. macrocarpa, Ewart and Davies.- — 90 mUes N.W. of Camp III., G. F. 
Hill (347), 15/6/1911. Specimen with flowers and unripe fruit. 

Owen Siprings Station, Hugh River, G. F. Hill (114), 21/3/1911. Sped; 
men with fruits. 

The variety differs from the type in the possession of larger glabrous 
leaves (about 3 cm.). The stem, is pubescent, with very short hairs. The 
flower ia larger, measuring 3^4 cm., the pedicel slightly over 3 cm. The 
calyx is campanulate, the lobes not so acute as in the type, and the division 
in some cases much deeper. The fruit is much larger, measuring 1.5-2 cm., 
and its surface is marked by rough longitudinal ridges. It is four-celled. 

It seems probable that E. Macdonelli really includesi at least two species, 
but until more material is available, it has been thought best to put these 
fresh specimens under a. new variety. 

8. E. maculata, F. v. If.— 90 mUes N., halt W. of Camp III., G. F. HUl 
(350, 551, and 356a), 15/6/1911. A bush 3 ft. high. Spotted Berrigan. 

Recorded. Attack Creek, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

Native " Fuchsia" ; a poison bush. Poisonous according to Maiden and 
GreshoS. Contaias a large quantity of prussic acid. If the leaves or the fruits 
are eaten by stock separately or at different times no harm occurs, but when 
taken together a violent poison is produced which quickly causes death. 
(Brunnich.) 

9. E. Sturtii, E. Br. — ^Idracowra Station, Finke River, G. F. HiU (33), 
7/3/1911. Narrow leaved Berrigan. 

10. E. Willsii, F. v. If.— Finke River, M'DouaU Stuart's Expedition. 

Var. integrifolia, Ewart. — On sandhUls 20 mUes N.W. by N. of Meyer's 
HUl, MacdonneU Ranges, G. F. HUl (214), 1/6/1911. 

"The edges of the leaves are entire instead of being serrated or indented. 
In shape the leaves are near to the variety glabriuscula, which has, however, 
glabrous branches and serrated leaves. 

E. Freelingii, F. v. M. ; E. Fraseri, F. v. M. ; E. Cantoni, F. v. M. ; re- 
corded from North AustraUa in National Herbarium Census. 

2. MYOPORUM, Banks and Soland. 1786. 

(Aildreusia, Vent., 1807 ; Beftolonia, Spni., 1809 ; Bisoon, A.DC, 1847 ; 
Pentacoelium, Sieb. and Bucc, 1846 ; Pogonia, Andr., 1801 ; Polycoelium, A. 
DC, 1847.) 

1. M. tenuifolium, Forst. [M. acuminatum, R. Br.). — ^Abraham's Lagoon 
and Mole Hill, GUruth and Spencer, July, 1911. Thin leaved Berrigan. 

Observation Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, G. F. HiU (636), 21/10/1911. 

Recorded. Dampier's Archipelago and Cygnet Bay, xn.W. Coast; A. 
Cunningham; Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, Ridley's Expedition. 

M. Dampieri Clunn. (Watery bush) ; recorded from North Australia in 
National Herbarium Census. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHEEN TERRITORY. 255 

RUBIACE^. 

Tribe I. GinchonecB. — Leaves opposite or rarely whorled, with small 
or membranous stipules between or inside of them. Ovules several in each 
cell of the ovary. 

Sub-tribe I. Naucleace. — Flowers very numerous, closely packed in 
globular heads on a small receptacle. Ovules pendulous or imbricate on a 
pendulous placenta. Fruits capsular or rarely- fleshy, not pulpy. Trees or 
shrubs. — 3. Sarcocephalus. 

Sub-tribe II. Hedyotidece. — Flowers in cymes, clusters, or solitary. 
Corolla-lobes valvate. Ovules attached to an axile or basal placenta. Fruit 
capsular or separating into dry cocci. Herbs, undershrubs, or rarely shrubs. 

Flowers 4-merous. Petals entire. — 2. Oldenlandia. 

Flowers 5-merous. Petals 2- or 3-toothed. — 1. Dentella. 

Sub-tribe III. Gardeniece. — Flowers in cymes, clusters, or sohtary. 
Corolla-lobes imbricate. Ovules attached to an axile or parietal placenta. 
Fruit succulent, indehiscent. 

Ovary 1-celled, with 2, 3, or more prominent parietal placentas. Stipules 
connate within the petioles. Inflorescence usually terminal. — 5. Gardenia. 

Ovary 2-celled (rarely several-ceUed), with axile placentas. Stipules 
interpetiolar. — 4. Randia. 

Tribe II. CoffeecB. — Leaves opposite or rarely whorled, with smaU or 
membranous stipules between or inside of them. Ovules solitary or very 
rarely 2, collateral in each cell of the ovary, rarely several to each carpel 
separated by spurious septa. Cells of the fruit or pyrenes always 1-seeded. 

Sub-tribe I. Ixorem. — Corolla-lobes imbricate (usually contorted). 
Ovules laterally attached, usually peltate. Fruit a berry or drupe. Albumen 
copious. Trees or shrubs. — 9. Ixora. 

Sub-tribe II. Ghiettardece. — CoroUa-lobes imbricate. Ovules suspended 
from the summit of the normal or spurious cells. Fruit a drupe, the nucleus 
or pyrenes usually hard. Albumen little or none. Trees or shrubs. Flowers 
in forked cymes or solitary, rarely umbellate. Uniovulate spurious cells of 
the ovary and pyrenes of the fruit much more numerous than the style-lobes, 
superposed in several series. — 8. Timonius. 

Cells 1-ovulate, of the same number as the style-lobes. — 7. Guettarda. 

Sub-tribe III. VarigiieriecB. — Corolla-lobes valvate. Ovules laterally 
attached at or near the top. Fruit a berry-like drupe, with 1-seeded pyrenes. 
Albumen copious. Trees or shrubs. — 6. Canthium. 

Sub-tribe IV. Psychotrieoe. — CoroUa-lobes valvate. Ovules erect from 
the base or laterally attached below the middle. Style-lobes short. Fruit 
a berry-like drupe with 1-seeded pyrenes. Albumen copious. Trees or shrubs. 

Ovules and 1-seeded pyrenes 4, style-lobes 4. — 11. Ccelospermum. 

Ovules and 1-seeded p5rrenes of the same number as the style-lobes (2). — 
10. Psychotria. 

Sub-tribe V. SpermacocecB. — CoroUa-lobes valvate. Ovules variously 
laterally attached to the axis, the ovary usually perfectly 2-ceUed. Style- 
lobes short. Fruit capsular, or indehiscent and dry. Albumen copious. 
Herbs, undershrubs, or rarely shrubs. — 12. Spermacoce. 

1. DENTELLA, Forst. 
{Lippaya, Ettdl.) 
1. D. repens, Forst. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Fitzmaurice River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. , ,^^ 



256 THE FLORA OE THE NOETHBEN TBEEITOEY. 

2. OLDENLANDIA, Linn., 1737. 

(Agathisanthemum, Klotzsch., 1861 ; Gonotheoa, Blume., 1830 ; Karamy- 
schewia, Fisch. & Mey., 1838 ; Peltospermum, Benth., 1849 ; Pentodon, 
Hochst., 1844 ; Listeria, Neck., 1790 ; Theyodis, A. Rich., 1847 ; Hedyotis ; 
Synaptantha ; Anotis.) 

Capsule slightly protruding from the calyx-tube, and opening locuhoidally, 
or both septioidally and locuhcidally. Leaves narrow-linear. Pedicels slender, 
sohtary, or 2 or 3 together. 

Very slender, erect. Panicle loose, almost leafless. Corolla-lobes 
shorter than the tube. Capsule loculicidal and septicidal. — 
■ 2. 0. mitrasacmoides. 
Slender and diffuse. Pedicels axillary. Corolla-lobes shorter than 
the tube. Capsule loculicidal and septicidal. — 1. O. galioides. 
Capsule at least half -superior, opening in 4 valves. 

Corolla divided almost to the base, and often persistent. Seeds 
angular, or if peltate not concave. Very small much-branched 
aimuals or perennials. — 4. 0. scleranthoides. 
Corolla-lobes shorter than the tube. Seeds broad, concave, peltately 
attached by a prominent rib on the inner face. Perennials with 
linear leaves. — 3. 0. pterospora. 

1. 0. galioides, F. v. M. — CuUen Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. Recorded. Along rivulets near M'Adam Range, P. v. Mueller ; 
S. Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham. 

2. 0. mitrasacmoides, F. v. M. — Depot Creek and Arnhem's Land, 
F. V. Mueller. 

3. 0. petrospora, F. v. M. — Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

4. 0. scleranthoides, F. v. M. — Depot Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

0. spermacocoides, F. v. M.; 0. Crouchiana, F. v. M.; 0. tillaeacea, F. v. M.; 
O. trachymenioides, F. v. M. — Recorded from North AustraUa in Mueller's 
Census. 

3. SARCOCEPHALUS, Ai-zel., 1818. 

(Cephalina, Thonn., 1828 ; Plantanocarpum, Korth., 1839.) 

1. S. cordatus, Miq. SoxToloola,, G. F. Hill (653), 27/10/1911.— Recorded. 
Glenelg River, N.W. Coast, Herb. Hooker ; Victoria River, F. v. M. Leich- 
hardt-tree cir Canary-wood. Bark yields a canary-yellow dye ; a good cabinet 
wood. 

4. RANDIA, Linn. 

(Stylocoryna, Cav.; Grif&thia, W. & Arn.; Cupia, Dc; Gynopachs, Bl.) 
1. B. densiflora, Benth. — Recorded. Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 
B. sessiUs, F. v. M. — Recorded from North Australia in Mueller's Census. 

5. GARDENIA, Ellis, 1761. 

(Bergkias, Senner., 1776 ; Caquipiria, J. F. Gmel., 1791 ; Hyperacanthus, 
E. Mey., 1843 ; Piringa, Juss., 1820 ; Rothmannia, Thunb., 1776 ; Salhbergia, 
N^.k., 1790 ; Yangapa, Rafin., 1838.) 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TBEBITORY. 257 

Calyx-limb large, scarcely toothed, but splitting on one side or into 2 
lobes. Plant glabrous. 

Leaves under 1 in. long, narrowed at the base. Corolla-tube dilated 

upwards, longer than the calyx. — 1. G. eduhs. 
Leaves broadly ovate. Corolla-tube cylindrical, scarcely exceeding 
the calyx-lobes. — 5. G. resinosa. 

Calyx-Umb with 4 to 6 linear obtuse lobes, rarely cohering. Young shoots 
pubescent. 

Leaves obovate or oblong, ynder 1| in. long. Fruits under 1 in. long. 

— 4. G. pyritormis. 
Leaves broadly ovate or orbicular, 2 to 3 in. long. Fruits 1| to 2 in. 
long. — 3. G. megasperma. 
Calyx-Hmb campanulate, truncate, with long subulate-acuminate teeth. 
Corolla-tube long and cylindrical. — 6. G. sufEruticosa. 

Calyx-teeth distinct from the base. Fruit large. Plant glabrous. — 2. 
G. fucata. 

1. O. edulis, F. v. M. — Gilbert River and between Flinders and Lynd 
Rivers, F. v. M. 

2. 0. fucata, R. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. G. megasperma, F. v. M. — ^North Island, GuU of Carpentaria, G. F. 
Hill (No. 622), 20/10/1911. Darwin, N.T., G. F. Hill, 12/11/1914. Stapleton, 
N.T., G. F.Hill, 5/11/1914. Cambridge GuH and Vansittart Bay, N.W. 
Coast, A. Cunningham ; rocky places, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; islands of 
the GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown. The specimens of Gardenia megasperma 
from Darwin and Stapleton, N.T., show several variations, both from the tjrpe 
species and from one another. These may be due to cultivation, and in order 
to fuUy determine these points it would be necessary to make an examination 
on the spot. The variations are mainly seen in the flower and fruits. The 
flower varies very much in size, in length of pedicel, in size of calyx, length of 
calyx-tube and calyx-lobes, and the length of the corolla-tube. The 
shape of the fruit varies from globular to pear-shaped, and in size from 
2 to 3 inches. 

Var. arborea, Ewart and Cookson, 28 mUes S.E. Newcastle Waters, N.T., G. 
F. Hill (No. 498), 8/7/1911. A tree up to 20 feet high, whichseems intermediate 
between Gardenia megasperma and G. pyritormis. It resembles the former in the 
structure of the fruits, which are globular, about 2 in. long, with large seeds 
and 5 parietal placentas, while it resembles the latter in the leaves, which are 
oblong-ovate. However, as no flowers are present on the specimen, the exact 
determination is impossible, and what now appears to be a variety only may 
in reality be a distinct species. 

4. G. pyriformis, A. Cunn. — ^York Sound, N.W. Coast, A Cunningham ; 
Victoria River, Bynoe. 

5. G. resinosa, F. v. M. — Rocky hills, Victoria River, F. v. MueUer, 
Bynoe. 

6. G. suffruticosa, R. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

6. CANTHIUM, Lam., 1783. 

(ClusiophyUea, BailL, 1878 ; Dondisia, DC, 1830 ; Lycioserissa, Roem. 
& Schutt., 1819 ; Psydrax ; Plectronia, Linn., 1767 partly ; Mitrastigma, 
Harv., 1842 ; PhaUaria, Schum. & Thoim., 1827 ; PsHostoma, Klotzsch., 
1837 ; Psydrax, Gaertn., 1788 ; Webera, Cramer., 1803.) 



258 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

Leaves broadly ovate, prominently penniveined, and reticulate. — 2. 
.C. latifolium. 

Leaves oblong-elliptical to narrow-lanceolate, prominently and obliquely 
penniveined. — 1. C. "attenuatum. 

Leaves ovate to oblong-elliptical (2 to 6 in. long), very smooth and shining, 
the veins scarcely prominent. — 3. C. lucidum. 

1. C. attenuatum, R. Br. — Brunswick Bay, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
Victoria River and Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller ; N. Coast, R. Brown ; 
Sweers Island, Henne. 

2. C. latifolium, F. v. M. — Macdonnell Ranges, 8 miles E. of Haast's 
Bluff, G. F. Hill (176), 16/5/191L 

3. C. lucidum, Hook, dk Am. — Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

C. coprosmoides, F. v. M. — Recorded from North Australia in National 
Herbarium Census. 

7. GUETTARDA, Ijnn. 
1. G. speciosa, Linn. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

8. TIMONIUS, RuMPH. 
(Polyphragmmi, Desf.) 

1. T. Rumphii DC. (P. sericeum, Desf.). — Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, 
A. Cunningham ; Upper Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. Mueller ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong; Sweers Island, Henne; Upper Lynd' River, 
Leichhardt. 

9. IXORA, Linn., 1735. 

(Bemsetia, Rafin., 1838 ; Eumachia, DC, 1830 ; Panchezia, Montr., 
1860 ; Schetti, Adans., 1763 ; Siderodendrum, Schreb., 1789 ; Sideroxyloides, 
Jacq., 1763.) 

Section I. Pavetta. — Flowers 4-merous. Style slender, simple, or the 
lobes not separating. — 4. I. tomentosa. 

Section II. Ixora. — Flowers 4-merous. Style-lobes usually spreading. 
Cymes dense, sessile. Corolla-tube 1| in. long ; lobes acute, J the length of the 
tube. — 1. I. ooccinea. 

Panicles loose. CoroUa-tube 3 to 4 lines long ; lobes oblong, nearly as 
long as the tube. — 3. I. timorensis. 

Section III. Pentadium. — Flowers 5-merous. — 2. I. pentamera. 

1. /. coccinea, Linn. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

2. /. pentamera, Benth. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. I. timorensis, Dene. — N. Coast, R. Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

4. /. tomentosa, Roxb. (Pavetta indica). — Borroloola, G. F. Hill (662), 
7/11/1911. Recorded. Careening Bay, N.W. Coast, A Cunningham ; Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller ; Bynoe ; N. Coast, R. Brown. 

/. Pavetta Roxb. ; I. Dallachyana, F. v. M. ; I. expandens, F. v. M. — 
Recorded from North Australia in National Herbarium Census. 

10. PSYCHOTRIA, Linn. 

(Orumilea, Gaertn.) 

1. p. nesophila, F. v. M. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown ; N. Goulburn Island, 
A. Cunningham ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 259 

11. CCELOSPERMUM, Blume. 

(Pogonolobus, F. v. M.) 

1. C. reticulatum, Benth. — Recorded. Amhem S. Bay, R. Brown; 
Low Island, Henne ; M'Adam and Newcastle Ranges, F. v. Mueller. 

G. decipiens, Baill. — Recorded from North Australia in National Herbarium 
Census. 

12. SPERMACOCE, Linn. 
(Borreria, G. F. W. Mey.; Bigelovia, Spreng.) 

Stamens inserted at the base or below the middle of the coroUa-tube, the 
anthers always included. Corolla 1 to 1 J Unes long. 

Leaves linear, lanceolate, or narrow-elliptical. Stems erect, divaricate 
or scarcely diffuse. Stamens at the base of the tube. 
Corolla-lobes much shorter than the tube. — 2. S. brachystema. 
CoroUa-lobes longer than the tube. 

CoroUa densely bearded at the throat. Anthers small, 

ovate. — 10. S. pogostoma. 
CoroUa not bearded, the narrow lobes pubescent inside 
Anthers oblong. — 7. S. leptoloba. 

Stamens inserted at the orifice of the coroUa-tube, alternating with its lobes. 
Calyx usually 4-lobed. CoroUa-lobes without internal appendages. 
Annual or perennial herbs. 
CoroUa-lobes longer than the short broad tube. 
Leaves Unear or Unear-lanceolate. 

CoroUa about 1 line long. Stamens much shorter than 

the lobes. — 9. S. multicaulis. 
CoroUa about 2 lines long. Stamens as long as or longer 
than the lobes. — 4. S. exserta. 
Leaves ovate or eUiptical, on long petioles. Stamens ex- 
ceeding the coroUa-lobes. — 8. S. membranacea. 
Leaves ovate or broadly lanceolate, rigid, with callous margins. 
Stamens not exceeding the corolla-lobes. — 1 1 . S . scabra. 
CoroUa-lobes shorter than the tube. 

Flowers about 4, in terminal and lateral heads. CoroUa 
about 3 lines long. Cocci almost closed. — 5. S. 
inaperta. 
Flowers numerous, in heads chiefly terminal. 

CoroUa about 3 Unes long ; lobes nearly as long as the 

tube. — 12. S. stenophyUa. 

CoroUa about 4 lines long ; lobes a little more than 

haU as long as the slender tube. — 6. S. laevigata. 

Calyx usuaUy 4-lobed. CoroUa-lobes with 2 obUque prominent 

laminae or'auricles on the inner face. Leaves Unear or lanceolate. 

Annual or perennial herbs. 

CoroUa 2^ to 3 lines long ; the lobes about as long as the 

tube. — 3. S. breviflora. 
CoroUa 5 to 6 lines long ; the lobes shorter than the tube. — 
1. S. auriculata. 
Calyx 2-lobed. CoroUa-lobes without appendages. Undershrub. — 
13. S. suffruticosa. 

1. S. auriculata, F. v. M. — ^N. Coast, R. Brown ; Upper Victoria River, 
F. V. MueUer ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 



260 THE TLOEA OF THE NORTHBEN TERRITORY. 

2. S. br achy sterna, R. Br. — Arnhem's Land', F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong. 

3. ;S. breviflora, F. v. M. — Victoria River and Depot Creek, F. v. Mueller ; 
Arnhem N. Bay and Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Attack 
Creek, M'DouaU Stuart. 

4. S. exserta, Benth. — Islands of the GuU of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Croker's Island, A. Cunningham ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

5. S. inaperta, F. v. M. — Grassy places. Lower Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

6. 8. IcBvigata, F. v. M. — Stony and grassy banks of Victoria River,. 
Wiokham's Creek, and Depot Creek, F< v. Mueller. 

7. 8. leptoloba, Benth. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

8. 8. membranacea, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

9. 8. multicaulis, Benth. — Islands of me GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

10. 8. pogostoma, Benth. — Arnhem's Land, F. v. MueUer ; Port Essiagton> 
Armstrong. 

11. 8. scabra, Ewart. — Calyx shorter than corolla, corolla-tube and lobes 
about equal, stamens inserted at throat, nearly as long as coroUa-lobes, which 
are inflexed at tip, capsule opening to near base. A scabrous-hirsute plant, 
leaves with thickened callous margins. 

Leaves sessile, narrow oblong-lanceolate undulate narrowed to base with 
thickened margins and a very acute point, up to 25 mm. long by 3-4 mm. 
broad, stipular sheath very short, 0.6 mm., bristles several times longer and 
rigidly cihate. Flower heads terminal or axillary, flowers on short pedicels ; 
calyx about 6 mm. long, the lobes longer than the tube, narrow linear, acute 
rigid and ciliate ; corolla 6 mm. long, tube funnel-shaped slightly bearded at 
throat, lobes of about equal length to tube, elliptical oblong with veins, ciliate 
internally, and a few short rigid hairs externally at the rounded concave tip ; 
stamens attached at top of tube, a little shorter than coroUa lobes ; style 
slender, capitate, exserted beyond coroUa ; capsule 3 mm. long opening to 
near base. 36 miles W. of Camp IV., Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (367), 21/6/1911. 

The specimens of this species of Spermacoce are 40 cm. in height, rigid, and 
more hirsute and scabrous than any of its congeners. Its leaves and stipular 
sheaths have the same characters as those seen in S. marginata, but the latter 
differs from S. scabra in its corolla being very short and in the stamens being 
included within the tube, although the inflexed or concave apices of the lobes 
supply an additional point of resemblance. 

12. 8. stenophylla, F. v. M. — Sweers Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, Henne. 

13. 8. suffruticosa, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

8. marginata, Benth.; (in National Herbarium Census) 8. uniseta, Baill.; 
8. Jacobsoni, Baill.; (in Bot. BuU. III.) Knoxia corymbosa, Willd.; Hydno- 
phytum formicarum, Jack.; Morinda citrifolia, L.; Ccelospermum decipiens, 
Baill.; Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea , Gaertn.; (in National Herbarium Census) 
recorded from North Australia. 

CUCUEBITACE^. 

Anther-cells very fiexuose or conduplicate. 

Calyx-tube elongated. Petals fringed with long cilia.- — 5. Trichosan- 

thes. 
Calyx-tube broadly campanuJate or turbinate. Petals not fringed. 

Tendrils branched. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERKITORY. 261 

Males in pedunculate racemes. Fruit dry, fibrous. — 2. 

Luff a. 
Male flowers small, in clusters or short sessile racemes (in the 

Australian species). Fruit a small berry .^ — 3. Bryon- 

opsis. 
Tendrils simple. 

Anthers tipped with an appendage to the connective. Fruit 

pulpy or fleshy. — 4. Cucumis. 
Anthers without any appendage. — 3. Bryonopsis. 

Anther-cells straight, parallel. — 1. Melothria. 

1. MELOTHRIA, Linn., 1737. 

(Aechmandra, Arn., 1841 ; Arkezostis, Rafin., 1836 ; Diclidostigma, 
KunzL, 1843 ; Harlandia, Hance., 1852 ; Juchia, M. Roem., 1846 ; Karivia, 
Arn., 1841 ; Landersia, Macfad., 1837 ; Melothrix, M. Laws., 1875 ; Melotria, 
P. Br., 1756 ; Mukia, Arn., 1841 ; Pflogyne, Schrad., 1835 ; Solena, Lour., 
1790 ; Zehneria, Endl., 1833). 

Calyx-tube broadly campanulate. Anthers without appendages. Female 
flowers pedunculate, bearing staminodia. — 1. M. Cunninghamii. 

Calyx-tube turbinate. Anthers with a minute appendage.' Female 
flowers sessile, without staminodia. — 2. M. maderaspatana. 

1. M. Cunninghamii, F. v. M. (Zehneria Cunninghamii, F. v. M.). — 
Arnhem N. Bay, R. Brown. 

2. M. maderaspatana, Cogn. (Mukia scabreUa, Arn.). — Hermansburg, 
Finke River, G. F. Hill (52), 11/3/1911. 

■ Recorded. N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Nichol Bay, Gregory's Expedition ; 
Upper Victoria River and GuH of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong. 

M. subpellucida, Cogn.; M. celebica, Cogn. — Recorded from North Aus- 
traha in National Herbarium Census. 

2. LUFFA, Cav. 

1. L. graveolens, Roxh. — Recorded. N.W. Coast, Bynoe; tributaries of 
the Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. Native Towel-gourd. The bath Loofah is 
the vascular network of the fruit of L. cylindrica. L. cegyptiaca, Mill.; L. 
foetida, Cav. — Recorded from North Austraha in National Herbarium Census. 

3. BRYONOPSIS, Arn. 
{Bryonia, Linn.) 

1 . B. laciniosa, Naud. — Sir Charles Hardy's Island, Henne ; Port Essing- 
ton, Armstrong. 

Medicinal value ; bitter and aperient. 

4. CUCUMIS, Linn. 

1. C. trigonus, Boxb. — Oakover River, Nichol Bay, Gregory's Expedition ; 
Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong ; Albert River, 
Henne ; in the interior, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

C. Meh, L. — ^Recorded from North Australia in National Herbarium 
Census. 



262 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

5. TRICHOSA]SrTHES, Linn., 1737. 

(Eopepon, Naud., 1866 ; Involucraria, Ser., 1825 ; Platygonia, Naud. 
1866.) 

1. T. cucumerina, Linn. — Sandstone Ranges, near Borroloola, G. F. 
Hill (792), 25/2/1912. 

Recorded. Victoria River, P. v. MueUer ; bare rocky hills, Nichol Bay, 
Gregory's Expedition. 

An emetic and a drastic purgative. 

T. Holtzei, F. v. M.; T. Muelleri, Cogn. ; Momordica Charantia, L. — 
Recorded from North Australia in National Herbarium Census. 

CAMPANULACEffi. 

Corolla usually irregular. Anthers united in a ring round the style. 
Ovary 2-celled (Lobeliece). 

CoroUa-tube slit open to the base, the limb very irregular, 2-lipped. — 

2. Lobelia. 
CoroUa-tube entire or very shortly slit, the limb spreading, nearly 
regular or oblique. — 3. Isotoma. 
Corolla regular, campanulate. Anthers free. Ovary 3- to 5-celled. — 
1. WahTenbergia. 

1. WAHLENBERGIA, Schrad., 1814. 

(Aikinia, Salisb., 1830 ; Cervicina, Delile., 1813 ; Edraianthus, A. DC, 
1839 ; Hedraeanthus, Griseb.. 1844 ; Schultesia, Roth., 1827 ; Streleskia, 
Hook., 1847 ; Valvinterlobus, Dulac, 1867.) 

1. W. gracilis, A. DC. — Hugh River, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill 
(150), 6/5/1911 ; Lower MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (677), 8/11/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 
Native Bluebell. Austral Bluebell. 

2. LOBELIA, Plum., 1737. 

(Dobrowskya, PresL, 1836 ; Dortmanna, Linn., 1735 ; Grammatotheca, 
PresL, 1836 ; Holostigma, G. Don., 1834 ; Holostigmateia, Reichb., 1841 ; 
Isolobus, A. DC, 1839 ; Juohia, Neck., 1790 ; Mecoschistum, Dulac, 1867 ; 
Mezleria, PresL, 1836 ; Monopsis, Salisb., 1817 ; Parastranthus, G. Don., 
1834 ; Pratia, G. Don., 1834 ; Rapuntium, Tourn., 1768 ; Rhynchopetalum, 
Fresen., 1838 ; Stooria, Neck., 1790.) 

Flowers hermaphrodite (anthers, stigma, and ovules all perfect). 
Leaves sessile, linear or linear-lanceolate. — 3. L. stenophylla. 
Leaves sessile, ovate or orbicular, prominently toothed.^ — 2. L. 
quadrangularis . 
Flowers more or less dioecious, the males with an entire stigma and very 
short ovary with abortiv.e ovules ; females with rudimentary stamens or 
abortive anthers. — 1. L. dioica. 

1. L. dioica, R. Br. — Gulf of Carpentaria, opposite Groote Island, R. 
Brown ; Roper River and near Macadam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

2. L. quadrangularis, R. Br. (L. humistrata, F. v. M.). — Banks of brooks 
and streams, Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, P. v. Mueller. 

3. L. stenophylla, Benth. — Roper River, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
Augu,st, 1911. 

Recorded. Port Essington, Armstrong. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHERN TEERITORY. 263- 

L. heterophylla, Labill. — Recorded from North Australia in National 
Herbarium Census. 

3. ISOTOMA, LiNDL., 1826. 

(Hippobroma, G. Don., 1834 ; Lobelia partly ; Enchysia partly ; Lamencia 
partly.) 

1. /. petrcm, F. v. M. — Near Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. 
HiU (195), 22/5/1911. 

/. OulUverii, F. v. M.; Sphenoclea zeilanica, Gaertn. — ^Recorded from 
North Australia in National Herbarium Census. 

GOODEinACE.aE:. 

Ovules 2 or more in each ceU of the ovary or on each side of the imperfect 
rudimentary dissepiment. 

Anthers connate round the style. Capsule hnear, 4-valved at least at 
the base. Leaves narrow-linear or heath-like or reduced to scales. — 
3. Leschenaultia. 

Anthers free (when the flower is expanded). Capsule globular ovoid or 
oblong, opening from the top in 2 or 4 valves, Indusium cup-shaped. 
Calyx entirely free. — 1. Velleia. 

Calyx-tube adnate (sometimes exceedingly short), lobes free or 
adnate at the base. 
Style undivided. — 2. Goodenia. 
Style 2- or 3-cleft. — 4. Calogyne. 

Anthers free. Fruit more or less succulent and indehiscent. — 5. Cato- 
sperma. 

Ovules 1 or 2 in the whole ovary. 
Calyx-tube adnate. 

CoroUa-tube split, lobes spreading, not auriculate. Ovules 2. 

Anthers free. — 6. Scaevola. 
CoroUa-tube sht, upper lobes auriculate. Ovule 1. Anthers 
connate. — 7. Dampiera. 
Calyx and corolla tubes almost closed over the ovary, but free. 
CoroUa-tube with horizontally spreading lobes. Ovule 1. — 
Brunoniaceae. 

1. VELLEIA, Sm., 1798. 
(Euthales, R. Br., 1810 ; Menoceras, Lindl., 1847.) 

Sepals 5, lanceolate, nearly distinct. — 2. V. panduriformis. 
Sepals 5, ovate, connate at the base. — 1. V. connata. 

1. V. connata, F. v. M.—IO miles N. of Camp IV., G. F. Hill (400), 
29/6/1911. On sandhills. Erect Velleia. 

2. F. panduriformis, A. Cunn. — Recorded. Goodenough Bay and 
Port Cunningham, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

V. Cibsackiana, F. v. M. — ^Recorded from North AustraHa in National 
Herbarium Census. 

2. GOODENIA, Sm., 1794. 

(Aillya, De Vr., 1854 ; Boutonia, Hot., 1840 ; Collema, Anders., 1839 ; 
Monochila, Spach., 1840 ; Picrophyta, F. v. M., 1852 ; Stekhovia, De Vr.' 
1854 ; Tetraphylax, De Vr., 1854.) 

Probably some of the species of this or allied genera possess active medi- 
cinal properties, as a fragment of what appeared to be a species of Goodenia 



264 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

was sent to the late Dr. Joseph Bancroft with a note stating that the 
aboriginal women gave it to their babies to cause them to sleep when on long 
journeys. The writer, however, gave no information as to how the herb 
was administered. Some species yield a bitter tonic extract. 

Section I. Eugoodenia. — Corolla with two upper lobes spUttiag much 
lower than the others, and arching over the genitalia or rarely spreading. 
Ovules either imbricate in 1 or 2 rows in each cell of the ovary or few and erect 
from the base of the cavity. 

Series I. Bacemosce. — Flowers (yellow, white, or blue) in a long, terminal, 
leafless, interrupted spike raceme or panicle. 

(Corolla-lobes less unequal.) — 16. G. Ramelii. 

Series II. Ccerulece. — Peduncles axillary, bracteolate (except G. Vilmor- 
inise), 1 -flowered or the lower lobes loosely cymose. Flowers blue (except 
G. erecta.) 

Bracteoles large, leafy, ovate or oblong. Plant glabrous. — 3. G. azurea. 
Bracteoles linear or small. 

Flowers blue. — 17. G. scaevolina. 

Flowers yellow, in a narrow panicle, smaller than in G. scaevolina. — 
6. G. erecta. 
Bracteoles none. — 20. G. Vilmoriniffi. 
(16. G. Ramelii, with a long, leafless panicle, has also the flowers blue.) 

Series III. Foliqsce. — -Erect or rarely decumbent herbs or undershrubs, 
usually glandular-pubescent or hirsute, with leafy stems. Peduncles axillary, 
1 -flowered, articulate under the flower, without bracteoles (or very rarely a 
few peduncles have 1 or 2 minute ones). Flowers yellow, white, or purple. 

Stem-leaves all broad, abruptly petiolate or pinnate. Plant glandular- 
pubescent or rarely glabrous, not villous. — 9. G. grandiflora. 

Stem-leaves contracted at the base into a short petiole or almost sessile. 
Plant villous or silky -hairy. 

Villous, often viscid. Leaves toothed. No spur to the corolla. — 

10. G. heterochila. 
Hairs appressed, almost silky. Leaves entire, long-lanceolate, 
crowded. — 19. G. Strangfordii. 
Stem-leaves sessile or stem-clasping. Annuals with spreading hairs. 
Floral leaves sessile, narrow. Dissepiment of the capsule very short. 
Calyx-lobes lanceolate or linear, leafy. Leaves mostly toothed. 
— 18. G. sepalosa. 

Calyx-lobes linear-subulate. Stem-leaves mostly entire, linear 
or hnear- lanceolate. — 11. G. hispida. 
Floral leaves cordate, auriculate, not decurrent. Dissepiment of the 

capsule exceedingly short. — 2. G. auriculata. 
Floral leaves more or less decurrent. Dissepiment reaching to the 
middle of the capsule. — 1. G. Armstrongiana. 

Series IV. Pedicellosm. — Herbs with the leaves chiefly radical or tufted, 
the stem leaves either free and distant or collected in terminal tufts, rarely 
scattered and linear or reduced to bracts. Peduncles long, radical or in ter- 
minal tufts, axillary, 1-flowered, without bracteoles. Glabrous or with scat- 
tered or appressed or sOky hairs. 

Radical leaves pinnatifid. — 5. G. coronopifolia. 

Radical leaves entire, linear or lanceolate. — 7. G. glauca. 

Doubtful, perhaps allied to G. glauca, but foliage unknown. — 13. G. 
microptera. 



THE FLORA OJ THE NORTHEEN TERRITORY. 265 

Section II. Amphichila. — Corolla with the 2 upper lobes separated much 
lower down than the others. Ovules very numerous, closely packed in more 
than 2 rows in each cell of the ovary. Flowers small, in leafless panicles or on 
radical scapes. 

Flowering stems | to 2 ft. high, several times longer than the radical leaves. 
Flowers purple. — 15. G. purpurascens. 
Flowers yellow. 

Panicle loose and moderately branched. Leaves not con- 
spicuously veined. — 8. G. gracilis. 
Panicle very much branched. Leaves rigid, conspicuously 
veined. — 12. G. lamprosperma. 
Flowering stems 2 to 4 in. high, much exceeding the tufted or rosulate 
membranous radical leaves. — 4. G. bicolor. 

Dwarf creeping or stoloniferous plant. Leaves ovate, in rosulate tufts. 
Scapes or peduncles filiform, mostly 1-flowered. — 14. G. pumilio. 

1. O. Armstrongiana, De Vr.. — N. Australia, R. Brown ; Port Essington, 
Armstrong ; Victoria River and grassy flats between Providence Hill and 
Macadam Range, F. v. M. 

2. G. auriculata, Benih. — Depot Creek, Upper Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

3. G. azurea, F. v. if .—35 miles N.W. of Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (380), 
24/6/1911. 

Recorded. Upper Victoria River and tableland at the sources of Sturt's- 
Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

4. G. bicolor, F. v. M. — Pastures between Macadam Range and Providence 
Hill, F. V. Mueller. 

5. G. coronopifolia, R. Br. — Cambridge Gulf, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; 
islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

6. G. erecta, Ewart (Plate XXII.). — Calyx-segments subulate, connate in 
lower half with tube of corolla, which is yellow, with upper lobes separated 
half-way to base and unequally winged, capsule cylindrical with dissepiment 
reaching to near top, seeds minute, numerous in 2 rows. Inflorescence in 
long narrow racemose panicles. 

Lower stem-leaves absent, that subtendiag lowest peduncles of inflores- 
cence 2 cm. long, obovate acute with a few large teeth, sinuate-toothed tapering 
gradually to base and almost decurrent in a thin line, floral leaves above less 
toothed and diminishing to linear bracts. Inflorescence a narrow racemose 
panicle up to 3.8 cm. in length. Peduncles in axils of stem leaves and shorter 
than these, bearing cymes of 3-7 flowers with a pair of leafy bracts at forks, 
Calyx 5-6 mm. long, subulate free part of segments as long as connate, tipped 
with minute dark coloured glands, seen also on bracts. Corolla yellow, thinly 
pubescent externally, 12 to 14 mm. in length, upper part cleft for half-way to 
base with a shorter wing on lower margin, forming a linear gibbosity between 
segments of calyx on under side of tube formed by coalescence of calyx, coroUa, 
and ovary. Summit of ovary 3 mm. in flowering stage, free and glabrous, 
style of a deep blackish violet, with long cilia from near the base to indusium, 
which is glabrous on back with short white or sometimes purplish cUia on 
piargin. Capsule cyhndrical, 6 mm. long, with dissepiment to near top, 
seeds numerous in 2 rows, flat suborbicular minutely granular and .surrounded 
with a narrow smooth margin. 

The plant shows a general agreement with the characters of G. scaevolina, 
F. v. M., although this is not seen in the leafy young specimens representing 



266 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

it in the Melb. Herb. The leaves, as far as seen, and the bracts are similar, 
the upper corolla-lobes are unequally winged, the dissepiment of the capsule 
reaches almost to the top of the cavity, and the seeds have the characters 
described by Bentham. The inflorescence, however, is in a very narrow panicle, 
and the flowers are smaller in aU their dimensions, besides being yellow instead 
of blue, as in G. scaevolina and the rest of the series Cceruleas. 
12 miles N.W. of Camp III., G. F. Hill (329), 12/6/1911. 

7. G. glauca, F. v. Jf .— 60 miles N.E. of Camp III., G. P. Hill (269a and 
283a), 7/6/1911. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek, P. v. Mueller. Pale Goodenia. 

8. G. gracilis, B. Br.— 80 miles W. of Powell's Creek, G. P. HiU (441), 
6/7/1911. Slender Goodenia. 

9. G. grandiflora, Si. — Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell Ranges, G. P. Hill 
(200), 22/5/1911. Poisonous, according to Greshofi. Principle unknown. 

10. G. heterochila, F. v. M. — ^Newcastle Water and Burke River, M'Douall 
Stuart's Expedition. 

Yar. foliosa, Benth. — Victoria River, P. v. Mueller. 

Var. runcinata, Benth. — Arnhem's Land, P. v. Mueller. 

11. G. hispida, B.Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Copeland Island, A. Cunningham ; Bowen's Straits, Port Essington, Armstrong. 

12. G. lamprosperma, F. v. M. — Victoria River, Sturt's Creek, and 
Macadam Range, P. v. MueUer. 

13. G. microptera, F. v. M. — ^Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, Walcott. 

14. G. pumilio, B. Br. — South Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham. 

15. G. purpurascens, B. Br. — Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, P. v. 
Mueller ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Pitzmaurice River 
and near Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller. 

16. G. Bamelii, F. v. If .—Attack Creek, M'Douall Stuart. 

17. G. scaevolina, F. v. M. — Sandstone Hills, Upper Victoria River, 
P. V. Mueller. 

18. G. sepalosa, F. v. M. — N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Camden Harbour, 
Martin ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

19. G. Strangfordii, F. v. M. — Upper Victoria River, P. v. MueUer ; 
Elsey's Crfeek, P. v. M. Herb. 

20. G. Vilmorinice, F. v. M. — Between Bonney River and Mount Mor- 
phett, M'DouaU Stuart. 

G. hirsuta, F. v. M.; G. Stobbsiana, F. v. M.; G. Chambersii, F. v. M. 
G. melanoptera, F. v. M.; G. O'Donnelli, F. v. M.; G. Armitiavu, F. v. M. 
G. cirrifica, F. v. M.; G. minutiflora, F. v. M. (in National Herbarium Census) 
and G. Forrestii, F. v. M. (in Vict. Nat. IX., 1892).— Recorded from North 
Australia. 

3. LESCHENAULTIA, R. Be., 1810. 
(Latouia, Lindl., 1847.) 

Leaves all reduced to small scales. Branches rigid, intricate, divaricate. 
2. L. divaricata. 

Leaves and stems filiform. Capsule pedicellate. — 3. L. filiformis. 

Leaves linear, acute, slightly flattened. Stems filiform. Capsule sessile.- 
1. L. agrostophylla. 



THE TLOEA OF THE NOBTHBRN TERBITOBY. 267 

1 . L. agrostophylla, F. v. M. — Sandstone tableland of the Upper Victoria 
River and MacArthur River, GuK of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

2. L. divaricata, F. v. if .— Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. HiU (168), 12/5/1911. 

3. L. filiformis, R. Br. — Sandstone Ranges, Borroloola, G. F. HiU (595), 
2/10/1911. 

The Borroloola specimens are exactly like those collected by R. Brown at 
Carpentaria, as represented in the Melb. Herbarium, having short weak decum- 
bent stems about 6 in. high. The flowers are 18 mm. long, intermediate between 
L. filiformis and L. agrostophylla ; but, as in the latter, a narrow wing is seen 
on both sides of the two upper lobes of the coroUa, and the two lips of the 
indusium are densely cihated, as figured by MueUer, in contrast with their 
usually glabrous condition in L. filiformis. Capsule unformed. 

The leaf and general appearance more closely resemble L. filiformis. The 
difficulty could be settled by making L. agrostophylla a variety of L. filiformis. 

Recorded. Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

4. CALOGYlSrE, R. Be. 
(Distylis, Oaud.) 

Style with 2 branches. Dissepiment reaching at least the middle of the 
ovary. — 1. C. Berardiana. 

Style with 3 branches. Dissepiment exceeding^ short, almost rudimen- 
tary. — 2. C. pUosa. 

1. G. Berardiana, F. v. M. — Dampier's Archipelago, N.W. Coast, A. 
Cunningham. 

2. C. pilosa, R. Br. — Arnhem Bays and islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria. 
R. Brown. 

C. heteroptera, F. v. M.; G. purpurea, F. v. M. — Recorded from North 
Austraha in National Herbarium Census. 

5. CATOSPERMA, Benth. 

1. G. Mudleri, Benth. — Gravelly banks of Victoria River, Hooker's and 
Sturt's Creeks, F. v. Mueller. 

e. SCAEVOLA, Linn., 1771. 

(Baudinia, Lesch., 1839 ; Camphusia, De Vr., 1851 ; Cerbera, Lour., 
1790; Crossotoma, Spach., 1840 ; Glj'pha, Lour., 1838 ; Hemicharis, Salisb., 
1839 ; Lobelia, Adans., 1763 ; Merkusia, De Vr., 1851 ; Pogonetes, Lindl., 
1836 ; Roemeria, Dennst., 1818 ; Temminckia ; Molkenboeria.) Fan flower. 

Section I. Sarcocarpma. — Shrubs. Leaves usually large, with wooUy 
axils. Flowers in lateral or axUlary dichotomous cymes. Exocarp usually 
very succulent. — 4. S. Koenigii. 

Section II. Grossotoma. — Shrubs. Flowers sohtary, on short slender 
axillary peduncles. — 10. S. spinescens. 

Section III. Pogonanthera. — Herbs or undershrubs. Peduncles or 
pedicels axillary, 1 -flowered or the lower ones bearing a dichotomous cyme of 
3 or more flowers or rarely flowers sessile on leafless nodes. Anthers sometimes 
tipped with a minute tuft of hairs. 

Stem-leaves very small and distant or none. — 8. S. parvifolia. 

Leaves linear, mostly 1 in. long or more. Plant glabrous. — 3. S. Cun- 
ninghamii. 



268 THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHEBN TBERITOEY. 

Section IV. Xerocarpcea. — Herbs, undershrubs, or shrubs. Flowers 
sessile or nearly so in the axils of floral leaves or bracts, all or the upper ones 
forming a terminal dense or interrupted and leafy spike. 

Series I. Globuliferce. — Ovary 2-ceUed. Hairs on the back of the indu- 
sium short or few or scattered. Flowers rather large (usually blue), with rows 
of soft bristles or subulate teeth tipped with minute white tufts descending in 
the throat from the margins of the lobes. — 2. S. angulata. 

Series II. Macrostachyoe. — Ovary 2-celled. Hairs on the back of the 
indusium short or few or scattered. Flowers usually smaller than in Globuli- 
ferss (white?) with very few or no penicUlate bristles within the throat. Fruiting 
spike usually continuous with small bracts. 

Branching tomentose-vUlous shrub. Leaves small, entire mostly sessile. — 
9. S. reyoluta. 

Glabrous or viscid shrubs. Leaves petiolate, broad, toothed. — 6. S. 
ovalifolia. 

Undershrubs or herbs. Leaves linear or lanceolate. 
Leaves 1 in. or under. — 5. S. macrostachya. 
Leaves over 1 in. long. — 7. S. panioulata. 

Series III. Pogogynece. — Ovary 2-ceUed. Indusium with a dense tuft of 
hairs at the base on the back as long as the indusium itself. — 1. S. ambly- 
anthera. 

1. S. amblyanthera, F. v. M. — Granite vaUeys of the Upper Nicholson 
River, Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller. 

2. 8. angulata, R. Br. — South Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; islands 
of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. 8. Gunninghamii, DC. — Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cunningham ; 
Nichol Bay, Gregory's Expedition. 

4. 8. Koenigii, Vahl. — ^N. Coast, A. Cunningham ; mouth of the Victoria 
River, F. v. Mueller. Young leaves eaten as a pot herb. The pith yields 
" rice paper." The wood is also useful. 

5. 8. macrostachya, Benth. — Lacrosse Island, Cambridge Gulf, and 
Regent's River, A. Cunningham ; Usborne's Harbour, Bynoe. 

6. 8. ovalifolia, R. Br. — Sandstone tableland. Upper Victoria River, 
F. V. M. ; islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

7. 8.'paniculata,EwartandDavies{F\&t&'K.'Kni.). — Shrub or undershrub, 
hirsute all over with fairly long silky hairs. Leaves lanceolate, 1 to l|^in. long, 
passing into the bracts, which are about | in. long and somewhat broader. 
Flowers sessile, in rather dense leafy spikes. Corolla about ^in. long, slightly 
hairy outside. Near to S. macrostachya, but has larger leaves, is more 
tomentose, and the inflorescence is a raceme of spikes. Sandstone Ranges, 
near Western Creek, G. F. Hill (774), 16/2/1912. 

8. 8. parvifoUa, F. v. Jf.— 110 miles N. of Survey Camp, G. F. Hill 
(411), 1/7/1911 ; 40 miles W. of camp at Lander Creek, G. F. HiU (366), 
21/6/1911. 

Recorded. Hooker's Creek, F. v. MxieDer. 

9. 8. revoluta, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Sea Range and Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

10. 8. spinescens, R. Br. — Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cunningham. 
Prickly fanflower. 8. depauperata, R. Br. — Recorded from North Australia 
in National Herbarium Census. 



THE FLOBA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITOBT. 269 

An Australian species of Scaevola is poisonous according to Greshoff. 
Arrow poison. 

7. DAMPIERA, R. Br. 

{Linscliotenia, De Vr.) 

1. D. cinerea, Ewart and Davits (Plate XXIV.).— Shrub or undershrub, 
clothed with a dense complicated stellate tomentum. Branches terete. Leaves 
1^ to 2 in., oblong-lanceolate tapering into a petiole of about \ in. thick, entire, 
and concave. Flowers sessile, solitary within the bracts, forming spikes of about 
4 to 5 in., sometimes branching at the base into a leafless panicle. Bracts 
small, lanceolate ; bracteoles very small. Calyx-tube densely tomentose. 
Ovary 1-ceUed. 70 nules N. of Camp IV., G. F. HiU (399a), 29/6/1911 ; 20 
nules N.W. by N. of Meyer's HiU, MacdonneU Ranges, G. F. HiU (212), 1/6/1911. 

D. incana, R. Br. — ^Recorded from North Australia in National Herbarium 
Census. 

BRUNONIACE.ffi. , 

BRUNONIA, Sm., 1811. 

1. B. australis, Sm.—IO miles N. of Camp III., G. F. Hill (399), 1911. 
Blue PiQCushion. 

STYLIDIACEa:. 

(Candolleacece.) 

1. STYLIDIUM, SwARTz, 1805. 

(Andersonia, Koen., 1834 ; CandoUea, LabUl, 1805 ; Forsteriopsis, Sond., 
1845 ; Ventenatia, Sm. 1805 ; Stjledium, Andr., 1811.) 

Hair-trigger or spring-back plants. 

Section I. Tolypangium. — Capsule globular-ovoid, obovoid or oblong. 

Series I. Lineares. — ^Perennials with a tufted or shortly prohferous 
stock or rarely annuals. Leaves radical, linear or rarety linear-lanceolate. 
Scapes leafless, except a few scattered bracts. Inflorescence racemose, panicu- 
late or corymbose. — 3. S. Floodii. 

Series II. Spathulatce. — Perennials with a tufted or proliferous stock or 
rarely annuals. Leaves radical or terminal, from linear-spathulate to obovate. 
Scapes leafless, except a few scattered bracts. 

Scape with long, spreading, glandless hairs. — 4. S. floribundum. 

Scape glabrous or with short, glandular hairs. — 5. S. leptorrhizum. 

Section II. Nitrangium. — Capsule linear or very narrow-oblong. 

Series III. Tenellce. — Slender annuals. Leaves smaU or thin, alternate 
or scattered, the lower ones sometimes more crowded, but not distinctly tufted 
or rosulate. 

Leaves linear, chiefly in the lower part of the stem. Bracts very smaU. 
— 2. S. fissilobium. 

Leaves scattered alqng the stem, contracted at the base, the lower ones 
not larger, the upper ones passing into the bracts. Tropical species. 

Floral leaves or bracts opposite. Capsule sessUe. — 1. S. alsinoides. 
Floral leaves or bracts alternate. Capsule pediceUate. — S. tenerrimum. 

Series IV. Corymbulosce. — Slender annuals or smaU perennials. Leaves 
radical, rosulate or tufted. Scapes rarely exceeding 6 in. Flowers corymbose 
or sessUe in the forks or along the scape or its branches, or sohtary. 



270 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY, 

Leaves radical, not forming a bulb, the lamina thin, obovate-orbicular. 
Tropical species. 

Calyx -lips undivided, short and broad. Corolla-lobes nearly equal. — 

10. S. rotundifolium. 
Calyx lower lips 3-partite. Corolla with 2 lobes much longer and bifid. 
Very slender, sUghtly granular. Flowers white. — 11. S. 

schizanthum. 
Rather more rigid and glandular. Flowers pink. — 6. S. 
lobuliflorum. 
Stem shortly developed below the terminal tuft of leaves and peduncles. 
Tropical species. 

Leaves linear-subulate. Peduncles 1 -flowered. — 9. S.pedunculatum. 
Leaves oblanceolate or spathulate. Stem thick and hard. Flowers 

corymbose. — 8. C. pachyrrhizum. 
Leaves petiolate, orbicular, membranous (J to 1 in.). — 7. S. muscioola. 

1. S. alsinoides, R. Br. — Victoria River towards Stokes Range and Wick- 
ham River, Gulf of Carpenteria, F. v. Mueller. 

2. S. fissilobium, F. v. M. — Grassy, inundated places on the Victoria River, 
Isetween main camp and Steep Head, F. v. Mueller. 

3. S. Floodii, F. V. ilf.— Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (313), 10/6/1911. 
Recorded. Gravelly banks of the Upper Victoria and Roper Rivers, 

F. V. M. 

4. iS. floribundum, R. Br. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
moist, shady places at the sources of Wentworth River, and near M'Adam 
Range, F. v. M. 

5. S. leptorrhizum, F. v. M. — GreviUe's Island, Regent River, N. Coast, 
A. Cunningham ; dry pastures on the Victoria River and between M'Adam 
Range and Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

Var. ^ilosum, Benth. — Van Diemen's Gulf, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham. 

6. 8. lobuliflorum, F. v. M. — ^Moist, sandy pastures on the Victoria River, 
near Steep Head, F. v. Mueller. 

7. 8. muscicola, F. v. M. — In tufts of moss near springs and cataracts on 
the Upper Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

8. 8. 'pachyrrhizum, F. v. M. — Pastures between Providence Hill and 
M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

9. ;S. pedunculatum, R. Br. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

10. 8. rotundifolium, R. Br. — Plains at the foot of M'Adam Range, F. v. 
Mueller ; Hunter's River, York Sound, A. Cunningham. 

11. 8. schizanthum, F. v. M. — Moist pastures on the Victoria River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

12. 8. tenerrimum, F. v. M. — Margins of swamps between M'Adam Range 
and Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller. 

8. calcaratum, R.B. — Recorded from North Australia in National Her- 
barium Census. 

COMPOSITE. 

Tribe I. Vernoniaceoe. — Leaves alternate. Flower-heads discoid, the 
florets all tubular, hermaphrodite and regular or nearly so. Involucre imbri- 
cate. Anthers usually obtuse at the base, without tails. Style-branches 
subulate and acute, not swollen at the base. 



THE TLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 271 

Flower-beads on separate peduncles. 

Involucre ovoid, without leafy bracts. Pappus of capillary bristles 

witb a few or a ring of short ones outside. — 1. Vernonia. 
Involucre ovoid, consisting of few herbaceous bracts. Anthers 
almost tailed. Pappus of 2 to 4 exceedingly deciduous short 
bristles. — 1. Pleuroearpsea. 
Flower-heads small, sessile, in a cluster or compound head. 

Involucres narrow, flattened. Pappus of a few rigid bristles. — 3. 
Elephantopus. 
Tribe II. Asttroidea.. — Leaves alternate or very rarely opposite. Flower- 
heads either heterogamous or dioecious, the female florets ligulate or filiform, 
the hermaphrodites or males tubular and 4- or 5-toothed, or (in very few excep- 
tional species) the florets aU hermaphrodite and tubular. Anthers various. 
Style-branches in the hermaphrodite florets usually more or less flattened, 
produced beyond the stigmatic lines into tips or appendages, papillose on the 
outside. 

Female florets hgulate, formiag a ray to the flower-head. 

Pappus of the ray or of all the florets of capillary simple or plumose 
bristles. 

Achenes terete or sUghtly flattened. Ray-florets in a single row. 
Anthers obtuse at the base or shortly pointed. Involucral 

bracts with dry scarious margins. — 8. Olearia. 
Anthers with flne tails. Involucral bracts drj^ or the 
outer ones leaf -like. Ray -florets often irregular. — 11. 
Pterigeron. 
Achenes much flattened. Ray-florets numerous, usually in 
several rows. 
Achenes all fertile, produced into a slender beak bearing a 

capillary pappus. — 7. Podocoma. 
Achenes all fertile, not beaked, the capiUarj' pappus sessile. — 

6. Vittadinia. 
Achenes of the ray fertile, with a capillary pappus, those of 
the disk mostly abortive, ^^ith a reduced or scaly 
pappus. — 4. Minuria. 
Pappus of rigid, unequal, usually divaricate awns or spines, some- 
times accompanied by scales. — 5. Calotis. 
Female florets fibform or irregular. 

Flower-heads small, closely sessile, in dense clusters or compound heads. 
Involucral bracts linear, herbaceous or scarious. 

Pappus none. Anthers mthout tails or points at the base. — 

15. Sphseranthus. 
Pappus of capiUary bristles. Anthers with short tails or 
points at the base. — 16. Pterocaulon. 
Involucral bracts dry, rigid and acute. Anthers tailed. Pappus 
of a few rigid bristles, flat and scale-like at the base. — 12. 
Thespidium. 
Flower-heads separately pedunculate or rarely sessile, but distinct. 
(A few species of Olearia have the ray-florets minutely and im- 
perfectly hgulate.) 
Pappus of simple capillary bristles. 

Involucral bracts narrow-linear, herbaceous or soft. Style 

of the disk-florets branched. — 9. Blumea. 
Involucral bracts rigid, often broad. Some or all the disk- 
florets sterile, with a simple style. — 10. Pluchea. 



272 THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 

Pappus of the female florets none, of the sterile disk-florets small. 

Anthers and involucre of Pluohea. — 14. Epaltes. 
Pappus of scabrous denticulate or almost plumose bristles. 
Ray-florets usuaUy irregular. Anthers taUed. Involucr& 
dry or leafy. — 11. Pterigeron. 
Pappus a short, scaly, jagged tube or cup. Anthers tailed. 

Involucre dry. — 13. Coleocoma. 
Pappus none or of short obtuse scales. 

Anthers obtuse at the base. — Tribe IV. Anthemidece. 
Anthers with flne tails. — Tribe V. Onaphaliece. 
Tribe III. Helianthece. — Leaves opposite or rarely alternate. Plower- 
heads either heterogamous, with the female florets more or less ligulate, the 
central ones tubular hermaphrodite or male, or rarely discoid, with all the 
florets hermaphrodite and tubular. Receptacles with chafiy scales between 
the florets. Anthers without taUs. Style of SenecionidcB or approaching that 
of Asteroidece. Pappus of stiff awns, or of short scale's or none. 

Involucre of 2 or 3 rows of bracts, nearly equal or the outer row broader 
and leafy. 

Pappus none or of very short awns or fine bristles. 
Receptacle flat or sKghtly convex. 

Style-branches obtuse and flattened. Ray-achenes tri- 
angular, disk-achenes flat. — ^25. Eclipta. 
Style-branches almost acute. Ray- and disk-achenes 

usuaUy flattened or thick. — 2Q. Wedeha. 
Style of the disk -florets undivided. Ray-achenes flattened ; 
disk-achenes abortive. — 24. Moonia. 
Receptacle conical. Style-branches truncate. 

Ray-achenes triangular; disk-achenes flattened. — 27. 
Spilanthes. 
Pappus of 2 to 4 rigid awns. 

Ray-florets when present, neuter. — 29. Bidens. 
Ray-florets when present, female. — ^28. Glossogyne. 
Flower-heads smaU, narrow, collected in dense clusters or compound 
heads. No pappus. — 30. Plaveria. 

Tribe IV. Anthemidece. — Leaves alternate. Flower-heads heterogamous, 
the females ligulate or flliform or without corollas, the disk-florets hermaphro- 
dite or male, or very rarely aU the florets tubular and hermaphrodite. Recep- 
tacle without or rarely with scales. Anthers without tails. Style of Senecion- 
idcB. — Pappus none or reduced to a raised border or rarely of short scales. 
— 31. Centipeda. 

Tribe V. Gna'phaliem. — Leaves alternate, quite entire-. Flower-heads 
discoid, with all the florets tubular and hermaphrodite or the central ones 
male, or the florets of the circumference female and filiform or very rarely 
ligulate or irregular, or rarely the heads more or less dioecious. Anthers with 
very fine hair-like taUs at the base, sometimes very short (or rarely quite want- 
ing ?). Style-branches usuaUy nearly terete, very obtuse or truncate. In- 
volucral bracts most frequently scarious. 

Sub-tribe I. Angianthece. — Flower-heads small, usually numerous, sessfle 
or nearly so on a common receptacle, in a dense cluster or compound head, 
usually surrounded by scarious or leafy bracts, forming a general involucre. 
Florets all hermaphrodite, a few rarely sterile. — ^22. Calocephalus. 

Sub-tribe II. Helichrysece. — Flower-heads distinct, pedunculate or sessile. 
Female filiform florets few or none, rarely forming 1 or 2 complete outer series. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TERRITOEY. 273 

Pappus of chaffy scales. — 21. Rutidosis. * 

Pappus of capillary bristles, simple, barbellate or plumose. 

Involucral bracts linear, all herbaceous or the imier ones shortly 

scarious at the tips. — 17. Ixiolaena. 
Involucral bracts imbricate, scarious or with petal-like laminae. 
Achenes sessile. 
Involucral bracts all very thin and scarious. Outer female 

florets usually large and irregular. — ^23. Podolepis. 
Outer involucral bracts thin and scarious. Achenes more oi 
less distinctly contracted into a beak. — 19. Leptorrhynchus. 
Involucral bracts almost all or the inner ones or their laminae 
opaquely scarious or petal-like. Achenes not beaked. 
Female florets usually few. Stems erect, leafy, simple or 
branched. — -18. Hehchrysum. 
Pappus usually plumose from the base. — ^20. Waitzia. 

Tribe VI. SenecionidcB. — Leaves alternate. Flower-heads either hetero- 
gamous, with the female florets ligulate or rarely filiform, or sometimes homo- 
gamous, with all the flowers hermaphrodite and tubular. Receptacle without 
scales. Anthers obtuse or scarcely pointed at the base, without tails. Style- 
branches truncate and penicillate, or rarely with pubescent tips or appendages. 
Pappus of capillary bristles. Involucral bracts in the Australian genera in a 
single row, with or without a few small outer ones round their base. — 32. 
Erechthites. 

1. PLEUROCARPiEA, Bbnth. 

1. P. denticulata, Benth. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. VERNONIA, Scheeb. 
1. V. cinerea, Less. — ^Victoria River and Macadam Range, F. v. MueUer. 

3. ELEPHANTOPUS, Liito. 
1. E. scaher, Linn. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

4. MINURIA, DC. 
(Therogeron, DC; Elachothamnus, DC; Kippistia, F. v. M.). 
1. 21. integerrima, Benth. — Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, F. v. MueUer. 

21. leptophyUa, DC. — Recorded from North AustraUa in National Her- 
barium Census. 

5. CALOTIS, R. Be., 1820. 
(Cheiroloma, F. v. M., 1852 ; Goniopogon, Turcz., 1851 ; Huenefeldia, 
Walp., 1840.) 

Many of the species are noxious weeds. 
Achenes not A^inged. Perennials. 

Stock emitting stolons or creeping rhizomes and a tuft of radical 
leaves. Scapes simple or with very few heads. — 4. C scapigera. 
Stems numerous, erect, several-headed, the radical leaves decayed 
before flowering. Flower-heads small. Involucral bracts nar- 
row. — 2. C lappulacea. 
Achenes winged. Pappus short or of very fine awns. 

Perennial with slender branching stems. — 1. C breviseta. 
Small annuals. — 3. C pterosperma. 



274 THE FLORA OS THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

>■ I.e. breviseta, Benth. — Maude Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 
1911. "Same species from Edith Creek, but only a small bit, so that it cannot 
be divided." (Note sent with specimen.) Upper Victoria River and barren 
plains, Fitzmaurice River, F. v. Mueller ; Albert River, Henne. 

2. G. lappulacea, Betiih.—m miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (270), 
7/6/1911. Common or Yellow Burr Daisy. 

3. C. pterosperma, B. Sr.— Borroloola, G. F. Hill (603), 2/10/1911 ; 
islands of tha Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

4. 0. scapigera, Hook. — ^Northern base of Newcastle Range, F. v. Mueller. 
Tufted Burr Daisy. G. cymbacantha, F. v. M.; G. porphyroglossa, F. v. M.; G. 
Kempei, F. v. M. — Recorded from North Australia in National Herbarium 
Census. 

6. VITTADINIA, A. Rich. 

{Microgyne, Less.; Eurybiopsis, DG.) 

Section I. Yittadinia vera. — Achenes with 2 or more ribs on each face. 
— 1. V. braohycomoides. 

Section II. Eurybiopsis. — Achenes very flat, the margins slightly thick- 
ened, without prominent ribs on the faces. — 2. V. macrorrhiza. 

1. V. brachycomoides, F. v. M. — Basaltic plains, Hooker and Start's 
Creeks and Arnhem Land, F. v. Mueller. 

2. F. ynacrorrhiza, A. Gray. — Brunswick Bay and Prince Regent's 
Harbour, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Providence Hill, F. v. Mueller ; Port 
Essington, Armstrong ; islands of the Guh of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

7. PODOCOMA, Cass. 1817. 
(Podopappus, Hook. & Arn.; Asteropsis, Less.; Ixiochlamys, F. v. M.) 

1. P. cuneifolia, B. Br. — ^Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, F. Gregory's Expedi 
tion. 

8. OLEARIA, MoENCH., 1802. 

(Eurybia, Cass., 1820 ; Haxtonia, Caley., 1831 ; Orestion, Rafin., 1836 ; 
Shawia, Forst., 1776 ; Spongotrichium, Nees., 1833 ; Steetzia, Sond., 1852 ; 
Steiractis, DC, 1836.) 

Section I. Eriotriche. — Indumentum of the under side of the leaves 
consisting of densely intricate woolly hairs. Leaves alternate, often small. 
— 2. 0. axUlaris. 

Section II. Merismotriche. — Glabrous, glandular-pubescent or hirsute, 
and often glutinous, the hairs simple rigid, white or transparent and septate. 
Involucre hemispherical, with narrow usually acute bracts. Flower-heads 
rather large, few, terminal or in the upper axils, on peduncles shorter than or 
rarely exceeding the leaves. — 4. 0. Stuartu. 

Flower-heads solitary, on peduncles very much longer than the leaves. 

Glabrous. Peduncles with subulate bracts. Involucre much shorter 

than the disk . — 3 . . Ferresii . 
Glabrous or hispid. Peduncles without any or with only one bract. 
Involucre as long as the disk. — 1. 0. arguta. 

J. 0. arguta, Benth. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

Var. lanata, Benth. — Arnhem, N. and S. Bays, R. Brown. 

2. 0. axillaris, F. v. M. — Dampier's Archipelago, N.W. Coast, A. Cunning- 
ham. Coast Aster. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. -10 

3. 0. Ferre.sii, F. v. M. (Aster Ferresii, F. v. M.).— Haast's Bluff, G. F. 
Hill (186), 17/5'1911. 

Recorded. Brindlevs Bluff, near Macdonnell Ranges, M'Douall Stuart's 
Expedition. 

4. 0. Stuartii. F. v. M. (Aster Stuartii, F. v. M.).— .35 miles N.W. of Camp 
II., G. F. Hill (256), 7 '6 '1911. 

9. BLUMEA, DC, 1833. 

(Doellia, Sch., Is43 ; Placus, Lour., 1790.) 

Flower-heads all distinctly pedunculate. 

Usually not exceeding 1 ft., pubescent or villous, not viscid. Stem- 
leaves sessile and stem-clasping, mostly lanceolate. Peduncles 
rather long. — 4. B. integrifolia. 
Small. Leaves chiefly radical. Stem-leaves few, small, ovate. 
Peduncles long and filiform. — 2. B. diffusa. 
Flower-heads, at least the upper ones, sessile and clustered. 

Leaves lanceolate, oblong or obovate-oblong, the upper ones sessile. 
Involucre about 4 lines long. — 3. B. hieracifolia. 
Involucre under 3 lines long. — 1. B. Cunninghamii. 
Almost all the leaves petiolate and broadly obovate. 
Involucre 2 to 3 lines long. — 5. B. lacera. 

J. B. Cunninghamii, DC — Lower MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (680), 
8, 11/1911. Appears to answer to B. Cunninghamii, DC, but leaves (on stem 
of plant) are all sessile, though on young shoots (of same species) they are .shortly 
pedicellate. 

Recorded. Careening and Brunswick Bays, N.W. Coast. A. Cumiingham ; 
Point Pearce, Victoria River, F. v. Mueller ; GuU of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. B. diffusa, E. Br. — Islands of the GuK of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
towards M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller. 

3. B. hieracifolia, DC. — Between Providence Hill and MAdam Range, 
F. V. Mueller. 

4. B. integrifolia, DC. — Roper River, Cullen and Driffield Creeks, CTihuth 
and Spencer, July-August, 1911. 

Recorded. Port Keats, N.W. Coast, A Cunningham ; ^'ictoria River, 
M'Adam Range, Roper River, F. v. Mueller. 

5. B. lacera, DC. — Edith Creek, Gihuth and Spencer, July- August. 1911. 
Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

B. glandulosa, DC; (in National Herbarium Census) and B. Solandri, 
Sp. le M.; (in Journ. of Bot. XLIIL, 1905). — Recorded from North Australia. 

10. PLUCHEA, Cass., 1817. 

(Berthelotia, DC, 1836 ; Ejo-ea, F. v. M., 1852 ; Gymnostylis, Rafin., 
1818 ; (Jynema, Rafin., 1817 ; Karelinia, Less., 1834 ; Leptogyne, Ell., 1824 ; 
Pluechea, Zoll. & Mor., 1854 ; Spiropodium, F. v. M., 1858 ; Stvlimmus, 
Rafin., 1819 ; Tecmarsis, DC, 1836.) 

Section I. Pluchea. — Flower-heads ovoid. Involucral bracts lanceolate 
or the outer ones ovate. 

Shrub of 3 to 4 ft. Leaves obovate. Flower-heads in dense terminal 
corymbs 2 to 3 in. diameter. — 2. P. indica. 

Herbs or undershrubs of 1 to 2 ft. Flower-heads in loose leafy corymbose 
panicles, solitary or in small clusters on the branches. — 3. P. tetranthera. 

J 



276 THE FLOEA OF THE NOBTHERIT TBRRITOBY. 

Section II. Eyrea. — Flower-heads broad or hemispherical. Involucral 
bracts narrow. — 1. P. Eyrea. 

1. P. Eyrea, F. v. if.— Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. Hill (71), 
11/3/1911. 

Recorded. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Amhem's 
Land, F. v. Mueller ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's Expedition. 

Var. major.— Ca.mp III., Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (307), 11/3/1911. 

2. P. indica, Less. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria and the opposite 
mainland, R. Brown ; Port Essington, Armstrong. 

3. P. tetranthera, F. v. M. — Victoria, Flinders, and Van Alphen Rivers, 
F. V. Mueller. 

p. baccharoides, F. v. M.; P. squarrosa, Benth. — Recorded from North 
Australia in NationaL Herbarium Census. 

11. PTERIGERON, A. Gr., 1852. 

(Oliganthemum, F. v. M., 1859 ; Streptoglossa, Steetz., 1863.) 

Flower-heads large, almost hemispherical. 

Ray-florets ligulate, exceeding the involucre. 

Leaves ovate, decurrent. Ray-florets not J line broad. — 1. 

P. decurrens. 
Leaves narrow or obovate, not decurrent. Ray-florets fuUy 
^ line broad. — 2. P. liatroides. 
Ray-florets very slender, about as long as the involucre. Leaves 
oblong, stem-clasping or slightly decurrent. — 3. P. maero- 
cephalus. 
Flower-heads ovoid. 

Leaves decurrent. Ray-florets about as long as the involucre. — 

5. P. odorus. 
Leaves not decurrent. Ray-florets very slender and shorter than 
the involucre. — 4. P. microglossa. 

1. P. decurrens, D. G. — ^N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Nichol Bay, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. 

2. P. liatroides, Benth. {var. humilis, Benth). — Strangways River, M'Douall 
Stuart's Expedition. 

3. P. macrocephalus, Benth. — Gulf of Carpentaria, F. v. Mueller ; in the. 
interior, lat. 19 degrees 32 minutes, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

4. P microglossus, Benth. — Sturt's Creek and Fitzmaurice River, F. v. 
Mueller. 

5. P odorus, Benth.— m miles N.W. of Camp III., G. P. Hill (No. 356), 
15/6/1911. 

Recorded. Victoria River, F. v. Mueller. 

Var. major, Benth. — Roper River, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 
Recorded. Albert River, F. v. Mueller. 

P. adscendens, Benth. ; P. filifolius, Benth. ; recorded from North Aus- 
tralia in National Herbarium Census. 

12. THESPIDIUM, P. v .M. 

1 . T. basiflorum, F. v. M.- — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong ; Upper Gilbert River, F. v. Mueller. 



THE FLORA OF THE NOETHERN TERRITORY. ^ 277 

13. COLEOCOMA, F. v. M. 1857. 

1. C. Centaurea, F. v. M.—90 miles N., J W. of Camp III., G. P. Hill 
(No. 348), 15/6/1911. 

Recorded. Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

14. EPALTE8, Cass. 1818. 

{Eihuliopsis, F. V. 21., 1861 ; Gfynaphanes, Steetz., 1864 ; Litogyne, 
Harv., 1863 ; Pachythelia, Steetz., 1864 ; Sphaeromorphaea partly.) 

1. F. ansimlis, Less. — Camp III., Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 297), 
10/6/1911. Spreading Epaltes. 

Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 611), 9/10/1911. 

Recorded, ^'ictoria River to Amhem's Land, F. v. Mueller ; in the 
interior, M'DouaU Stuart's Expedition ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
R. Brown. 

15. SPHAERANTHUS, Vaill. 

Pubescent or hirsute. Involucral bracts ending in a subulate cihate 
point. Disk- florets (always ?) sterile. — 1. S. hirtus. 

Glabrous. Involucral bracts scarious, often jagged at the end. Disk- 
florets (always ?) fertile. — 2. S. microeephalus. 

1. S. hirtus, Willd. {S. indicus, L.).- — Victoria River and Gulf of Carpen- 
taria, F. V. Mueller ; Albert River and Bentinck's Island, Henne. 

2. 8. microeephalus, Willd. (S. africanus, L.).- — Low flats, Alligator 
River, and Van Diemen's Gulf, N.W. Coast, A. Cunningham ; Islands of the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; Albert River, F. v. Mueller. 

16. PTEROCAULON, Ell. 1824. 

(Chlaenobolus, Cass., 1827 ; Monenteles, Lahill., 1S25 ; Sphaeranthoides, A. 
Curm., 1836.) 

Clusters of flower-heads small but numerous, forming a terminal dense 
interrupted spike. — 3. P. verbasoifoUum. 

Clusters of flower-heads solitary, globular or ovoid-oblong. 
Plant tomentose or wooUy. Decurrent wings entire. 
Clusters globular. — 2. P. spacelatum. 

Plant glandular -pubescent, not tomentose. Decurrent wings toothed. 
Clusters ovoid or oblong, large. Disk- florets solitary. — 1. P. 

glandulosum. 
Clusters globular, rather small. Disk- florets usually 2. — 3. P. 
sphaeranthoides . 

1. P. glandulosum, F. v. M. — ^Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. HiU (No. 171), 
12/5/1911. 

Var. velutinum. —Ha.eisVs Bluff, G. F. Hill (No. 184), 17/5/1911. This 
specimen is extremely hairy. The hairs are most abundant on the stem, 
and on the upper surface of the leaf, making the leaf feel thick and soft. None 
of the Herbarium specimens is as hairy as this one. 

2. P spacelatum, Benth and Hook. — 11 mile Creek, near Katharine, 
Gilruth and Spencer, July -August, 1911. 

Recorded. Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, Herb. F. v. Mueller ; Victoria River 
and M'Adam Range, F. v. Mueller ; Albert River, Henne ; Gulf of Carpentaria, 
Landsborough ; Attack Creek and M'Donnell Ranges, M'Douall Stuart's 
Expedition. 

J2 



278 THE FLOKA OF THE NOETHBRN TEREITOEY. 

3. P. sphaenmihoides, F. v. M.' — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. P. Hill 
(No. 65), 11/3/1911. 

Recorded. Eiiderby Island, Dampier's Archipelago, N.W. Coast, A. 
C'unningham ; N.W Coast, Bynoe ; Granite Hills, Nichol Bay, Gregory's 
Expedition. 

4. P. verhascijolium, F. r. M. — Glenelg River, N.W. Coast, Marten ; 
between Victoria and Fitzmaurice Rivers, F. v. Mueller. 

P. BilJardieri, F. v. M. : recorded from North Australia in National 
Herbarium Census. 

17. IXIOLAENA, Benth. 
1. /. le2}tolepis, Benlh. — Sturt's Creek, F. v, Mueller. Stalked Ixiolaena. 

18. HELICHRYSUM, Vaill. 1737. 

Section I. Xerochlaena. — Perennials,, sometimes almost woody at the 
base ; rarely also annual. Involucre broad, hemispherical, the outer sessile 
broad bracts passing more or less gradually into intermediate or inner ones 
with scarious or linear claws and radiating- coloured laminae. Achenes glab- 
rous, papillose or rarely shortly villous. — 2. H. bracteatum. 

Section II. Chrysocephalum. — ^Herbs with corymbose flower-heads. 
Involucre ovoid-turbmate or almost globose, the bracts coloured in many rows 
scarcely exceeding the florets, appressed or squarrose, ciliate. Female florets 
in 1 or 2 rows, but not so numerous as the hermaphrodite ones. Achenes 
glabrous or papillose. Pappus-bristles few, simple at the base, plumose at the 
end. — 1. H. apiculatum. 

1. H. apiculatum, D. Don. — Hugh River, Macdonnell Range, G. F. Hill 
(No. 142), 5/5/1911. 

About 90 miles W. of Alice Springs, G. F. Hill (No. 156), 9/5/1911. With 
racemose inflorescence. Pointed Everlasting. 

Recorded. Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

Poisonous according to Greshofi^, anthelminthic. Causes death from 
irritation and from the formation of hair-balls in the stomachs of stock. 

2. H. bracteatum, Willd. — Port Essington, Armstrong. 

H. oligochaetum, F. v. 31. ; H. Gilesii, F. v. M. ; recorded from North 
Australia in National Herbarium Census. 

19. LEPTORHYNCHUS, Less. 1832. 

( Aphanorlujwhus, EndL, 1838; Doratolepi-i. Schlechl.. 1847; Rhytidanthes , 
Beyith., 1837.) Buttons.. 

1. L. ambiguus, Benth. {var. semicalvus, F. v. M). — 20 miles N.W. bv N. 
of Meyer's Hill, Macdonell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 216), 1 /6/l^tl J . 

20. WAITZIA, Wbndl. 1808. 

{Moriia, Lindl., 1837 ; Pterochaeta, Steetz., 1845 ; Vimya, Gavd., 1826.) 

1. W corymbosa, Wendl. — {W. nivea, Benth ; W. odontolepis. Twcz.) 60 
miles N.E. of (^ainp II., G. F. Hill (No. 263), 1911. Dwarf plants. Immortelle. 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 279 

21. RUTIDOSIS, D. C. 1837. (Wrinkle Wort.) 

( Acfinopa2>pus. Hook, 18.52; Pumilo, Schlecht., 1848; Lepidocoma.) 

Leaves decurrent. Pappus-scales deeply divided into bristle-Uke lobes. — 
1. H. Brownii. 

Leaves not decurrent. Paj)pus-scales undivided. 

Anthers mucli exserted. Pappus-scales ■'> to 7, spathulate, quite 

entire. Flowers yellow. — 2. R. heUchrysoides. 
Anthers not exserted. Pappus-scales about 10. — 3. R. leucantha. 

1 . E. Brotcn il, Benth. — Islands of the (.! aU of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. E. helichrijsoides. D. 6'.— 60 miles N.E. of Camp II., G. F. Hill (No. 
265). 7/6/1911. 

;5. R. leucantha. F. v. M . — Mackenzie River, F. v. Mueller. 

22. C'ALOCKPHALUS, R. Br. 1817. (Beauty Heads.) 

i^Achrysum, A. Or., 1852; Blennospora, A. Gr., 1851; Leu,cophi/la, 
R. Br., 1817 ; Pachysuru.s, Steetz., 1845.) 

Pappus bristles united to a cup at the base. — 1. C. multiflorus. 
Pappus hairs free, plumose at the tip. — 2. C. Knappii. 

1. C. multiflorus, Benth . — Hermansburg, Finke River, G. F. HiU (No. 58), 
11/3/1911. Specimen about 10 in. high. 

2. C. Knappii, Ewart and White (Proc. Royal Soc. Vict., Vol. 22, 1909, 
p. 320).— Finke R., H Kempe, Dec. 1879, 1880 and 1882. 

C. Dittrichii, F. v. 31. ; recorded from North Australia in National Her- 
barium Census. 

23. PODOLEPIS, Labile. 

(Scxblia, Sims.; Panaetia, Cass.; Bcaliopsis, Walp.; Siemssenia, Steetz. 
St[/lolepsis, Lelim. ; Rutidochlamys, Sand.) 

1. P.longipedata, A. Cunn. — Mackenzie River, F. v. Mueller. (Long P.) 

P canescens, Cunn. (Grey P.); P. pallida, Turcz. ; P. rugaia, Labill. 
(Pleated P.) ; recorded from North Austraha in National Herbarium Census. 

24. MOONIA, Arn. 

{Pentalepis, F. v. 21.) 

Leaves entire. Involucre, 5 to 6 Unes long. — 3. M. trichodesmoides. 
Leaves coarsety toothed. Involucre about 3 lines long. 

Leaves mostly ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate ; nearly sessile. — 1. M. 
ecliptoides. 

Leaves mostly ovate, petiolate. — 2. M. procumbens. 

1. M. ecliptoides, Benth. — N.W. Coast, Bynoe ; Camden Harbour 
(Marten ?), Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, F. v. Mueller ; Port Essington, Arm- 
strong. 

2. M. procumbens, Benth. — Palm Bay, Crokers Island, A. Cunningham ; 
Port Essington, Armstrong. 

3. M. trichodesmoides, Benth. — Nichol Bay, N.W Coast, F. Gregory's 
Expedition. , 



280 THE FLOEA OF THE NOETHERN TEEEITOEY. 

25. ECLIPTA, Linn. 

1. E. platyglossa, F. v. M. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, E. Brown, 
Henne ; Albert and Roper Rivers, F. v. Mueller. Yellow Twinhead. 

E. alba, Hassh. ; E. latifoUa, L. ; recorded from North Australia in 
National Herbarium Census. 

26. WEDELIA, Jacq. 

(Wollastonia, D. G.) 

Five or six of the outer involucral bracts more leaf -like and longer than the 
others. Pappus cup-shaped. — 3. W. urticifolia. 

Outer involucral bracts not longer than the inner ones. 

Pappus small and cup-shaped in the centre of the achene, and 
sometimes 1 or 2 teeth or small bristles from the angles. — 4. W. 
verbesinoides. 
Pappus none or of 1 or 2 deciduous bristles. 

Straggling perennial. Leaves ovate or broadly ovate-lanceolate. 
—2. W. biflora. 

Erect coarse annual. Leaves lanceolate. — 1. W. asperrima. 

1. W. asperrima, Benth.- — ^Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

2. W. biflora, D. G. — Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; 
South Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham ; Keppel Bay, Thozet. 

3. W. urticifolia, D. C. — Grassy rocky places, Goulburn Island, A. 
Cunningham ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

4. W. verbesinoides, F. v. M. — N. Australia, F. v. Mueller ; Amhem's 
Bay, R. Brown ; Finke River, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition. 

27. SPILANTHES, Linn. 

Flower-heads with yellow rays.^ — 2. S. grandiflora. 
Flower-heads discoid, without rays. — 1. S. anactina. 

1. 8. arvactina, F. v. M. — ^Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
Henne. 

2. 8. grandiflora, yitrcz.— Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

28. GLOSSOGYNE, Cass. 
(Diodontium, F. v. M.) 

Leaves alternate, pinnate. Ray- florets few. Disk- florets 4-toothed. — 
2. G. tenuifolia. 

Leaves opposite, entire, slender. Ray- florets wanting. Disk- florets .5- 
toothed. — 1. G. filifolia. 

1. G. filifolia, F. v. M. — Sources of Hooker's Creek, F. v. Mueller. 

2. G. tenuifolia, Cass. — Goulburn Island, A. Cunningham. 

29. BIDENS, Linn. 

1. B. bipinnata, Linn. — Victoria River, F. v. Mueller; Islands of the 
GuU of Carpentaria, R. Brown. Bur-marigold. 



THE FLOEA OF THE NOBTHEKN TEREITOBY. 281 

30. FLAVERIA, Juss. 1789. 

{Brotera, Spreng., 1802 ; Nauenbergia, WiUd., 1803 ; Vermifuga, Ruiz, 
and Pav., 1794.). 

1. F. austmlasica. Hook. — ^Roper River, Gilruth and Spencer, July- 
August, 1911. 

Recorded. Nichol Bay, N.W. Coast, F. Gregory's Expedition ; Victoria 
River and Hooker's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
R. Brown ; in the interior, M'Douall Stuart's Expedition ; Albert River, 
Henne. 

31. CENTIPEDA, Loue. 1790. 
(SphaeromorpJiaea, partly). 

1. C. orbicularis, Lour. (Myriogyne minuta, Less.). — Camp III., Lander 
Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 296), 10/6/1911. Spreading Sneeze-weed. 

Camp II., N.T., G. F. HiU (No. 2406), 3/6/1911. 

Abraham's Lagoon, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. 

Recorded. Arnhem's Land, F. v. Mueller. 

Snuff-plant. Poisonous according to Greshoff ; anthelmintic. 

C. racemosa, F. v. M. ; C. Gunninghamii, F. v. M. (Erect Sneeze-weed) ; 
recorded from North Australia in National Herbarium Census. 

32. ERECHTITES, Rafin. 1817. 

{Neoceis, Cass, 1820 ; Ptileris, Rafin, 1818.) 

1. E. hispidula, D. C— Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 614), 9/10/1911. 
CuUen Creek, Gilruth and Spencer, July- August, 1911. Specimen with 
very large leaves ; 11 cm. long, 2 cm. wide. Stiff Fire-weed. 

Brachycome iberidifolia, Benth. ; Erigeron ambiguus, F. v. M. ; Erigeron 
sessilifolius, F. v. M. ; Conyza aegyptiaca, Ait. ; Gnaphalium luteo-alhum, 
Linn. ; Chw/phalium indicum, Linn. ; Helipterum Margarethae, F. v. M. ; 
Hdipterum roseum, Benth. ; Helipterum floribundum, D. G. ; Helipterum 
incanum, D. C. ; Helipterum condensatum, F. v. M. ; Helipterum Humboldti- 
anum, D. C. ; Hdipterum corymhiflorum, Schlecht. ; Decazesia hecatocephala, 
F. V. M. ; Myriocephalum Stuartii, Benth. ; Angianthus tomentosus, Wendi. ; 
Gnephosis cyathopappa, Benth. ; Senecio Gregorii, F. v. M. ; Senecio platylepis, 
D. C. ; Senecio lautus, Forst. ; Senecio brachyglossus, F. v. M. ; (in National 
Herbarium Census), HeZipterwwi Fitzgibbcni, F. v. M.; (in Vict. Nat. VII., 1890) 
recorded from North Australia. 



ADDENDA. 

GRAMINE^. 

Anthistiria avenacea, F. v. 31. — Roper Plains. N.T., Dr. Gilruth 1911. 
Locally known as Blue Grass, and generally eaten last by stock. 

Aatrebla triticoides , F.v M.. var, lappacea, Benth. — ^Bull Oak Creek Dr 
Gilruth, 1911. 

Eragrostis tenella, Beauv. — Water-course bottom. Bull Oak Creek Dr 
Gilruth, 1911. 

Eriochloa punctata, Hamilt.- — Bull Oak Creek, Dr. Gilruth, 1911. 



282 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 



AMARANTACEiE. 
Reesia, Ewart (Proc. Royal Soc. of Victoria, 1913, p. 9). 
Beesia erecta, Eivart. — Near Pine Creek, J. H. Niemann, 1904. 

VERBENACEiE. 
HcJXLEYA, Ewart (Proo. Royal Soc. of Victoria, 1912, p. 109). 
Huxlei/a Unifolia, Eicarl ani Bees. — Port Darwin, N. Holtze, 18i>2. 

BORRAGINACE^. 
Trichodesma latisejjalum^ F. v. M. — ^BuU Oak Creek, Dr. Gilmth, 1911. 



Stsjlidium alsinoides, 
189Q, No. 1171. 



STYLIDE^. 
B. Br., var. cordifolium. — Port Darwin, M. Holtze, 



POPULAR NAMES. 

Where the same plant has more than one popular name the form .dopted 
by the Vernacular Names Committee is marked with an asterisk. 



Apple Mangrove 

Arrowgrass 

Austral Centaury 
„ Cotton 
,, Milkwort 
„ Poison-bush 

Sea-heath 
Balloon Vine 

Barbed -wire Grass 
Barley Grass 
Barnyard Grass* . . 
Beach Grass 
Bear's Breech 
Beauty Heads 
Bindweed . . 
Bitter Crab 

Black Bean 
Black Mangrove . . 
Black Nightshade* 
Bladderworts 
Blinding-tree 
Blood -tree 
Bloodwood 
Blueberry plants . . 
Bluebush . . 

Bluebush, Leafless* 
Short- 
leaved 
Blue Grass 
Box -tree 

Brisbane Box -tree 
Birthwort 
Broad-leaved 
Bottle-tree 



Carapa moluccensis 
Triglochin 
Erythraea australis 
Gossypium Sturtii 
Polygala arvensis 
Gastrolobium grandi - 

florum 
Frankenia pauciflora 
Cardiospermum Hali- 

cacabum 
Andropogon refractus 
Hordeuni murinum 
Panicum Crus-Galli 
Thuarea sarmentosa 
Aoanthus ilicifolius 
Caloeephalus 
Convolvulus 
Petalostigma qadriloou- 

lare 
Mucuna gigantea 
Rhizophora mucronata 
Solanum nigrum 
TJtrioularia 

Excoecaria Agallocha 
Eucalyptus corymbosa 
Eucalyptus corymbosa 
Dianella 
Chenopodium aurico- 

murti 
Kochia aphylla 

,, brevifolia 
Andropogon sericeus 
Eucalyptus brachypoda 
Tristania conferta 
Aristoloehia 

Brachy chiton trichosi - 
phon 



Broad-leaved Tea- 
tree 

Buffalo Grass 

Bulrush 
Bulwaddy Tree . 

Bunch Spear Grass 
Bur -marigold 
BuiT Daisy, Com- 
mon 
Buttons 
Button Grass 

Cajaput 
Canary -wood 
Cane Grass 
Cannon-ball Tree . . 
Cape Gooseberry . . 
Caper . . 

Cat-o' -nine-tails . . 
Cattlebush 
Cattle Tree 
Caustic Creeper . . 
Caustic Plant 
Caustic-Vine 
Chain Fruit 
Cluster Fig 
Cookshin Grass 
Comet Pviver Grass 
Common Love Grass 
Common Mitchell 

Grass 
Common Nightshade 
Common Vervein . . 
Coolibar Grass 
Coral-tree . . 



Melaleuca Leucaden- 

dron 
Stenotaphrum america- 

num 
Typha angustifohum 
Macropteranthes 

Kekwickii 
Andropogon cont-ortus 
Bidens 

Calotis lappuUv:ea 
Leptorhynehus 
Eleusine aegyptiaoa 

MelaleucaLeucadendron 
Sarcooephalus cordatus 
Leptochloa subdigitata 
Carapa moluccensis 
Physalis peruviana 
Capparis spinosa 
Hakea lorea 
Atalaya hemiglauca 
Santalum lanceolatum 
Euphorbia Drummondii 

,, eremophila 
Sarcostemma australe 
Alyxia 

Ficus glomerata 
Panicum Crus-galli 
Perotis latifolia 
Eragrostis Brownii 

Astrebla pectinata 
Solanum nigrum 
Verbena officinalis 
Panicum trachyrachis 
Erythrina indica 



TUE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 



283 



Cotton-bush 



Cotton Tree 

Cypress Pine 
Darling Downs 

Pomegranate 
Ditch Millet 
Docks 

Dog's Mustard 
Early Spring Grass 
Ebony Wood 
Emu Bush, Spotted 
Everlasting 
Fire Weed. . 
French Bean 
Fringed Water Lily 

(white) . . 
Fringed Water Lily 

(yellow) . . 
Fringe Violet 
Fringe Lily, Bulbous 
Glasswort 
Golden' Goosef oot * 

Greenhood* 
Grey Mangrove 
Gutta-percha Tree 
Hair-trigger 
Hare's-tail Grass . . 
Hatpin Grass 
Heart Pea 

Heart Plant 
Herbert River 

Cherrj' . . 
Hickory Wattle . . 
Hillside Burr Grass 
Hogweed . . 
Immortelle 
Indian Tulip Tree 
Investigator Tree . . 
Ironbark . . 

Ironbark Tree 
Ironwood . . 



Kangaroo Grass . . 
Kapok* 
Lantern- flower 
Laurel Dodders . . 
Leichhardt Tree . . 
Lignum, Tangled . . 

Love Grasses 
Madwort . . 
Malacca Bean 
Mangrove . . 

White . . 
JHlk Bush 
Milky Mangrove . . 
Mistletoes . . 
Mitchell Grass 
Native (Austral*) 
Bluebell . . 



("Adriana acerifolia 
< Kochia aphylla and 

(^ Kochia brevifoUa 
Borabax malabaricum 

& Hibiscus tiliaceus 
Callitris robusta 

Capparis ilitchelli 

Paspalum scrobiculatum 

E\imex 

Cleome viscosa 

Eriochloa punctata 

Maba humilis 

Eremophila maculata 

Helichrysum 

Erechtites 

Phaseokis vulgaris 

Limnanthemum 

indicum 
Limnanthemum cren- 

atuni 

Thysanotus tuberosus 
* 

Salicomia 
Chenopodiura auri- 

comum 
Pterostylis 
Ceriops Candolleana 
Excoecaria parvifolia 
Stylidium 
Ectrosia leporina 
Xyris eomplanata 
Cardiospermum Hali- 

cacabum 
Portulaca bicolor 
-Vntidesma 

D allachyaniim 
Acacia aulaeocarpa 
Cenchrus inflexus 
Boerhaavia diffusa 
Waitzia 

Thespesia populnea 
Celtis panieulata 
Eucalyptus drepano- 

phylla 
Eucalyptus crebra 
I Casuarina equisetifolia 
-j Erythrophloeum 
\ Laboucherii 
Anthistiria imberbis 
Bombax malabaricum 
Abutilon 
Cassytha 

Sarcbcephalus eordatuB 
Muehlenbeckia Cun- 

ninghamii 
Eragrostis 
Alyssum 

Avicennia officinalis 
Rhizophora. 
Avicennia officinalis 
Wrightia saligna 
Excoecaria Agallocha 
Loranthus 
.\strebla pectinata 

Wahlenbergia gracilis 



Native Fuchsia 

Native Pear 

Native Raspberry . . 

Native Rosella 

Native (Austral*) 
Tobacco . . 

Native Towel-gourd 

Nightshade 

Nun- flower 

Nut Grass or Sedge* 

" Old Man" Soltbush 

Orange Mangrove 

Papa Grass 

Paper Bark 

Parson-in-the-pulpit 

Pea Bush . . 

Peach-leaved Poison 
Tree 

Pea- flower Poison- 
bush 

Pigeon Grass, Pale 

Pink Water Lily 

Pipewort . . 

Poison-Tree 

Pond Weed 



Pop-pods 

Prickly Saltwort . . 

Purple Fig 
Queensland Beech 
Queensland Bramlale 
Queensland Ebony 
Queensland Hemp 
Queensland Nutmeg 
Queensland Oaks 
Quinine Bush 
Rattle Pods 
Red Ash . . 
Red Gum*. . 
Rice . . 

" Rickets" plants 
River Mangrove . . 
River Poison-Tree 
Rosella 
Rough(Sand paper*) 

Fig 
Rough Grass* 
Russian Thistle . . 

Sacred Balm 
Sacred Lotios 
Saltbushes 
Sandalwood 
Scented Golden - 

beard 
Scrub-wattle 
Scurvey Grass 
Seem . . 
Sheoke 
Sida Weed 
Silky Bluegrass* . , 
Silk Cotton Tree . . 
Silver-spiked Grass 
Small Burr Grass . . 



Eremophila maculata 
Eugenia eucalyptoides 
Rubus moluccanus 
Hibiscus heterophyUuB 

Nicotiana suaveolens 
Luffa graveolens 
Solanum nigrum 
Pterostylis 
C^'perus Totundus 
Atriplex nummularia 
Bruguiera Rheedii 
Panicum decompositum 
Melaleuca 
Pterostylis 
Sesbania aculeata 

Trema aspera 

Gastrolobium 
grandiflorum 

Setaria glauca 

Nelumbo nucifera 

Eriocaulon 

Erythrophloeum La- 
boucherii 
Potamogeton 
Potamogeton 
tricarinatus 

Crotalaria 

/Salicomia cinerea 

\Salsola KaU* 

Ficus scabra 

Gmielina macrophylla 

Rubus moluccanus 

Bauhinia Hookeri 

Sida rhombifoHa 

Myristica insipida 

Casuarina 

TerminaUa circumalata 

Crotalaria 

Alphitonia excelsa 

Eucalyptus rostrata 

Oryza sativa 

Macro zamia 

Aegiceras majus 

Excoecaria Agallocha 

Hibiscus heterophyllus 

Ficus scabra 
Panicimi trachyrachis 
I Salicomia cinerea 
I Salsola KaU 
Ocimum sanctum 
Xelumbo nucifera 
Atriplex and Rhagodia 
Santalum laneeolatum 

Andropogon montanus 
. -Vcacia stipuligera 
CommeUna ensifolia 
Micromelum pubescens 
Casuarina 
Sida rhombifoUa 
Andropogon sericeus 
Bombax malabaricum 
Panicum argenteum 
Tragus racemosus 



284 



THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHEEN TERRITORY. 



Snuff -plant or Sneeze 

Weed* . . 
Soft Lovegrass' 
Spade Flower 

Spike Bush 
Spring -back or Trig- 
ger* Plant 
Spurge, Flat* 

„ Desert* . . 
Star Grass 
St. John's Wort . . 
Stringy -bark 
Stubbleberry 
Sundews 
Sun Hemp 
Supplejack 
Swamp Mahogany 
Sweet Quandong* 
Tahvine* . . 
Tall Oat Grass . . 
Tape Grass 



Centipeda orbicularis 
Eragrostis pilosa 
Hybanthus enneasper- 

mus 
Heleocharis 

Stylidium 

Euphorbia Drummondii 

„ eremophila 

Chloris divarica+a 
Hypericum 

Eucalyptus tetradonta 
Solanum nigrum 
Drosera 

Crotalaria juneea 
FlageUaria indica 
Tristania suaveolens 
Santalum lanceolatum 
Boerhaavia diffusa 
Anthistiria gigantea 
Vallisneria spiralis 



Tassel Blue Grass 
Tea Tree . . 

' Twinhead . . 
Umbrella Grass* . . 
Turpentine Grass* 
Vervein 
Wallflower Poison - 

bush 
Wart Cress 
Water Milfoils 
Water Plantain . . 
Water Shield 
Washerman's Plant 
Weeping Love Grass 
White Cedar 
White Gum 
"White Mangrove . . 
Whitewood 
Wild Rice 
Wrinkle Wort 
Yellow Burr Daisy 



Andropogon sericeus 

f Leptospermum 

I Melaleuca 
Eclipta 

Panicum decompositum 
Andropogon refractus 
Verbena officinalis 
Gastrolobium 

grandiflorum 
Coronocarpus didynius 
Myriophyllum 
Alisma 

Brasenia peltata 
Achyranthes aspera 
Eragrostis pilosa 
Melia composita 
Eucalyptus roatrata 
Avieennia officinalis 
Atalaya heraiglauca 
Oryza sativa 
Rutidosis 
Calotis lappulacea 



The following lists of economic and injurious plants include only those 
in regard to which definite information could be obtained. Further investi- 
gations will undoubtedly extend these hsts greatly. 



PLANTS ot 
FODDER VALUE. 

Oramineae 
Chionachne 
Andropogon affinis 
,, annulatus 
„ Gryllus 
„ intermedius 
,, sericeus 
„ australis 
„ montanus 
„ refractus 
Anthistiria mem- 

branacea 
Perotis latifolia 

(before seeding) 
Panicum argenteum 
,, Biuicei 
,, colonum 
,, decompositum 
„ foliosum 
,, parviflorum 
„ piligerum 
,, sanguinale 
Setaria glauca 

,, macrostachya 
Cenchrus elymoides 
(Harsh, and of little 
value when old) 
Sporobolus actinocladus 
(Harsh, and of little 
value when old) 
Sporobolus pulchellus 
(Harsh, and of little 
value when old) 
Oryza sativa 
Eriachne obtusa 



Cynodon convergens 
Chloris 

,, pectinata 
Pappophorum nigricans 

(Hairy when fruiting) 
Triraphis molHs 
Manisuris granularis 
Eriochloa punctata 
Diplaehne fusca 
Eragrostis 

,, Brownii 
,, speciosa|j 
Ectrosia 
Proteaceae 
Grevillea ref racta 
Santalaceae 

Santalum lanceolatum 
Pok/gonaceae 
Polygonum attenua- 

tum (Camels) 
Ghenopodiaceae 
Rhagodia spinescens 
Chenopodium aurico- 

mum 
Atriplex angulata 
Atriplex nummularia 

,, varia 
Bassia paradoxa 
Salicomia cinerea 

(Camels) 
Salsola Kali (Harsh and 

spiny) 
Zygophyllctccae 
Tribulus hystrix (when 

yoimg only) 
Borraginaceae 
Trichodesma zeylani- 

cum (Camels) 
Acanihaceae 



Ruellia primulacea 

Leguminosae 

Bauhinia 

Castanospermum 

Lotus 

Lndigofera 

Tephrosia 

Swainsona 

Desmodium 

Dolichos 

Glycine 

Erythrina 

Mucuna 

Canavalia 

Phaseolus 

Vigna 



VALUABLE WOODS. 

Casuarinaceae 

Casuarina 
equisaetifolia 

Urticaceae 

Malaisia tortuosa 

Excoecaria par\'ifolia 

Proteaceae 

Persoonia falcata 

Grevillea refracta 

Banksia dentata 

Santalaceae 

Exocarpus latifolia 

Santalum lanceo- 
latum 

Myristiceae 

Myristica insipida 

Hemandiaceae 

Gyroearpus americanus- 

Oa.pparidaccae 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 



285 



Capparis Mitchelli 
Pittosporaceae 
Pittosporum philly- 

raeoides 
Leguminosae 
Albizzia procera 
Acacia aulacocarpa 
Acacia sp. (see Text; 
Bauhinia Cuiininghamii 

„ Hoolteri 
Erythroxylaceae 
Erythroxylon 

ellipticum 
Burseraceae 
Canariitm 

australianvim 
Garuga floriVjunda 
Meliaceae 
Dysoxylon 
Sapindaceae 
Hetorodendron 

oleaefolium 
Malvaceae 
Hibiscus tiliaceus 
Myrtaceae 
Melaleuca 

Leucadendron 
Tristania suaveolens 
Eucalyptus (see Text) 
Gombretaceae 
Terminalia bursaritia 
Apocynaceae 
Wrightia saligna 
Borraginaceae 
Ehretia saligna 
Verbenaceae 
Vitex acuminata 
Myoporaceae 
Eremophila bignoni flora 
RyJbiaceae 
Sarcocephalas cordatus 



POISONOUS PLANTS. 

Cycadaceae 

Macrozamia 

Coniferae 

Callitris 

Gramineae 

Panicum sanguinale 

Ha^modoraceae 

Haemodorum 

corjonbosum 
Ulmaceae 
Trema aspera 
Chenopodiaceae 
Salsola Kali ? 
Aizoaceae 
MoUugo hirta 
Trianthema pilosa 
Menispermaceae 
Stephania hernandiae- 

folia 



Pittosporaceae 
Pittosporum 

„ phillyraeoides 
Leguminosae 
Acacia (see Text) 
Gastrolobium grandi- 

florum 
Lotus australis 
Indigofera boviperda 
Erythrophloeum Labou- 

cherii 
Psoralea (see Text) 
Abrus precatorius 
Tephrosia purpurea 
Canavalia obtusifolia 
Zygophyllaceae 
Tribulus cistoides 
Burseraceae 

Canarium australianum 
Euphorbiaceae 
Euphorbia australis 
„ Drummondii 
,, eremophila 
Andrachne (see Text) 
Phyllanthus 

hebeoarpus 
Anacardiaceae 
Buohanania 

(see Text) 
Sapindaceae 
Dodonaea physocarpa 

,, viscosa 
Thymeleaceae 
Wiokstroemia indica 
Pimelea punicea 
Lecythidaceae 
Careya australis 
Barringtonia 

acutangula 
Myrtaceae 

MelaleucaLeucadendron 
Plumiiaginaceae 
Plumbago zeylanica 
Myrsinaceae 
Aegieeras majus 
Asclepiadaceae 
Sarcostemma australe 
CmivolvulacecB 
Ipomoea dissecta 
Verbenaceae 
Verbena officinalis 
Solanaceae 
Solanum ellipticum 

„ nigrum 
Datura Leichhardtii 
Nicotiana suaveolens 
Scrophulariaceae 
Morgania floribunda 
Myoporaceae 
Eremophila maculata 
OoodenioAieae 
Goodenia grandi flora 
Scaevola parvifolia 
Compositae 
Helichrysum 

apiculatum(Doubtful) 



Centipeda orbicularis 
(excites sneezing) 



INJURIOUS OTHER 
THAN POISONOUS. 

Gramineae 
Andropogon 

contortus 
Aristida hygromet- 

rica 
Lauraceae 

Cassytha (see Text) 
Capparidaceae 
Cleome viscosa 
Malvaceae 
Sida rhombifolia 
Leguminosae 
Crotalaria (see Text) 
ZygophyUaceae 
Tribulus hystrix 



MEDICINAL. 

Gramineae 
Panicum sanguinale 
Gasuarinaceae 
Casuarina equisetifolia 
Vrticaceae 
Eicus glomerata 
Proteaceae 
Grevillea refracta 
Nyctaginaceae 
Boerhaavia diffusa 
Capparidaceae 
Cleome viscosa 
Leguminosae 
Galedupa pinnata 
Euphorbiaceae 
Petalostigma 

quadriloculare 
Euphorbia Drummondii 

,, pilulifera 
Sapindaceae 
Dodonaea viscosa 
Lecythidaceae 
Careya australis 
Myrtaceae 

Melaleuca Leucadendron 
Gentianaceae 
Erythraea australis 
Gticurbitaceae 
Bryonia laciniosa 
Trichosanthes cucumer- 

ina 
Goodeniaceae 
Goodenia (see Text) 
Vitaceae 
Vitis trifolia 
Tiliaceae 
Grewia polygama 



286 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 



OTHER ECONOMIC VALUEiS. 



Bombax malabaricum Kapok 
Maximiliana Gregorii ,, 

Eugenia Edible Fruits or Seeds 

Solanum nigrum ,, 

Phaseolus vulgaris ,, 

Vigna vexillata „ 

Eugenia eucalyptoides ,, 

Physalis peruviana „ 

Panicum decompositum „ 
Exoearpus latifoUa „ 

Capparis spinosa ,, 

Hibiscus ficulneus „ 

Carallia integerrima Tannin 
Carapa moluocensis ,, 

Excoecaria Agallocha „ 

Ceriops Candolleana ,, 

Bhizophora mucronata ,, 
Bruguiera gynmorrhiza ,, 
„ Rheedii ,, 

Eugenia Smithii , „ 

Casuarina equisetifolia ,, 
Loranthus longiflorus „ 

Acacia Timber and Tannin 

Thespesia populnea Tannin 



Ocimxim sanctum Mosquito -fuge 

Melaleuca Leucadendron Oil 

Andropogon ,, 

Thespesia populnea ,, 

Terminalia circumalata Gum 

Melia composita ,, 

Canarium australianum „ 

Atalaya hemiglauca ,, 
Asclepiadaceae Caoutchouc 

Excoecaria ,, 

Ficus Timber and „ 

Aseelpiadeiceae Fibre 
Crotalaria 
Sesbania aculeata 
Abutilon 
Sida 
Hibiscus 

,, tiliaceus 

Sarcocephalus cordatus Dye 

Thespesia populnea ,, 
Petalostigma quadriloculare „ 

Boronia Perfume- 

Pittosporum „ 

Crotalaria juncea Hemp 



28-; 



APPENDIX. I. 
CYPERACEAE, NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

BY 

A. A. HAMILTON, Botanical Assistant, 

National Herbarium, N.S.W 

With the notable exception of the genus Carex, referred to below, the Indo- 
^lalayan flora is well represented in the Northern Territory, all the genera 
listed, together with a generous percentage of species, are included in the flora of 
India. Examples from both these regions exhibit considerable facial divergence 
within a species, the morphological characters commonly used for diagnostic 
purposes exhibiting an extreme range of variafion. This feature is also ex- 
ceptionally marked in examples from different localities in both countries. 
Geographical variation in this family is noted by Bentham (B. Fl. vii., 280), 
under Gyperus rotundus, L. Discussing variation in this cosmopolitan 
species, he notes a wide range in height, irregularity of the inflorescence, length 
of spikelets, and number of flowers thereon, &c., in plants from various stations 
within Australia, and says. loc. cit. : '' This species is abundantly spread over the 
tropical and temperate regions of the Old and New World, varying in many 
places, as much as in Australia." Bentham also refers to the difficulties attend- 
ant upon the classification of this widely distributed family, in his carefully 
compiled prefatory notes on Cyperaceae. The numerous synonyms incorpor- 
ated by modern monographers (see C. B. Clarke on Cyperaceae in Hook, Fl. 
Brit. Ind., 7), accentuate the difficulties encountered when dealing with such 
an imperfectly known Cyperaceous flora as that obtaining in Northern Australia. 

THE TRIBES. 

The accompanying list of members of the family Cyperaceae in the North- 
ern Territory includes representatives of all the genera noted in the tribe 
Scirpeae. 

Tribe ii. — Hypolytnae is not represented. 

Tribe iii. — Bhynchospora which contains the important genera,. 
Schoenus, Lepidosperma, Cladium, Gahnia, &c., is repre- 
sented by but one genus (Schoemis), and that by an individual 
species. 

Tribe iv.- — Sclerieae also contains but one genus {Scleria), from N.A,, 
with a single species. 

Tribe v. — Carireae, in which the numerically large and widelv-dis- 
tributed genus Carex finds a place, is not represented in the' flora 
of the Northern Territory. This hiatus becomes more remarkable 
from the fact that some 160 species (exclusive of the large number 
which have been reduced to synonyms) are described by C. B. 
Clarke in Hooker's Fl. Brit. Ind. 



288 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

THE GENERA. 

Kyllingia.- — ^This genus is not recorded from N.A., in Mueller's Census. 
The 4 species found in Australia are included in the Indian Flora. 

Cyperus. — 70 species are recorded from Australia, of which 30 species 
occur in N.A. 

Heleocharis. — Of the 12 species recorded for Australia 7 species are 
found in N.A. The species listed ( H. acuta) is not noted in the 
Indian flora. 

Fimbristylis. — This genus is exceptionally well represented in the 
Northern Territory ; of the 56 Austrahan species enumerated no 
less than 50 occur in N.A., 13 species are listed, of which 8 are 
found in India. 

Scirpus. — 23 species are recorded from Australia, 7 occurring in N.A., 
S. articulatus (in list) is also found in India. 

Lipocarpha. — 2 species are recorded from Australia ; of these L. 
microcephala occurs in N.A., and is also included in the Indian 
flora. 

Fuirena. — Both of the Australian species are found in N.A., and occur 
also in India. 

Schoenus. — This genus has 67 representatives in Australia, of which 4 
only are noted from N.A. The single example listed {S. falcatus) 
is not found in India. 

Scleria. — 8 of the 13 species recorded from AustraUa are members of 
the flora of N.A. , S. margaritifera is not an Indian species. 

Kyllingia triceps, Rottb.— Pine Creek, C. E. F. Allen (No. 102), 2/1914. 

Cyperus castaneus, Willd. — A form approaching C. amabilis, Vahl. Grow- 
ing in crevices, sandstone rocks. Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 596), 2/10/1911. 

Cyperus difformis, i.— Lake Woods, G. F. Hill (No. 488), 2/8/1911. 

Cyperus holoschoenus, R. Br. — Edith Creek, Professor W. Baldwin Spencer 
and others, July-August, 1911. 

Cyperus d'actylotes, Benth.—La,ndeT Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 318), 10/6/1911. 

Cyperus Iria, i.— Darwin, C. E. F. Allen (No. 20), 1/1914. 

Cyperus rotundus, L.- — ^Fifteen miles west of Hugh River, Macdonnell 
Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 153), 6/5/1911 ; 10 miles north of Eva Downs, G. F. 
Hill (No. 519), 19/8/1911. 

Cyperus Gunnii, Hook f.—Landev Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 298), 10/6/1911. 

Cyperus conicus, SoecA;.— Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 299), 10/6/1911. 

Heleocharis acuta, R. Br.— Lake Woods, G. F. Hill (No. 489), 2/8/1911. 

Fimbristylis acicularis, R. Br. — Darwin, C. E. F. Allen (No. 165), 3/1914. 

Fimbristylis nutans, Vahl. — Darwin, C. E, F. Allen, (No. 100), 2/1914. 



APPENDIX I. 



289 



Fimbristylis pauciflora, R. Br. — Batchelor Farm, C. E. F. Allen (No. 48), 
1/1914. 

Fimbristylis cardiocarpa, F. v. M. — ^Darwin, ('. E. F. Allen (No. 21), 
1/1914, 

Fimbristylis tetragona, R. 5r.— Darwin, C. E. F. Allen (No. 153), 3/1914. 

Fimbristylis velata, R. Br.— Lander Creek, G. F. Hill (No. 300), 10/6/1911. 

Fimbristylis diphylla, Vahl. — Twelve miles west of Hugh River, Macdon- 
nell Ranges, G. F. Hill (No. 151), 6/5/1911 ; Batchelor Farm, C. E. F. Allen 
(No. 25), 1/1914. 

Fimbristylis miliacea, Vahl.- — Darwin to Pine Creek, C. E. F. Allen (No. 
89), 2/1914. 

Fimbristylis microcarpa, F. v. M. — Batchelor Farm, C. E. F. Allen (No. 22), 
1/1914. 

This species is reduced by C. B. Clarke (Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind., 7, 646) to a 
var. of F. complanata. Link. In this pubhcation it appears (presumably by a 
printer's error) as F. microcarpa. 

Fimbristylis ( Trichelostylis) Allenii, Turrill. — Near Darwin in wet land, 
C. E. F. Allen (No. 170), 3/1914. Kew BuUetin, No. 3, 1915, p. 117. 

Fimbristylis {Trichelostylis) compacta, Turrill. — Near Darwin in swamp, , 
C. E. F. Allen (No. 174), 4/1914 ; Pine Creek, near Darwin, in gorge, C. E. F. 
Allen (No. 103), 2/1914. Kew Bulletin, No. 3, 1915, p. 118. 

Fimbristylis Schultzii, Boeck. — Batchelor Farm, C. E. F. Allen (No. 44), 
6/1914. 

Bulbostylis barbata, Kunih, {Fimbristylis barbata, Benth). — Pine Creek, 
C. E. F. Allen (No. 83), 2/1914 ; Hugh River, Macdonnell Ranges, G. F. Hill 
(No. 135), 4/.5/1911. 

Scirpus articulatus, L.- — Abraham's Lagoon, Professor W. Baldwin Spencer 
and others, July-August, 1911. 

Lipocarpha microcephala, Kunth.- — CuUen Creek, Professor W. Baldwin 
Spencer and others, July-August, 1911. 

Fuirena umbellata, Rottb.- — Batchelor Farm, C. E. F. Allen (No. 218), 
7/1914. 

Fuirena glomerata, Lam. — ^Darwin, C. E. F. AUen (No. 171), 3/1914 • 
Lander Creek, G. F. HiU (No. 302), 10/6/1911 : Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 610)^ 
9/10/1911. 

Schoenus falcatv^, R. Br. — ^Pine Creek, Professor W. Baldwin Spencer and 
others, July- August, 1911. 

Scleria margaritifera, W Hid. —Darvf in, C. E. F. Allen (No. 19), 1/1914. 



290 



APPENDIX II. 

MYRTACE/E OF NORTHERN TERRITORY 
(EXCEPT EUCALYPTUS). 

BY 

EDWIN CHEEL, Botanical Assistak,t, 
National Herbarium, Sydney. 



DIVISION LEPTOSPERMOIDE^. 

SUB-FAMILY BACKHOUSIIN^. 
OSBORNIA. 

O. octodonta, F. v. if.— Darwin, G. F. Hill (No. 337), 2/10/14. 
Sub-Family Metrosiderinse. 

XANTHOSTEMON. 

X. paradoxus, F. v. M. — Darwin, W. Baldwin Spencer, 1913, G. F. Hill 
(No. 313), 26/7/13 ; lower part of Victoria River, R. J. Winters (No. 10), 
Aiigu.st, 1913. We have also specimens from Isdell River, W. Kimberlov, 
■\V. V. Fitzgerald, June, 1905. 

TRISTANIA. 

T grandiflora, sp., nov. — Syn. T. suaveolens, Sm., var. ? grandiflora, 
Bentli,B.Fl.,iii.,263. 

I have compared s]pecimens of this species from the Northern Territory with 
those of T. suaveolens, and find that there is sufficient difference to warrant it 
being raised to specific rank, as will be seen by the following description : — • 
Habit of plant not stated. Branches and leaves as well as the inflorescence 
very hoary, toraentose. Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, elhptical oblong, 
or rarely ovate elliptical, obtuse, usually about 1-|^ to 2 inches long, and | to 1 
inch broad , venation, on the upper side of the leaves plainly visible to the naked 
eye, but rather obscure on the underside except the midvein. Flowers much 
larger than those of T. suaveolens, in axillary cymes, usually consisting of three 
flowers, but the two lateral flowers mostly suppressed, and only the remains of 
pedicels left, so as to give the inflorescence the appearance of being simple 
axillary flowers, peduncle -| to 1 inch long. Slightly flattened or biconvex. 
Ualyx-tube attenuated at the base and more or less ribbed, lobes comparatively 
large, persistent. Petals nearly orbicular, about 3 lines diameter. Staminal 
bundles slightly longer than the petals. Fruits undeveloped. This species is 
intermediate between T. suaveolens, Sm., and T. lactiflua, F. v. M., differing 
from the former in the smaller leaves which arc much more shortly petiolate, 
and more hoary-tomentose, and the flowers are not so numerous in the cymes. 
From T. lactiflua, its nearest ally, it differs in the flf )wers being larger and fc.wer 
in number, and in Ihc shorter and broader leaves. 



APPENDIX II. 291 

Habitat : Lat. 18 degrees, 30 degrees Long., about 132 degrees., G. F. 
Hill (No. 439), 4/7/11. The locality given in Bentham is "Attack Creek, 
Mc-Douall Stuart," and he remarks Terhaps a distinct species, but there is 
but a single specimen." 

T. lactiflua, F. v. M. — In the National Herbarium, Sydney, there are 
specimens from the following locaUties : — Ord River, E. Kimberley, Dr. Eric 
Mjoberg (Nos. 88 and 89), 1911. A specimen also from MacArthur River, 
collected by Bald\^in Spencer in 1002. is placed under this species provisionally, 
although it is somewhat difierent. 

SUB-FAMILY LEPTOSPER:MINJi:. 

SERIES LATERALES. 

MELALEUCA. 

M. alsopMla, A. Cunn.- MacArthur River, G. F. Hill (No. 671), 5/11/11. 
We have specimens of this species in the National Herbarium from Wyndham, 
North West Austraha, collected by A. E. Woodroffe in 1903, and from Goody 
Goody and Wyndham, E. Kimberley, collected h\ W. V. Fitzgerald in April, 
1905. 

M. acacioides, F. v. M. — Tree 30 ft. high, on Sandstone Country, near 
Tanumbirini, and 14 mUes N.N.W. Meyers' Hill, G. F. Hill (Nos. 563 and 803), 
6; 9/11 and 20/3/11. 

SERIES CIRCUMSCTSS^. 

M. symphyocarpa, F. v. M. — Northern Territory, C. E. F. AUert (No. 138), 
Stoney Creek, Booroola, G. F. Hill (No. 669), 8/11/11. 

There are also specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney, from near 
Darwin collected by N. Holtze, and by Baldwin Spencer in July-August, 1911, 
and from Cape York by Macleay ; also from Cape Sidmouth, without collector's 
name or date. 

M. angustifoUa, Gaertn. — Abraham's Lagoon, near Darwin, Baldwin 
Spencer, July -August, 1911. There are specimens in the National Herbarium, 
collected by Banks and Solander in 1770. This species is erroneously cited as a 
synonj'm under M. viridiflora, Gaertn, by De Candolle (Prodr, iii., p. 212), and 
Don (Hist, of Gard and Bot. ii., p. 814), probably owing to the fact that the 
rar. angustifoUa, Linn, f ., of M. Leucadendron has been mistaken for this species. 
See also Baker and Smith (Journ. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., xlvii., p. 199 (1913). 

I have consulted both Gaertner's work and the Index Kewensis, and find 
that in both works, M. angustifoUa, Gaertn, is regarded as a distinct species. 
Melaleuca angustifoUa, of Blume, however, is, according to Index Kewensis, a 
synonym of M. Lev/:adendron. 

SERIES SPICIFLORAE. 

(1) M. Leucadendron, L. Mant. i., 105 (1767), S'm. Trans., Linn. Soc. iii., 
p. 274 (1797), and in Rees' Cyclop., Vol. xxiii.. No. 1 (1819) ; Willd. Sp.. PI., 
1248 (1805), Pers., Synops. PL, p. 26 (1807), R. Br., in Ait., Hort., Kew, Vol. 4, 
p. 410 (1812) : Link. Enum. ii., p. 272 (1821), D. C. Prodr. iii., p. 212 (1828) ; 
Don Hist, of Gard and Bot. ii., p. 814 (1832), Myrtus Leucadendron L. sp. PL, 
676. 

The following is a description by Smith, I.e. : " Foliis alternis lanceolatis 
acuminatis falcato-obliquis quinquenervis. ramulis petiolisque glabris," 



292 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEREITOEY. 

Smith also gives the, following particulars : — ' The tree is a native of some parts 
of East Indies, and from it is distilled the green aromatic oil called Cajeput, 
from cajuputi, a white tree, the Malay name of the plant, hence Linnaeus gave 
the name Leucadendron to this species." In Rees' Cyclop., Smith again de- 
scribes the species as follows : — " Leaves alternate, lanceolate, pointed, ob- 
liquely falcate, five-ribbed. Foot-stalks, young branches, and germen smooth. 
Native of some parts of the East Indies, especially the Molocca Islands, Ceram 
and Amboyna, growing in hilly places, flowering from January to March, and 
ripening fruit from August to November, but according to Rumphius, it is 
rarely propagated from seed. This is described by that accurate writer, as a 
large tree, as thick as a man's body, or much thicker, with many irregular 
widely spreading branches, but not of a lofty growth. Leaves scattered, on 
short foot-stalks, lanceolate, entire, smooth, tapering at each end, but most at 
the extremity, curved laterally into a sickle-shape from five to eight inches long, 
scarcely an inch broad in the widest part, furnished with five principal ribs, 
connected by intermediate inter branching veins. Stipules none. Flowers 
white, in long, loose somewhat whorled spikes, whose smooth common stalk 
terminates in a leaf-bud, and becomes a branch. The bundle of stamens are 
f of an inch long, and each divided nearly to the base. Germen (ovary) scarcely 
so large as a hemp-seed, globose, smooth, quite sessile, the capsules remaining 
long firmly fixed to the branch, surmounted by leaves, after the seeds have 
fallen out, as is common to the whole genus. 

Rumphius speaks much of the resinous and aromatic properties of this tree, 
its whitish or grey aspect, and its agreeable shade. The wood is hard and 
heavy, but easily splits and soon decays, being neither beautifiil nor useful. 
The outer bark is of a spongy nature, and much used for caulking vessels, as it 
swells in the water ; but is nevertheless hable to shrink again, and give way. 
It is called baru, a name given to all substances used for that purpose. An oil 
is obtained by firing the .tree, which soon becomes thick, and is used for candles. 
Rumphius says nothing of any fine essential oil being procured by distillation 
from this tree, see the next species (M. minor)." Then we have some remarks 
by Bentham in Journ. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), Vol. x., p. 139 (1867), who states that 
' ' One species, the old M. Leucadendron, Linn. , the only one which from Australia 
spreads itself over the Indian Archipelago and the Malayan Peninsula, is, with 
this very wide grographical range, also singularly polymorphous. 

It has been divided into more than a dozen species, and most botanists 
retain two, three, or four as distinct, the extreme forms being widely dissimilar; 
but the characters, derived chiefly from the shape and size of the leaves, from 
the dense or interrupted spikes, from the size and colour of the flowers, and from 
the indumentum, are so variously combined in different specimens, the forms 
at other times pass so gradually one into the other, or differ so much at difl^erent 
ages, or even on different branches of the same tree, that I have completely 
failed in the endeavour to sort the specimens into distinct races. 

The seeds, in the few species where they have been examined in the ripe 
state, differ considerably in shape, in the presence or absence of wings, and in 
the shape of the cotyledons of their embryo ; but these differences, as far as 
known, do not appear to be available for the distinction of sectional groups." 

Bentham (Fl. iii., p. 142), pointed out the wide range of variation of this 
species. Owing to the immense variation, as shewn by the specimens under 
the name M . Leucadendron in the National Herbarium, Sydney, it was suggested 
by Mr. Maiden (Forest Flora, Vol. i., p. 90, 1903), that " it would be desirable 
for a monographer to re-examine all the forms of this variable species." Mr. 
R. T. Baker (Proc. Limi. Soc, N.S.W., Vol. xxxviii., p. 597 (1913), has also 



APPENDIX II. 293 

stated : "It is doubtful whether M. Leucadendron, Linn., really occurs in 
Australia. Comparison of AustraUan materialhas been made with the original 
specimens of Linnaeus in the Herbarium of the Linnean Society of London, and 
Dr. Daydon Jackson was not able to match anv of the specimens sent." (See 
also Baker and Smith, Jour. Roy. Soc, N.S.W.," xlvii., p. 193, 1913). A photo- 
graph of the original specimen of M. Leucadendron, Linnaeus, is reproduced by 
Messrs. Baker and Smith on Plate viii., of the latter work. 

In examining the specimens collected by Baldwin Spencer, G. F. Hill, 
and others from the Northern Territory, and comparing them with the material 
in the collection contained in the National Herbarium, Sydney, it seemed to me 
that at least nine (if not more) species or well-marked varieties were included 
under the name M. Leucadendron, and that these were referable to the various 
species included as synonyms by Bentham and others. I have accordingly 
drawn up a complete list and arranged them in alphabetical order, of those 
species which have to be taken into consideration when deahng with M. 
Leucadendron as follows : — 

Melalev/:a. 

angustifoUa, Linn., Fil., see Leucadendron. 

angustifoha, Gaertn. 

angustifoha, Blume, prob. a var. of Leucadendron. 

cajeputi, Roxb.^ minor Sm. 

coriacea, Salisb (1796)=Leucadendron var., viridifiora. 

coriacea, Poir, suppl. 3,685 (non Sahsb.), See. D.C., Prodr. 

Cumingiana, Turcz (1847), Phillipine Islands. 

Cuiminghamii, Schauer, in Walp (1843) =M. Leucadendron var. 

Grosslandii, W. V. Fitzg.=form of coriacea (Poir). 

lanceolata, R. Br., Herb. (Non Luik)=(?) albida. 

lancifoUa, Bail., see Leucadendron, var. viridifiora. 

lancifoha, Turzc. (1847), Philippine Islands. 

latifoha, Linn., FU., see Leucadendron. 

Leucadendron, linn., Mant. 105 (1767). 

Forst. Prodr., p. 38 (1786), prob. a var. of Leucadendron. 
Lam. (1789). 

WiUd., sp. PI., 3, p. 1428 (1805), see Link (1821). 
Smith (1796). 
R. Br. (1812). 
Benth. (1866). 
,, Linn., fil., suppl. 342. 

,, Hayn, see D.C. Prod. 

F. V. M. (1858). 
Maiden (1903). 
Britten (1901). 
„ var. angustifoUa, Linn., Fil. and Pers. (1807). 
,, var. Cuiminghamii, Bailey. 

,, var. lancifoha, Bailey=leucadendron, var. viridifiora. 
,, var. latifoha, Linn.. Fil. and Forst (1786). 
,, var. saligna, Bailey. 
,, var (?) parvifoHa, Benth. 
Maideni, R. T. Baker = viridifiora, Gaertn. 

mimosoides, A. Cunn., Herb., Schau=Leucadendron, var. mimosoides 
minor, Smith (1796)=Leucadendron, var. minor. 
ruscifoUa, Sol. M.S., form of Sieberi. 
saligna, Blume. 



294 THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHERN TERRITORY. 

saligna, Bailey, see Leucadendron. 

saligna, Schau., in Walp. (1843)=Leucadendron, var. saligna. 

sanguinea, Sol., M.S.=Levicadendron, var. sanguinea. 

Sieberi, Schau. =Leucadeiidroii, var. albida. 

Smithii, Baker=Leuc.adendron, var. albida. 

viridiflora, Gaertn. (1788). 

,, (Sol,), Britten = sanguinea (Sol.). 

R.Br. (1812)=albida (Sieb.). 
Willd. (1805)= viridiflora, Gaertn. 

, , Smith = viridi flora , Gaertn . 

,, Brogniart, (^ris. — viridiflora, Gaertn. 

,, var. angustifolia, Blume, Bijdr., 1099. 

Jletrosideros. 

albida, Sieb., in D.C. {1S2S) ^ Leucade^idron, var. albida. 
coriacea, Labill, in Spreng., Syst., Veg. 2,490 (182.'5)= viridi flora, 
coriacea, Poir. Encvc, Suppl. iii., 685 (1813). 
Salisb., Prod., 352= 1 viridiflora. 
quinquenerviim , Cav. (1797) = ? coriacea, Poir. 

Myrtus. 

Leucadendron, Linn = Melaleuca Leucadendron, L. 

saligna, 0^61. = Melaleuca Leucadendron, var. leptospermum. 

Leptosjiermum. 
speciosum, Schau. {1843) = Leucadendron, var. viridiflora. 

Gallistemon. 

nervosus, Lindl. f(1848) = Z(eMcadlewdrow, var. coriacea forma Crosslandiana. 

If we carefully consider the above list of names, it will be seen that no less 
than 27 distinct names have been applied to the various forms of M. Leuca- 
dendron, excluding M. angustifolia, of Gaertner, which is quite distinct from 
M. Leucadendron, var. angustifolia, of Linn., Fil. , and JM. angustifolia, of 
Blume. M. Cumingian/x, Turcz., and M. lancifolia, Turcz., appear to be 
described from Philippine Island specimens, so that we need not concern our- 
selves with these two species. With regard to M. Leucadendron, of Linn, 
however, this species was described from specimens originally collected in 
India. It is interesting to note that in the extreme northern parts of the 
Continent of Australia, a number of species of Indian plants have been found, 
and in connection with the species of Melaleuca under consideration, one would 
naturally expect to find representatives of the tj'^pical M. Leucadendron. A 
close examination of the specimens at my disposal, however, reveals the fact 
that there are none which can be taken to be strictly identical with the Indian 
jjlants of this species. The nearest approach we have, however, is, the M. 
mimosoides, of A. r'unningham Herb., which appears to me to be a well-marked 
form with rather longer leaves and pinkish or pale reddish coloured flowers, 
and perhaps better regarded as a variety than a distinct species. A more close 
examination of the plants in the field, as well as a systematic examination of 
the development of the seedlings, may enable one to raise the various forms or 
varieties enumerated here as species, but, tmtil this has been done, it seems 
wiser to regard them as off-shoots of M. Leucadendron, and to give the various 
forms varietal names, according to the grouping given in the following key. 



APPENDIX II. 295 

KEY TO VARIETIES OF M. LEUCADENDRON. 

A. — Calyx and lachis glabrous ; leaves acuminate-falcate, 3-5 nerved ; 
flowers white. — 1. Leiocadendron. 
Flowers pinkish or reddish. — 2. Var. mimosoides . 

B. — (Jalyx and rachis silky-hairy, or vaave or less woolly. 

(a) Leaves 6 inches or more long, acuminate about ^-inch broad, 
3-5 nerved. — 3. Var. saligna. 

(6) Leaves large, more or less silky, elliptical-lanceolate, | to 1 inch 

or more broad, 5-9 or occasionally 11 -nerved, rather obtuse ; 

flowers reddish or crimson,; fruits large. — 4. Var. sanguinea. 

Flowers greenish-yellow, fruits rather smaller than (No. 4).- — 

5. — Var. Cunninghamvi . 

(c) Leaves small, coriaceous, shiny, usually acute, usually 5-nerved ; 

flowers greenish-yellow. — 6. Var. coriacea. 
Flowers pinkish or reddish. — forma Crosslandiana. 

(d) Leaves oval-elliptical, comparatively thin, opaque (not shiny), 

obtuse ; flowers greenish-white. — 7. Var. minor. 

C. — C'alyx and rachis pubescent or tomentose ; leaves stifle, obtuse or sub- 
acute, 3-4 inches long, 5 to 7-nerved ; flowers greenish or greenish- 
white. — 8. Var. viridiflora. 

Leaves 1| to 2| inches long, 3-5 -nerved ; flowers pallid white.- — 
9. Var. albida. 

(2). J/. Leucadendron, var. mimosoides. Nov., (.'omb. 

M. mimosoides, A. Cunn., Herb Schauer, M.s.s., Walp., Repertorium 
Botanices Systematicae, Tomus ii., p. 927 (1843). 

The original description is as follows : — " Ramis elongatis penduHs, in- 
novationib. glabris, ; foil, alternis coriaceis rigidis subverticalib. elongato- 
lanceolatis subfalcatis in petiolum attenuatis longe acuminatis 3-5 nervib., 
sub-venosis opacis imperforatis ; spicis subapicalib. elongatis interruptis 
glaberrimis ; calycib. ructus urceolatis truncatis." The habitat given is : 
" In Nova Hollandia oriental! tropica, A. Cunn., Herb., No. 253/1819." 

Benthara (Fl. Aust. iii., p. 142) quotes this and several other species as 
synonyms under M. Leucadendron. Bailey (Syn. Queensl. FL, p. 170, Queensl., 
Fl. ii., No. 601, Cat. Queensl. Woods, No. 171, and Comprehensive Catalogue 
of Queensland Plants, p. 188), regards it as a distinct variety and records it under 
the name M. Leucadendron, var. saligna. 

Having made a close examination of the very large series of specimens in 
the National Herbarium, Sydney, I am of the opinion that the following speci- 
mens belong to the M. mimosoides of Cunn., in Walp., but are really too clase to 
M. Leucadendron L. to be regarded as distinct species, but may be regarded as a 
variety under the name var. mimosoides. The specimens labelled M. Leuca- 
dendrcm, var. saligna, by Bailey, from Bentinck Island, very closely resemble 
the photograph of M. Leucadendron from the Linnean Herbarium reproduced 
by Baker and Smith, I.e., Plate viii. The rachis of ilf. LeuMxdendron is described 
by various botanists as being perfectly glabrous, and the flowers white, and 
leaves 5-nerved and falcate or sickle-shaped. From a close examination of the 
following specimens it will be found that the rachis is also perfectly glabrous, 
and the flowers opposite or somewhat whorled or sub-verticillate, and the 
leaves distinctly falcate or sickle-shaped, with five nerves. The flowers, how- 
ever, are iTi most cases pinkish or reddish, as mentioned by Bailey, I.e. 



296 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

The following are the localities represented in the National Herbarium, 
Sydney, collections : — Near Darwin, Sir Baldwin Spencer, June- July, 1911 ; 
Bentinck Island, J. F. Bailey, June, 1901 ; Rockhampton, R. Simmonds, 
1903 ; J. L. Boorman, August, 1912, and June 1913. Specimens from Darwin 
collected by N. Holtze, and Granite Creek (alt. 1600 ft.), Almaden, North 
Queensland, R. H. Cambage (No. 3867), August, 1913, are in matured fruit 
only, but seem to belong to this species, and are placed here provisionally. 

(3). M. Leucadendronvar. saligna. 

Syn. Jf . saligna, Schauer, Mss., in Walp., Rep. ii., 927, 1843. 

The original description of Schauer is as follows : — " Ramis elongatis 
penduhs ; innovationib. ramulisq. villosus ; fall, alternis coriaceis, subver- 
ticalib. lanoeolatis subfalcatis in petiolumattenuatis acuminatis 5-nervib 
venosis marginatis, adultis deniq. glabratis opacis imperforatis ; spicis infra- 
apicahb, ovalib densis, rhachide calycibq. cyathiformib. villosis, dentib. 
membranaceis ovato-subrotundis ; phalangibus. ... ? .In Novae 

Hollandise tropicse ora septentrionali in ripis paludosis fi.. Endeavour, A. Cunn. 
Herb., No. 256/1819." 

This is very similar in general appearance to M. Leucadendron, var. 
mimosoides, but has narrower leaves, and the rachis and calyx-tube distinctly 
woolly or villous. Specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney, which may 
be placed under this variety are as follows : — 

Darwin, Professor W. Baldwin Spencer, 1913 ; Charters Towers, Queens- 
land, H. B. Walker, August, 1903 ; Rockhampton, R. Simmonds, 1903 ; 
Lakes Creek, Rockhampton, J. L. Boorman, August, 1912 ; Mount Morgan, 
Queensland, C. F. Henrichson, October, 1911 ; Georgetown, N. Queensland, 
R. H. Cambage (No. 3897), August, 1913. In Granite Creek, Almaden, N. 
Queensland, R. H. Cambage (No. 3868), August, 1913. It is quite possible that 
some of the late Mr. F. M. Bailey's specimens belong to this variety, but the 
only specimens I have seen which were distributed by Bailey under the name 
M. Leucadendron, var. saligna, belong to the var. mimosoides. 

The Melaleuca (Cajeputi) angustifolia, Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Batav., 
p. 83, (1856), and synonyms quoted under this species in Walper's Annales 
Botanices systematicae, vol. 2, p. 621 (1851-2), namely, M. saligna, Blume, 
M. viridiflora, var. angustifolia, Blume, M. Leucadendron, Forst, M. Leu- 
cadendron, Hayne, and Myrtus saligna, Gmel., probably belong to this variety 
or to the var. mimosoides. 

(4) M. Leucadendron, var. sanguinea. 

M. sanguinea (Sol. M.S. and Herb.) {M. Leucadendron and M. viridiflora, 
of Britten lUust. Bot. Cook's Voyage, p. 38, t. 113) (Non Linn, or Gaertn). 
M. Leucadendron, var. Cunninghami, Bailey, syn., Queensland, Fl. p. 170 
(1883). Queensl. Fl. ii., p. 600 (1900), Comp. Cat., p. 188. Fig. 167. 

This is a very handsome large-leaved species which appears to have been 
confused with M. viridiflora, Gaertn., but as will be seen from remarks I have 
made under M. viridiflora, 8m., is quite distinct, and there can be no doubt that 
the specimen marked M. sanguinea, in Dr. Solander's own handwriting, is identi- 
cal with the one reproduced by Britten, I.e., from specimens collected by Banks 
and Solander. In the National Herbarium there are several fine specimens, 
some of which have been mixed up with Callistemon spp., and marked " red 
flowers." They may be briefly described as follows : — 

Small trees, usually 20-25 feet high (R. H. Cambage), with rather thick 
and robust branches, and papery bark, the young tips and leaves more or less 
silky-hairy. Leaves broad-lanceolate, somewhat falcate, obtuse, from 4J to 6 
inches long, and about 1 inch or occasionally IJ inch broad, petiole sometimes 



APPENDIX n. 



297 



bent into a semi-circle giving the leaves a decided falcate appearance. Vena- 
tion very prominent, varjdng from 5 to 7, or occasionally 9 to 11, with numerous 
intermediary prominent-nerves which give the leaves a net-work appearance, 
plainly visible to the naked eye. Oil-glands more or less obscure even when 
held up to the light. Flowers in loose terminal spikes usually of a reddish 
colour, 3 to 4-1 inches long, the rachis more or less wooUy-tomentose, as well as 
the calyx-tube, calyx-lobes somewhat persistent. Petals small, roundish, 
scarcely 2 lines long, glabrous, scarious. Stamens reddish or crimson, a little 
over f-inch long, the filaments shortly united at the base. Fruits 3-4 mm. 
diam., truncate at the orifice. 

The following specimens are in the National Herbarium, Sydney : — New 
Holland, Banks and Solander, 1770 ; Thursday Island, F.M. Bailey ; Croydon, 
N. Queensland, R. H. Cambage (No. 3922), August, 1913 ; Cape York, (no 
collector or date given). To the above we may also add specimens collected 
by Mr. G. F. Hill (No. 420), from 160 miles N. of Survey Camp, C. III., July, 
1911. 

(5) M. Lev/xtdendron. Var. Cunninghami {Sohnu). Syn. 31. Cunningham i, 
Schau. in Walp. 

Rep. ii., p. 927 (1843). 

This is very similar in general appearance to M. sanguinea of Solander, but 
has green or greenish-yellow flov/ers, and the leaves rather more silvery or silky 
hairy. The following are the localities : — Wyndham, N.W. Western Austraha, 
A. E. V. WoodrofEe, 1903 ; Providence Knoll and Driffield Creek, Northern 
Territory, Sir Baldwin Spencer, July- August, 1911 ; Port Darwin, N. Holtze ; 
near Saxby River, Miss Sulman, August, 1913. In Granite Creek, Alma-den 
N. Queensland, R. H. Cambage (No. 3867), bark almost fibrous, 20 ft. high, 
alt. 1600 ft. ; Sweer's Island, J. F. Bailey, June, 1901 ; Bay River, Western 
Australia W. V. Fitzgerald, May, 1905. There are also specimens collected bv 
Mr. G. F. Hill (No. 403), 90 miles N. of Camp iv., June, 1911. 

(6) M. Leiwadendron. Var. coriacea, Syn. Jletrosideros quinquenervia, 
Cav. 

Icon, 4, p. 19, Tab. 333 (1797) ; M. coriacea, Poir, suppl. 385, in D.C. Prod, 
iii., list of Synonyms under Melaleuca viridiflora. 

In the National Herbarium, Sydney, there is a large series of specimens, 
with shiny, coriaceous 5-nerved leaves, more or less acute, and which agree 
with those in CavaniUes' illustration quoted above, and which somewhat 
resemble the specimens of the var. viridiflora, but seem to be an intermediate 
variety between that species and the var. Cunninghamii. 

I have not seen the original specimens named by Poiret, but have taken up 
his name for this variety as it seems to be appropriate, and, will cause less con- 
fusion than would be the case if CavaniUes' name "quinquenervia" was taken 
up as it should according to the rules of priority, owing to the fact of other 
varieties having five-nerves. §This seems to be a fairly common plant along the 
rivers in the Northern parts of Queensland and extends into the extreme North 
of Austraha, and is probably the plant referred to by Baron F. von. Mueller in 
his Botanical Report on North Austrahan Expedition, under the command of 
A. C. Gregory, Esq. (Jour. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) ii., p. 144, 1858), where he gives the 
following remarks : — " Melaleuca Leucadendron, forms the largest and straight- 
est timber tree in the North." These remarks coincide with those made by Mr. 
W. S. Campbell, as published in the " Sydney Morning Herald of October 6th, 
1913," when describing a trip to the Northern parts of the Continent, as follows : 
" Hore and thronjrhnnt the country, in the many favourable moist places, the 



298 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

tea tree, Melaleuca Leucadendron, abounds. Along the banks of the rivers, 
creeks, and many lagoons and swampy localities, it attains a great height and 
diameter. Overhanging the water amongst other vegetation, with its silvery 
green, pendulous leaves, it adds greatly to the beauty of many beautiful 
places. This tree seems to differ to some extent from that bearing the same 
name in New South Wales, and which is very common about the coast, the 
leaves being more willo-svy-like." Baker and Smith (Jour. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., 
xlvii. p. 193) re-publish Mr. Campbell's remarks, and add the following made 
by Mr. W. H. Tibbits, L.S. "These trees also grow in Cape York Peninsula 
and out from Cooktown." § Some specimens collected by Mr. Campbell are in 
the National Herbarium, Sydney, and agree with those from the following 
localities :— Lat. 17 degrees. Long. 132 degrees, G. P. Hill (No. 453), 7/7/11. 
Booroola, Northern Territory, G. F. Hill (No. 578), 7/9/11 ; Maudes' Creek 
and Stirling Creek, Sir Baldwin Spencer, July, 1911 ; Antigua Estate, Ingham, 
N. Queensland, Ralph G. Johnson, 1903 ; Charters Towers, Queensland, W. B. 
Walker, August, 1903 ; Rockham.pton, Q., R. Simmons, 1903 ; Yeppon, Q., 
J. L. Boorman, August, 1912, 30-40 ft. ; Alma-den, N.Q., R. H. Cambage 
(No. 3866), August, 1913, 20 ft. high ; Croydon, N.Q., R. H. Cambage (No. 
3929), August, 1913 ; Prairie to Baronta, 30 miles east of Hughenden, N.Q., 
R. H. Cambage (No. 3964 and No. 3967), 10 ft. high, August, 1913 ; Boulder- 
combe, Rockhampton, Q., P. W. Smith, November, 1911. 

M. Leucadendrum. Var. coriacea forma Crosslandiana (W. V. Fitzg.). 
Tliis is very similar to var. cwiacea, but has reddish or crimson colour«3 
filaments instead of greenish-yellow ones. The name Crosslandiana was first 
pubhshed by Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald in the Western Mail, 2nd June, 1906, 
with a photographic sketch. Specimens of this in the National Herbarium 
are from the following localities : — Mount Harris, W. Kimberley, W. V. 
Fitzgerald, June, 1905, and near Derby, W. V. Fitzgerald, July, 1906. Some 
specimens in fruit only collected at Pt. Hedland by Dr. J. B. Cleland, seem to 
belong to this variety. 

Then v/e have Callistemon nervosus, Lindl., in Mitchell's Trop. Aust., p. 
235, 1848. It is included by Bentham (B. Fl. iii., 143) as a synonym under the 
name Melaleuca Leucadendron, var. ("i) parvifolia. The original specimens were 
collected at Mitchell's Camp of 16th July, 1846, which is quite close to Mantua 
Downs on the Claude and Nogoa Rivers, south of Springsure, N. Queensland. 
The flowers when fresh are evidently of a crimson colour, as will be seen by 
Jlitchell's remarks, which are as follows : — . . . " and we found a magnificent 
new crimson Callistemon, with its young flowers and leaves wrapped in wool." 

A description is also given by Mitchell, I.e., as follows : — " C. nervosum 
(Lindl., M.S.) ; ramis pallidis, foliis ovato-lancelatis quinque-nerviis mucron- 
atis junioribus tomentosis, rachi calycibusque lanatis." 

I have examined the specimens collected by Mitchell, which are in the 
National Herbarium, Melbourne, kindly lent by Professor A. J. Ewart, and find 
that they are almost identical with the forma Crosslandiana, which, as I have 
said before, differ only from the var. coriacea in the flowers being crimson 
instead of greenish-yellow. As the name " nervosa" has already been apphed 
to another myrtaceous plant by Link, it seems advisable to place this as a 
synonym under forma Crosslandiana. 

I have not seen specimens of M. lanceolala, R. Br., Herb., nor of Leptos- 
peniiuni speciosum, Schau., in Walp. Rep. ii., 923, the latter of which, according 
to Bentham (B. Fl. iii., 143) are " described from Cunningham's specimens in 
hud only," but as Cunningham's specimens were collected in New South Wales 
and Moreton Bay {vide Walp. Rep. ii., 923) and Brown's wore according to 



APPENDIX II. 



290 



Bentham, I.e., collected " Behind the Government House, Sydney," it appears 
to me that these may be quite distinct from those collected bj^ Mitchell, and may 
probably belong to the var. viridiflora and var. albida. 

(7) M. Leucadendron, var. minor. 

M. minor, Sm., in Rees Cycl., Vol. xxiii.. No. 2 (1819) (Lesser Cajeput 
Tree). Arbor alba minor, Rumph, Amboin, Vol. 2, p. 76, t., 17. 

The following is a description by Smith : — " Leaves scattered, elliptical 
lanceolate, bluntish, straight, five ribbed. Young branches and germen (ovary) 
downy. Native of Amboyna, but less frequent than the foregoing ( Leucaden- 
dendron) with which it has been confounded by everybody but Rumphius. We 
now venture, for the first time, to distinguish them. This is smaller in all it.s 
parts, and rather a shrub than a tree. The young leaves are extremely silky ; 
adult ones nearly smooth, about two (scarcely three) inches long, and one 
broad, exactly elliptical and not obhque or falcated. Footstalk broad and very 
short, somewhat hairy. Young branches, where the flowers are seated, densely 
clothed with white silky prominent down, as is Ukewise the germen (ovary). 
The calyx is but slightlj' downy. Fruit smooth, depressed and truncated. 

The late Mr. Christopher Smith, from whom we have received specimens of 
both these plants, assured us of this being what yields the oil of Cajeput, and 
Rumphius gives the same account (see Cajeput). The bark is woody and 
brittle throughout, not externallj- corky like the former. The structure of their 
parts of fructification is the same in both, especially the form of the stamens. 
Rumphius's plates are by no means calculated to give a just idea of the foliage 
of either, especially of the present, but his descriptions are excellent." 

It is described by DecandoUe (Prod, iii., p. 212), who gives M. cajaputi, 
Roxb., and Myrtws saligna, Gmel, as synonymus. Don. (Hist. Gard. and Bot. 
ii., p. 814 (1819), also gives East India Islands and Ambojrna as the habitat, 
quoting the same sjmonyms as in DecandoUe's work. I.e., J. F. Duthie (in 
Hooker's Flora of British India, Vol. ti., p. 465 (1879), describes two varieties of 
J/. Leucadendron, quoting M. Leucadendron, of Ldnn. Mant., 105, as Var. 
Leucadendron ; spikes glabrous, and M. viridiflora, of Gaertn., and several 
synonyms as var. minor, with " spikes villous." 

In the National Herbarium, Sydney, there is a specimen labelled Mda- 
leuca LeiLcadendron, from Singapore, iv., 1896, Schlesischer botanischer Tau- 
schverein (No. 854) Plantae ex India extra Gangem, which agrees in every detail 
with the original description of Smith. The leaves are not in any way sub- 
falcate, as mentioned in DecandoUe's latin description. Some specimens 
collected bj- the late Mr. E. Betche at Atherton, N. Queensland, in August. 
1901, are almost identical with the Singapore specimens, in that the leaves are 
eUiptical — lanceolate, bluntish and five-nerved as described by Smith for his 
M. minor. Mr. Betche remarks that his specimens are from a " small tree with 
papery bark." In addition to the specimens from Atherton, there are also 
specimens from Rockhampton, Q. (R. Simmonds, 1903), and Maude's Creek, 
N.T., Professor W. Baldwin Spencer, July-August, 1911, which seem t-o be 
almost identical with the Singapore specimens, and are best placed under 
M. Leucadendron, var. minor. 

(8) M. Leucadendron, var. viridiflora. 

M. viridiflora (Sol.) Gsertner Fruct., i., 173 (1788) t., xxxv., f.a.b. The 
original description is as follows : — " Calyx hemispherical (a) crassus edentiulus. 
Capsula immersa, trilocularis, tri-valvis. Stamina (6) filiformia, longissima, 
basi connata." 



300 THE FLORA OF THE NOKTHEEN TERRITORY. 

It is more fully described by Smith (Trans. Linn. See, iii., p. 275 (1797) as 
follows : — 

" Foliis alternis elliptico-lanceolatis, coriaceis, quinquenervia, rainulis 
petiolisque pubescentibus . Unquestionably a very distinct species from the 
preceding {M. Leucadendron) with which the younger Linnseus confounded it, 
the leaves are much more thick and rigid, straight, not falcated, nor so much 
pointed, of a Ught colour, with generally five, but sometimes 7 nerves. The 
foot-stalks and younger branches are downy, which is not the case in M. 
Leucadendron. 

This grows in New South Wales. The flowers are pale yellowish-green." 

It is also described by R. Brown in .his Mss. as will be seen by the following 
in Alton's Hortus Kewensis, Vol. iv., p. 410, 1812 : — 

" Melaleuca viridiflora. — Foliis elliptico-lanceolatis sequilateris 5-nervibus, 
ramulis, et rachi spicse calycisque tubopubescentibus, phalangium unguibus 
calyeis laciniis brevioribus obsoletisve. Brown Mss. 

Melaleuca viridiflora, WiUd., sp. pi. 3, p. 1429. Metrosideros quinquenervia 
Cavanill, ic. 4, p. 19, t. 333. Green- flowered Melaleuca, Nat. of New South 
Wales. John White, M.D., Introd. about 1798." 

The above description and synonyms quoted are repeated in Miscell. 
Bot. Works of R. Brown, in Ray. Society, Vol. ii., p. 451, 1867. Persoon 
(Synopsis Plantarunfi, Vol. i., p. 26 (1807), also takes up the name M. viridiflora, 
Sm., and copies Smith's descriptions, and at the same time quotes M. Leuca- 
dendron B. angustifolia, of Linn. fil. supp. 342, and Metrosideros quinquenervia, 
Cav., as synonyms. The habitat gives by Persoon is New Holland and New 
Caledonia. 

Smith (in Rees CycL, No. 3, 1819) repeats his description of M. viridiflora, 
with additional particulars as follows : — " Leaves alternate, elliptic-lanceolate, 
straight, bluntish, coriaceous, five-ribbed. Foot-stalks and young branches 
downy. Germen nearly smooth, native of New Caledonia and New South 
Wales. The younger Linnseus confounded it with both the preceding (M. 
Leucadendron and M. minor). From the first it is abundantly distinct. 

With the second it more agrees in the shape of the leaves, but differs in 
their thick rigid texture ; and much longer more downy foot-stalks. The 
flowers are twice as large, green, not white, with a smooth or very slightly- 
hairy germen. The young leaves of the present species are finely downy, but 
scarcely silky." 

De Candolle (Prod, iu., p. 212) takes up the name M. viridiflora, giving 
Gaertner as the author, and also gives the habitat Nova-Cambria Australi 
(New South Wales) et Nova Caledonia (New Caledonia). He also quotes the 
following synonyms : — M. Leucadendron, var. angustifolia, Linn., f . suppL, 342 ; 
M. angustifolia, Gaertn. ; Metrosideros quinquinervia, 'Cav., Met. coriacea, 
Poir (non Salisb). Met. albida, Sieb., plant exs., Nov. HoU., No. 349 ?. Don. 
(Hist, of Gard., and Bot., p. 815 (1832) ), gives practically the same particulars 
and synonyms as those in Decandolle's Prod. • 

It seems to me that the type specimens, from which the description and 
drawing was made by Gaertner, I.e., were collected at Bustard Bay by Banks 
and Solander, and are figured in Britten's Illustrations of the Botany of Cook's 
Voyage, p. 37, t. 112, under the name Melaleuca Leucadendron. Examples 
of the specimens collected by Banks and Solander, which may be regarded as 
ccj-types, are in the National Herbarium, Sydney, and are in fruit, the capsules 



APPENDIX II. 



301 



being fully matured as shown in Gaertner's drawing. There are also specimens 
of the broad-leaved form, which have the flowers fuUy developed of a reddish or 
crimson colour, collected by Banks and Solander, and labelled M. Leucadendron, 
L. {M. viridiflora, Sol.), which are figured in Britten's Illust. Bot. Cook's 
Voyage, p. 38, t. 113. These specimens are identical with another sheet of 
specimens labelled in Dr. Solander's handwriting, " M. sanguin." 

It is interesting to note that neither of the two latter mentioned sheets of 
specimens collected by Banks and Solander have any matured fruits, so that 
it seems hardly possible that Gaertner's drawing was made from these speci- 
mens. It is also of particular interest to note that on the sheet labelled M. 
Leucadendron, L. (M. viridiflora, Soland) reproduced in Illust. Bot. Capt. 
Cook's Voyage on tab. 113, there is also a label apparently in Dr. Solander's 
handwriting marked " Calyx glabr., M. viridif." Now the specimens in the 
sheet on which the label is pasted, have terminal spikes of flowers, with the 
calyx-tubes densely woolly or villous, not " glabrous," so that it would appear 
that the label has been affixed to the wrong sheet of specimens. There seems 
to be no doubt that the specimens labelled M. Leucadendron, L., fig. in 
Illust. Bot. Cook's Voyage on t. 112, are really the ones intended for M. viridi- 
flora, by Solander, and as these are identical with specimens collected by R. 
Brown, labelled M. Leumdendron, L., var. East Coast ex Herb., R. Brown, 
Iter Australiense, 1802-5 (Presented by direction of J. J. Bennett, 1876), ex. 
Herb. Bot. Reg. Edin., we may conclude that those referred to by Bentham 
(B. Fl. iii., 142) from the Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria collected by Brown as 
well as the Banks and Solander specimens, were seen by Smith, WUldenow and 
other earlier botanists. 

I have carefully compared the Banks and Solander specimens together 
with those of R. Brown mentioned above, with specimens from New Caledonia, 
labelled M. viridiflora, ex. Herb., Plantse Schlechterianae, No. 15016 (vide 
Schlechter in Jahrbucher, Vol. 39, p. 208 (1907). [See also Dr. A. GuiUaumin's 
Contribution a la Flore de Bourail (Nouvelle Caledonie) Annales du Musee 
colonial de Marseille, Tome xix., p. 12 (1911), and R. Schlechter's Pflanzen- 
geographische gliederning der Insel Neu Caledon, p. 9 (1904)] ; also with 
specimens labelled M. Leucadendron, var. lancifolia, ex. Herb. F. M. Bailey, 
Brisbane, and M. Maideni, R. T. Baker (type specimen) and find that they can- 
not be separated by any morphological characters in either flowers, fruits, or 
foliage. To the above we may also add specimens from the following localities : 
Wyralla, Richmond River, W. Bauerlen, April, 1891 ; Breakfast Creek, Leich- 
hardt (No. 142) ; Casino, D. J. McAuhffe, June, 1912 ; Newcastle, R. H. 
Cambage, July 1901 ; Port Macquarie, J. H. Maiden and J. L. Boorman, Julj^ 
1895, and June, 1915 ; Bellinger River district, March, 1910 ; Woolgoola, 
E. H. F. Swain ; Sandgate, near Brisbane, J. H. Simmonds, July, 1910. There 
are also specimens from New Caledonia, collected by J. Rossitterin 1903, said 
to yield Niaouli oil, Bai du Sud, New Caledonia, collected by Le Boucher (No. 
1539), 1903 ; and S. S. Islands (probably New Caledonia), C. Moore, 1850, 
which are identical with the New South Wales specimens. 

(9) M. Leucadendron, var. albida. 

Syn. M. Sieberi, Schauer, Mss. in Walp. Rep. ii., p. 928 (1843) ; M. Leuca- 
dendron, Maiden Forest Fl., of N.S.W., Vol. i., p. 90, 1903, pi. 15. Hall, Unin 
Calif., Pub., Bot., p. 31, pi. 4, fig. 3 (1910) ; M. Smithii, T. R. Baker, Proc, 
Linn. Soc, N.S.W., Vol. xxxviii., p. 597 (1913), and Baker and Smith, Jour. 
Roy. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. xlvii., p. 201 (1913) ; Metrosideros albida, Sieb. in D.C. 



302 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Prodr., iii., p. 212 (1828), quoted as synonym under M. viridiflora, and Benth 
fl., p. 143. The following is a copy of the description given by Schauer ; — 

Foil, sparsis conf ertis coriaoeis obliquis patulis oblongo-lanceolatis breviter 
petiolatis acuminatis inermib. trinervis glabris ; spicis singulis v. plurib. 
subapicaUb. laxiusculis ebracteatis, rachide calycq. sub-cylindrico cano- 
tomentosis, hajus debtin. herbaceis subrotundis ; phalangib, polyandris, 
unguib. corolla duplobreviorib. ex apice factigiato-bilamentosis. In Nova 
Cambria australis. Bentham (B. Fl. iii., 143) refers to this species and suggests 
that it is probably only a form of M. Leticadendron. Baker and Smith, I.e., 
regard it as a synonym of M. lanceolata, R. Br. Herb. 

I have not seen the original specimens, but judge from the above descrip- 
tion that it was drawn up from specimens collected by Sieber during his short 
stay here about 182."). We know that Sieber collected most of his plants in the 
Port Jackson district, and the Blue Mountains, and can safely assume that he 
collected specimens of the plants commonly known as the '' Broad-leaved Tea 
Tree," which has whitish flowers and prompted him to name it Metrosideros 
cdbida, as most of the Melaleucas and Callistemons were in those days regarded 
as belonging to the genus Metrosideros. It very closeljr resembles the var. 
nridiflora, and is very difficult to distinguish from that variety, as the morpho- 
logical characters are so much alike. The leaves are rather smaller, and they 
are usually 5-nerved, whereas those of var. viridiflora are more often 5 to 7- 
nerved. Messrs. Baker and Smith have also found that the oil of the Sydney 
plants is distinct from the oil of the plants found in the Northern parts of the 
State, so that it seems desirable to give it a distinctive varietal name. R. Brown 
seems to have regarded it as identical with Gsertner's and Smith's plants, as a 
specimen in the National Herbarium, Sydney, collected by Brown (Iter Aus- 
traliense, R. Brown, 1802-5, Ex. Herb. Hort. Bot. Reg. Edin. Presented by J. 
J. Bennett to the British Museum in 1876, is labelled " M. Leucadendron 
(M. viridiflora).'' 

There is also another specimen collected by Brown labelled " M. Leuca- 
dendron var." ; this latter belongs to the var. viridiflora. Specimens in the 
National Herbarium, Sydney, which may be placed under the var. albida are 
from the following localities : — 

i?ydney, B. Bynoe (no date given) ; South Head Road (Weber, March, 
1857)'; Rose Bay (J. H. Maiden, May, 1897, and E. Cheel, April, 1898) ; New- 
castle (R. H. Cambage, July, 1901) ; Nambucca Heads (J. L. Boorman, June, 
1910) ; Wamberal (E. Cheel, April, 1911) ; Tuggerah Lakes (A. A. Hamilton, 
April, 1915) ; Lake Macquarie (Miss P. Clarke, April, 1915) ; Port Stephens and 
Port Macqurie (J. L. Boorman, June, 1915) ; Wilson River, Telegraph Point 
(J. H. Maiden, May, 1915) ; Botanic Gardens, Sydney, near Hot House, and on 
lawn in lower garden near duck-pond, with a photograph of the latter. Some 
specimens from Laurieton (J. L. Boorman, November, 1915) seem to belong to 
this variety, although in some respects they approach the var. viridiflora. A 
specimen of M. Smilhii, R. T. Baker, marked " Type," with a slali of timber, is 
also in the National Herbarium, Sydney. 

Forma ruscifolia (M. ruscifolia, Sol., Herb. (Banks and Solander, New 
Holland). This is a very small-leaved form of the above variett/, the leaves 
being only about 1 inch long. Otherwise it seems to belong to the var. albida. 

M. lasiandra, F. v. J/.— 40 miles N.N.W. Meyers" Hill, G. F. Hill (No. 238), 
2;6/ll, and 60 miles N. of Camp iii., west of Sander Creek in Spencer's 
desert, G. F. Hill (No. 340). The only specimen in the National Herbarium 
collection, is one collected during the Calvert Expedition. It is recorded from 
the Fitzroy and Margaret Rivers by W. V. Fitzgerald. 



APPENDIX II. 303 

SERIES CAPITATAE. 
SUB-SERIES LONGIFOLIAE. 

M. hakeoides, F. v. J/.— Hot Springs, Dalhousie Station, G. F. Hill (No. 6), 
14, 2/11. The specimens collected by -Mr. Hill agree with specimens collected 
bv Dr. Beckler from towards Cooper's Creek, the t\-pe localitv for this species, 
(B. Fl. iii.,p. 151). 

There are also specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney, from Mount 
Lyndhurst, S.A., collected by Max Koch in November, 1898, and Umberatana, 
near Yadnamatana Mines, S.A., collected by Mr. W. Gill, in May, 1907, which 
seem to belong to this species. 

The species is united -svith 21. glomerata, a South Australian species, by 
Mueller, which it very closely resembles, but the latter has coarser more flat 
leaves than those of 31. hakeoides, which are very slender and quite terete. 

M. glomerata, F. r. M. — 40 miles N.N.W., Meyers" Hill, 2/6/11, and near 
Mount Hughden Macdonnell Ranges, 16/5/11, 140 miles N. of N.T. Survey 
Camp iv., 2/7/11, G. F. Hill (Nos. 175, 237 and 414). 

SERIES PELTAT.-E. 

M. minutifolia, F. v. 31. — Bacon Swamp, Darwin, Sir Baldwin Spencer, 
1911-13. In the National Herbarium, Sydney, there are also specimens of this 
species collected by W. V. Fitzgerald, near IngUs' Camp, King Leopold Ranges, 
W. Kiiiiberley and Wyndham, in May. 1905, and September, 1906. 

SUB-FAMILY CHAMAELAUCIEAE. 
Calytrix (C'alycotlirix). 

C. ■microphylla,A. Gunn. — ^20 miles S.W. Borroloola, G. F. Hill (No. 568), 
7,/9/ll. 

Melville Island, W. Baldwin Spencer, July, 1911 ; Pine and Horseshoe 
Creek, E. J. Dunn, August, 1913 ; Goose Hill, E\ Kimberlev, W. Y. Fitzgerald,. 
September, 1906 ; Cro^-don, N.Q., R. H. Cambage (No. 3926). Also N. Aus- 
tralia, Mr. Stookdale and Clowes and Bynoe. 

C. microphylla, var. I lotigifolia, Benth. — 70 Miles N. of Camp iv., NT 
Survey. G. F. Hill (No. 385), 28/3 '11. 

C. brachychaeta, F. v. M. — N.T. (W. S. Campbell, Mav. 1911) ; also Leonard 
River. W. Kimberley, \\ . Y. Fitzgerald, May, 1905. 

C. achaeta, F. v. M. — Katherine Creek and Edith Creek (W. Baldwin 
Spencer, July-August, 1911) ; Bathurst Island (N. Holtze, March, 1911) ; 
Pine Cieek Railway (E. J. Dunn, August, 1913) ; X. Territory \rithout specific 
locality (C. E. F. Allen (No. 78) ; two forms with red and white flowers. There 
are also specimens from Goose Hill, E. Kimberley, collected by W. V. Fitz- 
gerald, in September, 1906. 

Thryptoniene. 

T. 2Iaisonneuvii, F. v. M. — 40 miles N.W. Meyer s Hill, N.T., G. F. Hill 
(No. 240), 2/6/11. There are also specimens in the National Herbarium, 



304 THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHEEN TEKBITOEY. 

Sydney, from near Ferdinand River, South Australia, collected by R. Helms 
during the Elder Exploring Expedition in June, 1891. 

T. oligandra, F. v. M. — Coleman River, Dr. E. Mjoberg, September, 1913, 
Glasshouse Mountains, Qld., J. Shirley, September, 1910. These are additional 
records to that given by Bentham (Fl. Aust. iii., p. 63) namely. Endeavour 
River (Banks and Solander) specimens Qf which are in the National Herbarium, 
Sydney, Lizard Island and Sandy table-land on the Suttor. 

Verticordia. 

V. Cunnirighamii, Schau. — 20 miles S.W. Booroola, N.T., G. F. Hill 
(Nos. 570 and 671), 7/9/11. There are also specimens in the National Her- 
barium, Sydney, from Darwin (N. Holtze), Sir Baldwin Spencer, July-August, 
1911 ; and Goose Hill, E. Kimberley, W. V. Fitzgerald, September, 1906. 



305 



APPENDIX III. 
NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF EUCALYPTS 

CHIEFLY MADE BY 
G. F. HILL, IN THE NOETHEEN TeEEITOEY, 

With a Description of a New Species. 

By 

J. H. MAIDEN, I.S.O., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

[There have been added notes on specimens chiefly collected by Dr. H. I. 
Jensen. Where not otherwise stated, the numbers and the references to the 
plants are those of G. F. Hill.] 

(1) E. pruinosa, Schauer. 

446.— Lat. 18° 27', Long. 132°. 6th July, 1911. Tree 4 ft. 6 in. in 
diameter. Leaves and fruits. 

566. — 20 miles south-west of Borroloola. 7th September, 1911. Leaves, 
buds and flowers. The type came from the Gulf of Carpentaria (Ferdinand 
Bauer), probably from the same class of country as No. 566. 

Roper River Flats (W. Baldwin Spencer, 1911). 

(See my Crit. Rev. Eucal., i., 74, for Northern Territory references). 

(2) E. gamophylla, F. v. M. 

223.-35 miles north-west of .Meyer's Hill. 2nd June, 1911. 

45.- — Henbury Station, Finke River. 9th March, 1911. Leaves and fruits. 
In the absence of full material or details it is not always possible to dis- 
tinguish this species from E. pruinosa, Schauer. 

(3) E. oleosa, F. v. M., var. glauca, Maiden (Crit. Rev. Eucal., ii., 167). 

241a.^ — 35 miles -north-west of Meyer's Hill. 2nd June, .1911. Broaidish 
leaves and fruit. One small specimen. 

117. — Hugh River. 21st March, 1911. Stunted scrub on stony ridges. 
Stem covered with long flakes of smooth bark. New bark brown colour. 

Both specimens have leaves broader than the type, especially No. 241a, 
and hence show a transition to E. Gillii, Maiden. 

(4). E. pallidifolia, F. v. M.- 

556o.— Near Kiigour River. On Ranges. 2nd September, 1911. In 
immatuse fruit. (See Crit. Rev. Eucal., iii., 29, for Northern Territory 
references). 



306 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

(5) E. rostrata, Schlecht. 

115. — Jay Creek, along watercourses. 21st March, 1911. White stem, 
brownish yellow marks (blotches). Buds and fruits received. The most 
widely diffused of all species. 

(6) E. microtheca, F. v. M. 

405. — 110 miles north of Northern Territory Survey Camp iv. In sandy 
plains. 1st July, 1911. Fruits only received. 

The type of this species came from the Victoria River. 

(See Crit., Rev. Eucal. ii., 53, for a reference to the little we know of this 
species in the Northern Territory. See E. Spenceriana, n.sp. below, p. 307. 

(7) E. intertexta, R. T. Baker. 

118. — Jay Creek and Hugh River. Grows along watercourses. White 
stems, brownish-yellow marks. Large tree. In bud, flower, and very early 
fruit. 

355. — 90 miles north, | west of Camp iii. 15th June, 1911. Trees 
and scrubs in desert. White bark with grey patches. In fruit only. Perhaps 
the desert form of No. 116. 

Useful localities for a species whose range is not yet well defined. 

(8) E. pachyphylla, F. v. M. 

(E. pyriformis, Turcz., var. minor, Maiden, Grit. Rev. Eucal., ii., 232 and 
235). 

147. — 15 miles west of Hugh River, Maedonnell Rtoges, at elevation of 
3,000 feet. 6th May, 1911. Flowers and young fin its. 

361. — 40 miles west of Camp iv., Lander Creek. 21st June. 1911. 
Stunted scrub in desert. Flowers. 

371. — 60 miles west of Camp iv.. Lander Creek. 22nd June, 1911. 
Dwarf scrub, smooth stem, long rolls of dead bark near ground. Ripe fruits. 

It will be observed that in Mueller's plate of E. pachyphylla in the " Euea- 
lyptographia,'' the buds are shown sessile or nearly so, and the fruits have 
pedicels of considerable length. The type also comes from Hooker's Creek. 

(9) E. clavigera, A. Cunn. 

'' Smooth white bark." Cullen Creek (W. Baldwin Spencer, July-August, 
1911). Also received from E. J. Dunn. 

See a note by R. H. CJambage in Proc. Roy. tSoc, N.S. W xlix., 405 (191.'i). 

(10). E. papuana, F. v. M. 

See Proc. Roy. Soc, N .S.W ., xlix., 330 (191.")) ; also E. clavigera, A. Cunn., 
rar. Dallachiana, Maiden, in Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W.. xlvii., 77 (1913). 

122.— Maedonnell Ranges. 23rd March, 1911. Fruits. On hill sides, 
trunks 2 ft. in diameter. 

685. — Borroloola. 20th November, 1911. Large tree. White stem. 
Buds and flowers. 

392. — 70 miles north of Camp iv.. Northern Territory Survev. 28fch 
June, 1911. Fruits. 



APPENDIX III. 307 

311. — Stapleton. On dry stony country, White stem and branches. 
Trunk 4 inches diameter at ground. 

362.— Burrundie (Dr. H. I. Jensen, 4th November, 1915). " Water 
Gum " (i.e., growing in moist places). 

" Growing in moist places on alluvial soil with Melaleuca and Pandanus. 
Tall, graceful, slender tree. Bark white and smooth, slightly frayed or peeling 
at base of trunk." 

386.— McKinlay River Flats (Dr. H. I. Jensen, April, 1916). 

406. — Locally called " Moreton Bay Ash." Woohigi (Dr. H. I. Jensen). 

408.— Cullen River (Dr. H. I. Jensen). 

See also a note liv R. H. f'ambage in Proc. Boy. Soc, N.S.W. xlix., 406 
(1915). 

(11). E. Spencer i ana, n. sp. 

Arbor 50' attinens, trunco 2-3' diametro. Cortex rugosa, in lamellis 
secedens, non crassa. Lignum rubrobrunneum. FoUa immatura tenuiuscula, 
paUida, late lanceolata, apioibus obtusa, 14 cm. longa. Venae secondariae 
tenues, numerosae, fere parallelae, angulum 60° cum costa media formantes. 
FoUa matura immaturibus similia sed minora. RamuU graciles, subteretes. 
Flores umbelUs gracihbus tenuibusque, paniculati. Umbellae ad 7 flores, 
peduncuhs pedicellisque longis filo simUibus. Alabastra parva, clavata, 
opercula acuminata. Antherae poris dehiscentes (Porantherae). Fructus 
margine tenue et chartacea, ovoidei, circiter 6 mm. longi, valvarum apicibus 
distincte sub orificio depressis. 

A tree of moderate height, attaining at least 50 feet, and a trunk-diameter 
of 2 to 3 feet. . Bark more or less rugged and flaky, particularly near the butt, 
such flakes being lenticular, thin, and dry, and externally whitish to grey and 
even black. This rough bark extends to a variable extent over the trunk and 
larger branches. Bark not thick. Timber dark reddish-brown, interlocked, 
^^•ith a relatively thin, pale sap-wood. 

Juvenile leaves. — Pale-coloured, equally green on both sides, broadly 
lanceolate, rather blunt at the apex, say 14 cm. long, with 6 cm. in greatest 
M'idth, not thick, gradually tapering into a petiole of 2-2.5 cm. Midrib promi- 
nent, the secondary veins very fine and numerous, roughly parallel and meeting 
the midrib at an angle of 60° Intramarginal vein not far removed from the 
edge. 

Mature leaves. — Thin, graceful foliage very similar to the juvenile leaves, 
but smaller, and the intramarginal vein closer to the edge. Branchlets thin 
and almost terete. 

Flowers. — ^In graceful, slender umbels, arranged in a paniculate manner, 
and not exceeding the leaves. Umbels with up to 7 flowers, peduncles and 
pedicels long, terete, and almost thread-like. Buds smaU (about 5 mm. long), 
clavate, the calyx-tube gradually tapering into the slender pedicel. The 
operculum shorter than the calyx -tube and tapering to a fine point. Anthers 
with glands at top, filaments at base, and opening in pores (Porantherae). 

Fruits. — Rim thin, frail, the whole fruit of papery texture and readily 
crushed by the fingers, ovoid, about 6 mm. long, the tips of the valves distinctly 
sunk below the orifice. 

Type. Burrundie, Northern Territory, 5th November, 1915 (Dr. H. I. 
Jensen). 

K 



308 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY, 

In honour of Sir W. Baldwin Spencer, K.C.M.G., who on his scientific 
expedition from Port Darwin to the Roper River in July -August, 1911, and again 
in the following year, at my request brought excellent flowering material of the 
species. 

RANGE. 

Northern Austraha, using the term in a wide sense, that is to say, the 
Northern Territory and Northern Western Australia. In the Northern 
Territory it extends from near the coast to a considerable distance inland. Its 
range has not been fully ascertained. 

Specific locahties are : — 

Port Darwin (M. Holtze) in Herb., Melbourne, as E. microtheca, F. v. M. 

348.^ — " Box Gum." Just going off flower. Rapid Creek, near Darwin 
(near coast). (Dr. H. I. Jensen). 6th November, 1915. 

346. — " Common Box Gum." Burrundie, 5th November, 1915. (Dr. 
H. I. Jensen). In flower, with a few ripe fruits. 

347. " Common Box Gum." Growing outside Courthouse, Pine Creek, 
6th November, 1915. (Dr. H. I. Jensen). In plump bud. 

" Black Box. Rare." Edith River, near Roper River, May-September, 
1911. (W. S. Campbell). 

In flower, Darwin to Roper River, 1912. (W. Baldwin Spencer.) 

422. — " Box." Woolngi (Fergusson Railway Crossing). 5th July. 
1916. " The slate country where the slates are aluminous and fissile has Box 
preponderating. This Box is identical with my Pine Creek Box (sent under 
Nos. 346, 347, 348." (Dr. H. I. Jensen). 

346,- 347, 348.—" This is the Coolibar or Box of the Northern Territory. 
The wood burns to a clean white ash, much appreciated for making dampers. 
Excellent, durable timber, but not white-ant proof. In general appearance the 
tree is such a typical Box, that I put it down as E. microtheca." (Dr. H. I. 
Jensen). 

The following specimen is from North Western Austraha. 

" Eucalyptus N.W.C." (North West Coast). AUan Cunningham, in 
Hookerian Herbarium, referred to E. drepanophylla, F. v. M., by Bentham 
(B. FL, iii., 221). 

AFFINITIES. 

E. Spenceriana has affinity with E. microtheca in regard to anthers and to 
E. papuana, F. v. M., and allied species as regards fruits. 

1 . With E. microtheca, F. v. M. 

Mueller, who had apparently not seen fruits, labelled one specimen E. 
microtheca, and Dr. Jensen assumed that it was that species. E. microtheca 
is apparently Comparatively rare in the Northern Territory. Reference to 
Plate 52, Vol. ii.. Grit. Rev. Eucal., shows that the two species are sharply 
different as regards the typical fruits, those of E. microtheca being very 
small, hemispherical and having the valves very much exserted. At the same 
time, I have seen specimens [e.g., Reid River, via Townsville, Queensland, 
Nicholas Daley, 24th February, 1912), which show evidence of slight transition 
in the fruits. 

The timbers of E. Spenceriana and E. microtheca appear to closely resemble 
each other. 



APPENDIX in. 309 

In my Forest Flora, N.S.W., vi., 20., I have drawn attention to the re- 
markable variation in the bark, and it may be that more careful examination 
and comparison of E. Spenceriana and E. microtheca in the field may throw 
light on the reputed variation of the bark in E. microtheca, which is not quite 
satisfactory to me. 

2. With E.papuana, F.v. M. 

Undoubtedly the two species have affinity as regards their fruits, but 
their anthers are quite different, those of E. paptuina being versatile and 
having long parallel shts, with a comparatively large gland at the back. 
The flowers are larger and fewer in the panicle and have flat opercula. 

The foliage of the two species has a general resemblance, but the leaves of 
E. papuana are more undulate, more irregular in outline, thicker, and the 
venation is coarser. 

The timber of E. papuana is brown and not reddish, and the bark tesselated 
or smooth. E. papuana is closely related to E. clavigera, A. Cunn. 

3. With E. Brownii, Maiden and Gamboge {Proc. Roy. Soc. xlvii., 21."), 
1913). 

This belongs to the Porantherae, and is described as a Box, two points of 
similarity to E. Spenceriana. But the leaves of E. Brownii are more narrow 
lanceolate, have glossy leaves and have more spreading venation. The in- 
florescence has very much shorter peduncles and pedicels, and the fruits have 
not papery walls as in E. Spenceriana. 

4. With E. drepanophylla, F. v. M. 

I only mention this because of the inclusion of an imperfect specimen 
(North West Coast, AUan Cunningham) under E. drepanophylla, F. v. M., in 
B. Fl.,iii.,221. 

E. drepanophylla was even less known then than it is now. It is an Iron- 
bark, and has not yet been found out of Northern Queensland. 

(12). E. alba, Reinw. 

(See Crit. Rev. Eucal., iii., 91, 95, 97.) 

Dr. Jensen attempts to differentiate between the '" Poplar Gum," a large 
tree of flats, with leaves and fruits invariably treble the size of those of the 
" Salmon Gum" of Mallee-fike habit. He says there is no gradation from one 
type to the other, but although this may hold in the districts travelled by Dr. 
Jensen, the statement is not of universal application. 

402. — " Poplar Gum." Cullen River (Dr. H. I. Jensen). Timber red and 
flaky. In the speciraen before me the bark is thin and so also is the sap-wood. 

426. — " Poplar Gum." On aUuvial flats. Dean's Camp, Burrundie. 
(Dr. H. I. Jensen). 

373, 374.—" Poplar Gum." " Sparingly on all flooded flats from McKin- 
lay River to Mary River, near Coronet Hill. One of the largest trees in the 
Territory, up to about 50 feet in height. Stem up to 3 feet at base. In wet 
season a good shade, but the tree loses its leaves in dry season. Bark white or 
greenish grey to topmost branches." (Dr. H. I. Jensen). 

382. — " Poplar Gum." Wandi to Mt. Diamond flats. (Dr. H. I. Jensen). 

376. '■ Salmon Gum." " Mallee-like, up to 25 feet. Grows on poor, 
sandy, sihcious soils, never transgresses on to rich soil. Chiefly on hills." 
Wandi. (Dr. H. I. Jensen). 

K2 



310 THE FLORA OF THE NOETHEEN TEBRITOBY. 

427. — " Salmon Gum.'' Dean's Camp, Burrundie (calciphobe hill). (Dr, 
H. I. Jensen). 

341. — " Salmon Gum." " A Mallee type. Several trees frequently from 
one root. Bark smooth, wliite to reddish, medium sized. Leaves drop off 
in end of dry season except in very moist places." Burrundie. (Dr. H. I. 
Jensen). 

404. — "Salmon Gum." "The Salmon and Poplar Gum are similar in 
colour of bark, shape of leaf and, to a layman, in shape of fruit, but the Poplar 
Gum is a large tree growing on moist flats, leaves and fruits invariably treble 
the size of those of the Salmon Gum. Salmon Gum is crooked, small and Mallee- 
like in habit. There is no gradation from one type to the other." 
Umbrawarra. (Dr. H. I. Jensen). 

(13). E. grandifolia, B. Br. 

The type comes from the Northern Territory, and is broad-leaved. The 
species may have narrower leaves. So little is known of the species that the 
following notes in regard to specimens all collected by Dr. H. I. Jensen, except 
two indicated, will be useful. 

Melville Island. Leaves of medium width. (Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer.) 

364. — " Small tree. Trunk rough up to first branches ; upper branches 
smooth, whitish with few greyish blotches. Trees in front of Mines Office, 
Darwin." Narrow leaves like 354. The specimen practically consists of the 
voluminous compound unbels. 

342. — " Smalhsh tree. Rough bark on trunk and lower branches ; 
branches smooth, white." Darwin. 

Dr. Jensen sends from Darwin a juvenile leaf which, in its dried state, is 
16 inches long and 7| broad. 

353. — " Moreton Bay Ash. Rapid Creek, near Darwin (near coast)." 

354. — " Moreton Bay Ash." Rapid Creek. Leaves mostly narrow 
lanceolate, and reminiscent of E. papuana, but with the inflorescence of E. 
grandifolia. 

363. " White River Gum (so called locally). Large tree growing on flats 
near creeks and river. Stem covered with scaly flakes near ground, say up to 
2 feet from ground ; above that smooth, greyish or whitish bark." Howard 
Creek, near Darwin. 

349. " Cabbage Gum. Rough bark like Bloodwood bark to top. 
Associated with Moreton Bay Ash. Medium sized tree. Smooth, white- 
barked specimens grow to a large size." McKiulay Flats, Burrundie. 

352. — " Moreton Bay Ash. (Cabbage Gum with tesselated bark at base 
of trunk)". Burrundie (an inland district). 

389. — " Locally known as ' Moreton Bay Ash.' Bark rough at base only ; 
smooth and deciduous on upper limbs." McKinlay River Flats. 

350. — " Medium to large trees on fiats ; smallish on hills. Bark ranges 
from the Moreton Bay Ash type to entirely rough like Bloodwood, or again, 
quite smooth, white over entire stem on flats, without curl}' character of leaf 
or shape and characteristics of seed-capsulos changing. The tree when it has 
rough bark half way up stem is known as Moreton Bay Ash ; the other varieties 
are knovNU as Cabbage Gums. Large tree, dense foliage." Foliage thick. 
Burrundie. 



APPENDIX III. 311 

351. — " Cabbage Gum. Rough bark three parts up stem." Pine Creek 
(an inland district). 

The leaves are large and broad for the most part, but twa or three are 
naiTow, reminiscent of E. papiiana. 

355. — " Cabbage Gum. Somewhat crooked-hmbed, scraggy trees, height 
30 feet with rough bark (like that of Bastard Bloodwood) half way up stem 
white smooth bark on branches. Leaves undulate and broadly lanceolate. 
Stem up to 12 inches in diameter." Pine Creek. 

356. — " Cabbage Gum. Rough bark three-quarters of way up stem and in 
some trees up to branches. Not distinctly marked into squares ; more like 
Bloodwood." Pine Creek. 

Leaves smaller than 355, and Uke it undulate and with curved midrib. 
Pine Creek Railway (E. J. Dunn). With very large juvenile leaves. 

405. — " On the slate country in parts the Moreton Bay Ash type of this 
species is abundant." Umbrawarra. 

407. — " Broad leaved variety." Woolngi. 

(14). E. Houseana (W V. F.), Maiden 

In Proc. Boy. Soc, N.S.W., xlix., 318 (1915). 

In the original paper, at p. 320, 321, several Northern Territory specimens 
are quoted. The following, collected by Dr. H. I. Jensen, are additional ones. 

381. — Burrundie (McKinlay River Flats). 

359.- — " Snow-white bark, smooth barked tree, growing singly or in branches 
like Mallee. Medium size. It is crooked on poor soil, straighter on Burrundie 
alluvial soil." Burrundie 

345. — " Particularly partial to flooded clay flats. Like many trees it 
loses its leaves in the dry season." Pine Creek. 

379. — " Tree up to 40 feet high, smooth white bark." On flats, Pine Creek 
to Wandi. 

375. — Wandi Non-glaucous. 

380.— Mt. Diamond to Wandi flats. 

413 . — Umbrawarra . 

(15). E. aspera, F. v. 31. 

480. — South Newcastle Waters, 27th Septeinber, 1911. "Snapping 
Gum," up to 2 ft. 6 in. in diameter. Leaves and fruits. 

The type came from the Upper Victoria River, and the species is still 
imperfectly known. 

211.— Tanami Tin Field. (Dr. H. I. Jensen, 1914). 

(16). E. phoenicea, F. v. M. 

See Crit. Rev. Eucal., iii., 41. 

800. — Sandstone country, near Tanumbirini, 25th March, 1912. Buds 
flowers, fruits. This and the next species have orange to crimson filaments 
and are highly decorative. Pine Creek. (Dr. H. I. Jensen, 1916). 



312 THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHEEN TERBITOEY. 

(17). E. rwiniata, A. Cunn. 

See Grit. Rev. Eucal., iii., 39. 

809. — 8 mile Spring, on to Tanumbirini, 26th. March, 1912. Occurs near 
creeks and springs . Stem like Bloodwood . 

552.- — Top Spring. On Sandstone Range. This specimen, with, one loose 
flower only, is probably this species. 

Pine Creek Railway, Brock's Creek. (E. J. Dunn). 

" WooUy Butt." " I find that E. miniata grows on the deeper loams, while 
E. phoenicea takes its place on the more barren dry parts." On granite country 
between CuUen River and Wandi. (Dr. Jensen). 

Juvenile leaves of this species collected by Mr. R. H. Cambage at Croydon, 
North Queensland, with abundant stellate hairs, have been already described 
in Grit. Rev. Eucal., iii., 37. 

I have already figured juvenile leaves of this species at fig. 3a, Plate 95 of 
my Gritical Revision, but Mr. Hill's specimens (below) are more satisfactory. 

I have received juvenile leaves, some in a strictly opposed state, from 
Darwin, collected in July, 1916. (G. F. Hill). They vary from oval and ovate 
to nearly circular. 

Sometimes they are slightly emarginate, with a not very prominent mucro. 
A not uncommon size is 9 cm. (about 3| inches) long by up to 7.5 cm. (3 inches), 
with a petiole 1 cm. long. 

As a general rule the intramargiaal vein is not far removed from the edge, 
but there is some variation in this respect. 

(18). E. ptychocarpa, F. v. M. 

809.- — ^Eight-mile Spring on to Tanumbirini. Found near creeks and 
springs, 26th March, 1912. Stem like Bloodwood. Crimson filaments. 
Leaves, buds, and flowers. 

810.— Eight-mile Creek on to Tanumbirini, 26th March, 1912. Cream- 
coloured filaments. Leaves, flowers. (Tree similar to 809). 

It is to be noted that this species has filaments of two colours. This 
character is not rare, on the other hand it is not common. 

(19). E. ferruginea, Schauer. 

778 (number to be confirmed). — Sandstone Ranges near Western Creek, 
Northern Territory, 16th February, 1912. Rough scaly bark. Buds and 
flowers only. 

Another imperfectly known species. The timber and bark of a tree are 
important in the definition of a species, and it would be very desirable if there 
could be obtained short logs (say a foot long) of all the Northern Territory 
species. Bearing in mind their friable character, the barks should be tightly 
lashed round with sacking before beginning to cut them with a saw or an axe. 

(20). E. setosa, Schauer. 

398. — Camp iv., Northern Territory Survey, 29th June, 1911. A single 
fruit and leaves. 

241a.— 40 miles N.N.W. of Meyer's Hill, 2nd June, 1911. Up to 40 feet ; 
rough stem. (G. F. Hill.) Fruits and leaves only. Fruits smaller and more 
glabrous than any I have previously seen. When complete material is available 
it may be worthy of consideration as to whether this form is ^vorthy of indication 
as a variety. 



APPENDIX in. 



313 



Woolngi (Dr. H.I. Jensen). A pipy piece of a limb received with this 
specimen has flaky bark (of the Woolly Butt character). 

Also occurs in Northern Queensland, around the GuU of Carpentaria. 

(21). E. terminalis, F. v. M. 

The following specimens are identical with specimens included by Mueller 
under the above species, but the Corymbosae are under revision. 

808. — Sandstone Ranges between Bauhinia Downs and Tanumbirini, 20th 
March, 1912. Smooth white stem, rusty near ground. Leaves, buds, flowers. 

120. — ^Macdonnell Ranges, 23rd March, 1911. Leaves, buds, flowers. 
Near a form formerlj' named E. polycarpa, F. v. M. 

(22). E. Foelschiana, F. v. M. 

There appears to be a narrow-leaved form as well as the normal or broad- 
leaved form. 

" Brock and Bridge Creek district is where I beheve Inspector Foelsche 
collected his type material. In these locahties it is never to my present know- 
ledge more than 15 feet high. It is a low scrub, found principally on clayey, 
clay -slate and schist- fiats, leaves very fleshy, flowers in huge bunches at end 
of branches, flowers very fleshy, fruits large. 

" The specimens at Burrundie, however, grow to a height of 30 feet or more, 
both broad-leaf and narrow-leaf form, and the tree has the appearance of the 
Cabbage Gum. The leaves are not as large as usual in the scrubby form. 
\yood white-ant proof." (Dr. Jensen). 

Pine, Horseshoe and Brock's Creek. (E. J. Dunn and Winters). 

344. — ^Narrow-leaved form (Dr. Jensen). 

358.- — " Bastard Blood^vood. Rough bark to top of branches, narrow- 
leaved type." Burrundie. (Dr. Jensen). 

387. — " Rough bark almost to top." McKinlay River flats. (Dr. Jensen). 

Edith Creek, also track to Katherine River. Widely spread. (W.Baldwin 
Spencer). 

368. — " Medium sized tree ; trunk covered -i^ith rough scaly bark." 

Broad-leaved type. Batchelor, about 60 miles south of Darwin. (Dr. Jensen). 

420. — ^Woolngi. (Dr. Jensen). 

416. — Umbrawarra. (Dr. Jensen). 

(23). E. latifoUa, B. Br. 
Pine and Horseshoe Creeks. (E. J. Dunn). 

107. — '■ Bloodwood." Fairly large tree, near Pine Creek. (C. E. F. 
Allen). 

357. — " Bastard Bloodwood." " Roughish bark except on branches, 
«-here it is white and smooth. Trunk up to one foot. Crooked -limbed small 
tree." Pine Creek. (Dr. Jensen). 

390. — "Bloodwood." McKiolay River flats. (Dr. Jensen). 

385. — " Bastard Bloodwood." " Roughish bark over most of stem, 
branches often smooth." Near Wandi. (Dr. Jensen). 

383. — ^Near Wandi. (Dr. Jensen). 

Between Bull Oak and Crescent Lagoon. Track, Cullen Creek. (W. 
Baldwin Spencer). 



314 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

401.^ — ^Woolngi. Timber pale red in colour. (Dr. Jensen). 

411. Umbrawarra. (Dr. Jensen). 

The Northern Territory is rich in Corymbosae, but as I have not revised 
this section for my Critical Revision, I will postpone consideration of it. 

(24). E. odontocarpa, F. v. M. 
Tanami. (G. F. Allen, No. 202, 1914). 

(2.5). E. tetradonta, F. v. M. 

W.S.Campbell, 1911. 

Melville Island and Darwin. (Spencer, 1911). 

340. — ^Darwin. (G. F. Hill). " Common Stringybarfe for Port Darwin to 
inland slopes, several hundred miles from coast. Always on poor soil." (Dr. 
H. I. Jensen). 

" Stringybark Box." Pine Creek. (E. J. Dunn). 

Batchelor Farm, C. E. F. Allen, No. 224, 1914. 

Edith Creek, also 10 mile, Katherine River. (W. Baldwin Spencer, 1911). 

Juvenile leaves of this species have been received from Darwin from Dr. 
Jensen (July, 1916), and have not hitherto been described. I proceed to 
describe them. 

The branchlets are markedly quadrangular, and, like the leaves, are en- 
tirely glabrous or very slightly glaucous, and equally green on both sides. 
They are large, obUque or falcate, very acuminate \\\\h prominent purplish 
midribs, raised chiefly on the lower sides of the leaves. 

Secondary veins very distinct, taut fine, roughly parallel, and making an 
angle of about 60 degrees with the midrib. The intramarginal vein is at a 
considerable distance from the edge. 

A not uncommon size of the lamina is 25 cm. (say 10 inches) long and 13 
cm. (say 5 inches) broad, with a petiole of 1.5 cm. Still in the opposite stage 
they may be half the width. 

The basis of our knowledge of the Eucalypts of the Northern Territory is 
Mueller's " Monograph of the Eucalypti of Tropical Australia,"* which, however, 
includes cognizance of some North and South Queensland species. 

The species enumerated for the Territory in the above work are (in the 
order given) : — 

1. E. rostrata, Schlecht. (Leichhardt's Overland Expedition). 

2. E. brevifolia, F. v. M. (Victoria River and Sturt's Creek, Arn- 

hem's Land and Gulf of Carpentaria). [Synonym of E. 
microtheca, F.v. M. 

3. E. patellaris, F.v. .M (Roper River). 

4. E. tessellaris, F. v. M . (Gulf of Carpentaria). 

5. E. polycarpa, F. v. M. (Intra -tropical Ne« Holland). [Possibly 

a form of E. terminalis, but I suspend my judgment.] 

5. E. terminalis, F.v. M. (" Intra-tropical New Holland "). 

6. E. dichromophloia, F. r. M. (" Intra-tropical New Holland "). 

7. E. ptychocarpa, F. v. M (Sources of the Rivers Wentworth, 

Wickham, Limmen Bight). 



* Journ. Linn. Soc, iii., 81 (1858). 



APPENDIX ni. 



315 



8. E. aurantiaca, F. v. M. (Elevated tracts near Gulf of Carpentaria.) 

[E. miniata, A. Cunn., is the older name.l 

9. E. phoenicea, F. v. M. (Victoria River, Arnhera .s Land, Gulf of 

Carpentaria). 

10. E. latifoUa, F. v. M. (Roper River). 

11. E. aspera, F. v. M. (Sandstone Tableland, Victoria River and 

Sturt's Creek, &c.). 

12. E.ferruginea,Schauer. (Sandstone Tableland). 

13. E. bigalerita, F. v. M. [Arnhem's Land). (A s,\'nonym of E. 

alba, Reinir.] 
12. E. confertiflora, F. v. M. (Victoria River to Gilbert River). 
[A synonym of E. ferruginea, Schauer]. 

14. E. tetradonta, F. v. M. (Amheim's Land, Port Essington). 

15. E. brachyandra, F. v. M. (Upper Victoria River). 

16. E. ciavigera, A. Cunn. (Macadam Range). 

17. E. odontocarpa, F. v. M. (Sturt's Creek). 

18. E.pachyphylla,'F.v. M. (Hooker's Creek). 

In the Flora Australien^is (Vol. iii., 1866), Bentham adds the 
following species, sometimes giving useful additional localities 
to those given by Mueller. 

19. pruinosa, Schauer. 

20. oligantJia, ScJumer. 

21: crebra, F.v.M. (The broader-leaved ^. me^anop/iZom, f. i'. Jlf.^ is 
reallj'' meant). 
2. brachypoda, Turcz. [A synonym of E. mic roth era, F. v. J/. J 

22. pallidifolia, F. v. M. (Hooker's Creek). 

13. platyphylla, F. v. M. (Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria). 

13. alba, Reinw. (MaoArthur River, Gulf of Carpentaria). [E. alba 
and E. platyphylla are conspecific.] 

23. grand if olia, R. Br. (Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria). 

24. setosa, Scliauer. (Gulf of Carpentaria). 

.J. pyrophora, Benth. (Upper Victoria River and Depot Creek). [Its 
relation to terminalis requires to be worked out.] 

In " Euoalypto^raphia," under E. ciavigera, Mueller enumerates the 
following species (excluding those already enumerated) from North Aus- 
tralia, and points out that the Sections Renantherae and Hemiantherae are 
unrepresented : — 

Abergiana, F. v. M. [A North Queensland species ; I am not 
aware of a Northern Territory locality.] 

Cloiziana, F. v. 21. [Recorded only from Queensland, so far as I am 
aware. See Crit. Rev. Eucal., ii., 158.] 

exserta, F. v. M. [Confined to Queensland, so far as we know at 

present.] 
leplophleba, F. v. M. [Confined to Queensland so far as we know at 

present.] 



316 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY 

maculata, Hook, f. [By this is meant var. citriodora, confined to 
Queensland.] 

melanophloia, F. v. M. [See the note under E. crebra, F. v. 21., 
above.] 

perfoliata, R. Br. [I onlv know this from North-West Australia, as 
stated in B. Fl., iii., 254.] 

populifolia. Hook, f. [This does not extend further north than north- 
ern Queensland.] 

resinifera, 8m. [This species certainly does not extend to the North- 
ern Territory ; probably an allied species, E. pellita, F. v. M ., 
which extends to Northern Queensland, is meant.] 

tereticornis, Sm. [I have not received it from the Territory, but its 
occurrence there is not unlikely, as it occurs in Papua.] 

Torelliana, F. v. M. [Only known from North Queensland.] 

In the " Flora Australiensis," Bentham, by " North Australia," includes 
North Western Australia, as well as the Northern Territory. By the term 
" North Australia" Mueller means the same, together ^^'ith an indefinite part of 
North Queensland. ' 

In my view, it is not safe to add any one of the above species to the fiora of 
the Northern Territory without proper evidence. 

In subsequent parts of the " Eucalyptographia," Mueller includes : — 
largiflorens, F. v. M. [bicolor, F. v. M.) (" to Carpentaria"). 

25. gamophylla, F. v. M. (Macdonnell Range). 

26. Foelschiana, F. v. M. (Darwin, &c.). 

. [I do not admit E. bicolor to the flora of the Northern Territory on such 
evidence as is available at present. It is recorded from North Queensland. 
See Crit. Rev. Eucal., ii., 9.] 

Then we have " Report on the work of the Horn Scientific Expedition to 
Central Australia," Part iii.. Geology and Botany (1896). Botany, pp. 117-194, 
by Prof. Tate. The Eucalypts enumerated (from the Macdonnell Ranges) at 
pp. 158-9 are : — 

2. microtheca, F. v. M. 

18. pachyphylla, F. v. M. 

27. oleosa, F. v. M. 

28. OUfieldii, F. v. M. 

also var. with leaves oval-oblong to ovate-obcordate, one to one 
and-a-quarter inches long. Slopes of Mt. Sonder. , 

4. tesselaris, F. v. M. 
1. rostrata, Schlecht. 

24. gamophylla, F. ». M. 
23. setosa, Schauer. 

5. terminalis, F. v. M. 

29. eudesmoides, F. v. M. 

[In the above fist only oleosa, Oldfieldii and eudesmioides are additions to 
the flora of the Territory. I suspend my judgment as regard.s Oldfieldii.] 



APPENDIX III. 



317 



From the above lists I show that 29 species have been recorded from the 
Northern Territory, but all the records are not entirely satisfactory, while 
additional species remain to be recorded. 

In the present paper it would appear that the following four species are 
enumerated for the Territory for the first time : — 

intertexta, R. T. Baker. 

papv/xna, F. r. J/. 

Spencerianu, n. sp. 

Houseana (TF V F.), Maiden. 

The variety [glauca, Maiden) of oleosa, F. v. M., is stated. 

The species enumerated in this paper include all enumerated from the 
Territory, with the exception of the following ; — 

patellar is. F. v. M. 

tesselaris, F. v. M. 

dichromophloia, F. v. M. 

bra-chyandra, F. v. M. 

oligantha, Schauer. 

melanaphloia . F. v. M. 

OUfieUii, F. v. M. 

eudesmaides, F. v. J/. 



SUMMARY. 

rostrata phoenicea clavigera 

microtheca latifolia odontocarpa 

patellaris aspera pachyphylla 

tesselaris ferruginea pruinosa 

terminalis alba oligantha- 

dichromophloia tetradonta melanophloia 

ptychocarpa brachyandra pallidifolia 

miniata 

Viz. : 29 species enumerated by Mueller and others. 
intertexta paptiana Spenceriana 

4 species, making 33 species in all recorded from the Northern Territory. 

The present collections under review enumerate 25 species, leaving 8 
species recorded by others. 

I desire to thank Mr. W. F. Blakely, my assistant, and Miss Flockton, 
artist, Botanic Gardens. Sydney, for valuable help in the preparation of these 
notes. 



grandifolia 

setosa 

gamophylla 

Foelscheana 

oleosa 

Oldfieldii (?) 

evdesmoides. 

I add to this list :- 
Houseana 



318 



APPENDIX IV. 
ACACIAS OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

By 
J. H. MAIDEN, F.R.S. 

[With PLATES XXVI. and XXVII.] 

PART I. 

The basis of our knowledge of the Acacias of the Northern Territory will be 
found in Mueller's account* of those found by him in Gregory's Expedition of 
1856. The paper, however, takes cognizance of species from other parts of 
Australia. 

The expedition proper lasted from June to August, and went from the 
mouth of the Victoria River, near Cambridge Gulf, Northern Territory, via the 
Roper River to the Albert River on the south shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria 
opposite Sweers Island (where Henne afterwards collected). 

Mr. A. C. Gregory, on the 7th January, 1857, Avrote to the Colonial Secre- 
tary, Sydney, a " Third letter," giving an account of the " North Australian 
Expedition," and this was ordered by the Legislative Assembly of N.S.\ . to be 
printed on the 16th of the same month. A map accompanies this Report, 
which makes the various botanical collecting stations quite clear. 

In Proc. Boy. Soc, N.S.W.,xiv., 81 (1880), Mueller adds "some data 

from my unpublished diaries of the expedition of 1855 and 1856 ' The 

collections formed by me in that particular region, now, after twenty-three 
years, for the first time revisited by Mr. (Alexander) Forrest and his party, 
were mostly destroyed on the passage from Timor to Sydney, so that many of 
the localities now given from my journal remained ever since unrecorded." 

Mueller's paper was handed to Bentham (who had long since specialised 
on Acacia), for editing, and at p. 115, Bentham, one of the most cautious of 
botanists, says : "In the few cases where I clearly identified them with others 
previously described, I have given the pubhshed names, adding his manuscript 
names for the purpose of reference, and retaining his characters as completing 
our previous knowledge of the plants." 

This surely was wise action. No one can defend the pubhcation of manu- 
script names without due consideration. In the case of a huge genus, species 
of which are spread over vast areas, sometimes difficult of access, so that ad- 
ditional material may not again be available for half a century and even longer, 
it may hinder the progress of knowledge to abstain from the pubhcation of a 
manuscript name with its accompanying (perhaps incomplete) description, but 
based on special knowledge. In Mueller's paper some names were considered 
by Bentham to be synonyms which are now not so considered, and as one grows 
in experience, additional evidence comes under one's notice that many of the 
names and descriptions of the older botanists are not wrong, and should never 
have been suppressed. In making these remarks I am chiefly referrmg to 

* A. — " Contributiones ad Acaciarum Australiae Cocjuitionem." Journ. Linn. Soc., 
iii., IT 7'.". (ISIO). 



APPENDIX IV, 319 

considered judgments, not to names casually given. Bentham, in the Flora 
Australiensis, faithfully gives synonyms, or reputed sjTionyms, wherever he 
knows them : some were overlooked by him. These thoughts are inspired Isy 
researches in regard to AustraUan Acacias, and I feel that knowledge in regard 
to some species would have been fuller and clearer if the well-intentioned, but 
still mistaken suppression of manuscript names had not been carried to the ex- 
tent it has been. 

Following are the species recorded by Mueller in the above paper, from 
M'hat is now the Northern Territory, and I deal with his paper in some detail 
as it is not only the first, but also the most important paper on the genus in the 
province dealt M'ith. 

1. A. stipulosa, F. v. M. (op. cit., p. 119). 
Upper Victoria River and Sturt's Creek. 

Bentham (in Mueller's paper) draws attention to the affinities to ^4. 
deltoidea, A. Cunn. 

2. A. phlehocarpa, F. v. M. (119). 

Seven Emu River, GuH of Carpentaria. This locaUty is near the eastern 
boundary of the Territory. 

3. A. patens, F. v. M. (120). 

Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks, but since found with a much wider range. 
Close to A. siculaeformis, A. Cwnre., and Bentham (in Mueller's paper) thought 
them conspecific, but afterwards changed his opinion. 

A. juncifolia, Benth. (122), was described in Hooker's London Journal of 
Botany, i, 841 (1842). Following is a translation : — 

" Glabrous, branches terete, phyllodes straight or somewhat spreading, elongate- 
subulate, terete — somewhat compressed, without nerves or indistinctly one-nerved, sUghtly 
grooved, without a point or imeinate-mucronate, peduncles sc litary or double, much shorter 
than the phyllode, heads many- flowered, sepals free, rather broad spathulate. Phyllodes 
3-6 inches long. Peduncles 2-6 lines long, never it appears, racemose. Flowers of A. 
pugioniformi-i, but the sepals are broader. Interior of New South Wales, Cunningham, 
Fraser, Mitchell." 

Then on the edge of the mountain (Mt. Pluto, near 25 degrees south lati- 
tude, and 147 degrees east longitude, a httle north of the Warrego, Mitchell 
collected a " Curious new Acacia, resembling a pine tree, but with the stature 
of a shrub.'" Bentham in Mitchell's " Tropical Australia," p. 342 (1848), 
described it as A. pinifolia, in words of which the following is a translation, and 
reduced this to A. juncifolia in B. FL, ii, 339. 

" Glabrous, branches smooth, phyllodes erect and somewhat incurved, long, linear 
filiform, the ner\-e distinct on both sides, somewhat tetragonouf, shortly pungent-mucron- 
ate, peduncles solitary and very short, heads many- flowered, sepals spathulate, free or 
slightly cohering at the base. Very near A . pugioniformis, but the phyUodia are fi-se, six 
or more inches long, being longer even than in A. calamifoUa. It differs from the latter 
species in the inflorescence and calyx." 

Then Mueller ( Journ. Linn. Soc, iii., 122, 1859), described, under the name 
of ^. tenuissima, a new species, in words of which the following is a translation. 

" Glabrous, branches somewhat terete, phyllodes very thin, elongated, tetragonous- 
filiform, curved-mucronulate, the stipules minute, deltoid and persisting for a long time, 
peduncles short, sohtary,monooephalous, pods papery , broadly linear, straight, compressed, 
marginate, without nerves, slightly flexuose at the sutures, shortly stipitate at the base 
and acute at the apex." 

Bentham referred this to his A. pinifolia, which Mueller had suggested as 
possible, but he had not a specimen of Bentham's species to compare. 

Mueller's plant is No. 5, and came from near the source of the MacArthur 
River, but there is no known specimen in Austraha. 



320 THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Bentham points out that Mueller gave the name of A. tenuissima to two 
species, the other being given, at p. 135 of Mueller's paper, the name of A. 
tenuissima. It came from Sturt's Creek. 

In B. Fl., ii, 401, Bentham makes it var. (?) tenuissima of A. xylocarpa, 
A . Ctmn. 

In B. FL, ii., 339, Bentham records A. juncifolia from " Islands of Gulf of 
Carpentaria, R. Brcmm," which I have not seen,* and also from " barren stony 
places on the Mac Arthur, Mueller," the unsatisfactoriness of v/hich I have 
just shown. 

In his " Second Census," Mueller recorded A. juncifolia for N.A., but 
Professor Ewart informs me that there is no specimen from the Northern Ter- 
ritory in the Melbourne Herbarium. 

I recommend that A. juncifolia be not admitted to the record of the 
Northern Territory species without additional evidence. If it occurs in the 
Territory, it will probably be found in the south-eastern part of it, rather than 
on the northern coast. 

4. A. lycopodifolia, A. Cunn. (123). 

Victoria River ; it had already been collected in Arnhem Bay, another 
Northern Territory locahty. I received it from the Lower Victoria River in 
1913, from R. J. Winters and E. J. Dunn. 

Var. glabrescens, Benih. : Collected by Mueller at the Victoria River, who 
described it in B. Fl. ii., 342, from material named A. asperulacea, by Mueller. 

5. A. galioides, Benth. (123). 

Victoria River, also Islands of Gulf of Carpentaria (R. Brown). 
A. asperulacea, F.v. M. (123), is a synonym of A. lycopodifolia, A. Cunn., 
var. glabrescens, Benth. See above. 

6. A. subternata, F. v. M. (124). 

Upper Victoria River, Roper, and Limmen Bight Rivers, 

7. A. salicina, Lindl. (126). 

Arnhem's Land to the Roper River. This has proved to be a widely dis- 
tributed and very variable species. Reference mav be made to my " Forest 
Flora,' N.S.W.",Va.it 39, p. 146. 

8. A. Sentis, F. v. M. (128). This species is not synonymous with A. 
decora, Reichb., as Bentham, who edited Mueller's paper, thought at the time. 

Victoria River, Arnhem Land, Gulf of Carpentaria. A widely diffused 
species in the drier parts of Australia. 

A. pendula, A. Cunn. (133). 

Mueller records specimens from Sturt's Creek without flower or fruit, and 
therefore (as he points out) doubtful. 

The species is very widely distributed, but I know of no authentic record 
of it for the Northern Territory. 

9. A. stenophylla, A. Cunn. (133). 

Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks. Since then found to be widely distributed in 
Australia. 

10. A. dineura, F. v. M. (130). 

Sources of Roper and Limmen Bight Rivers. In editing Mueller's paper, 
Bentham agreed that the species was valid, but in B. Fl., ii., 391, he placed it 
under A. binervata, DC, the specimens being " small and in fruit only." 

* Unless it is " Acacia juncifolia, Benth : received from Kew without specific local- 
ity." Mr. J. F. Bailey has kindly favoured me with a specimen from the Queensland 
Herbarium. It probably came from Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown, 
and it is A. AlUninna. Maiden, n. sp. See below, p. .'!.30. The pods are so immature as 
to cause a description to be unsatisfactory. 



APPENDIX IV. 321 

-4. dineura and A. blnervata have considerable superficial resemblance. 

--I . dine\f,ra also occurs around Darwin. 

^4. dissoneura, F. v. M., Wing's Southern Science Record, July, 1882, is a 
synonym. 

11. A. translucens,. A. Cunn. (133). 

Sturt's and Hooker's Creeks and Victoria River, also Islands of Gulf of 
Carpentaria (R. Brown). 

12. A. impressa, F. v. M. (not A. Cwnn.) (133). 

Victoria River and Sturt's Creek. Bentham gives the caution that it is 
very near A. translucens in foliage and flowers, but with a very different fruit. 

13. A. hemigiiosta, F. v. M. (134). 

Victoria and Roper Rivers. Also occurs in North Western Australia and 
in Northern Queensland. 

A. tenuissima, F. v. J[. (135). See above, p. 319. 

14. A. pityoides, F.v. JI. {135). Sturt's Creek. 

15. A. xylocarpa, A. Cunn. As A. orthocarpa, F. v. M. {136). 
MacArthur River. (See note on A. juncifolia, above p. 319. Var. (?) 

tenuissima, Benth. (B. FL, ii., 401). A. tenuissima, F. v. M. (135). 

16. A. gonocarpa, F. v. M. (136). 

Arnhem Bay, R. Brown, rocky shores of Gulf of Carpentaria. 

17. A. dr-epatiocarpa, F. i: M. (137). South-west of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria. 

18. A. lysiphloia, F. v. JI. (137), m B. Fl., ii. 393. 

Sturt's and Hooker's Creeks. Limmen Bight River, Gulf of Carpentaria. 

19. A. delibrata, A. Cunn. (138). 

Under A. delibrata in B. Fl., ii., 405, Bentham only quotes A. Cunning- 
ham's specimen's from North Western Austraha. He gives an account of 
Mueller's Northern Territory A. delibrata specimens, viz., " Amhem's Land, 
head of the Seven Emu River, Upper Roper River, Victoria River, Sturt's 
Creek, Fitzmaurice River," under A. oligoneura, F. v. M., surmising that 
Mueller's is a synonym of Cunningham's species. Under A. oligoneura (p. 
139 of Mueller's paper), he gives a useful account of each of Mueller's supposed 
delibrata specimens. 

In B. Fl., ii., 405, he grudgingly separates A. delibrata and A. oligoneura, 
saying of the latter : " Possibly the same as A. delibrata." 

Mueller's " Iconography" does not help us, for he figures delibrata and 
omits oligoneura. He, however, maintains them as separate species in his 
" Second Census." 

Since the above was written, I have received a portion of the type of A. 
delibrata from Kew, and find that it has been collected in North Western 
Austraha during the last few years, but itwas noted as a different species. So 
far it has not been collected in the Northern Territorj'. but I think that is onlv 
a matter of time. The^. delibrata figured in Mueller's Iconography is quite "a 
different plant. 

My account of Tropical Wastern Australian Acacias is before the Roval 
Society of New South Wales, and it is expected to be published in 1917. 

20. A. oligoneura, F. v. M. (139). 

Victoria River, Macadam Range, Arnhem Land. These are the only two 
locaUties quoted in B. Fl., ii., 405. See below, p. 343. 



322 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

This is a puzzling, uncertain species. In the paper before the Royal 
Society of New South Wales just referred to, I have discussed, at some length, 
" What is Acacia oligoneura, F. v. M. 1 " 

21. A. toruTosa, Benth. (139). 

This is a case in which a new species in Mueller's paper is attributed 
to Bentham. (See B. Fl., ii., 405). 

Bentham, in editing Mueller's paper, synonymises it with A. julifera, 
F. V. M., MSS., non Benth. 

^4. julifera is described by Bentham in Hooker's London Journal Bat., i., 
374. The type is from Rodd Bay, Port Curtis, Queensland. 

Bentham in B. Fl., ii., 405, keeps the two species apart, but unfortunately 
Mueller only figures A. torulosa in his " Iconography." 

This is another pair of species which, as Bentham points out, are scarcely 
to be separated except by the fruit, and therefore it is to be regretted that 
opportunity was not taken of figuring A. julifera from the best material 
available. 

It does not appear that A. julifera extends to the Northern 'Territory. 

A. torulosa is recorded from the Nicholson and the Roper, and I do not 
know another authenticated Northern Territory locality. It extends into 
Queensland. 

22. A.pachycarpa, F.v.M. {13Q). Sturt's Creek. 

In Mueller's paper Bentham places it under A. doratoxylon, but in B. FL, 
ii., 409, he recognises its specific rank, and points out its affinity to A. 
plectocarpa, A. Gunn. Mueller figures it in his " Iconography." 

23. A. conspersa, F. v. M. (140). 

Near the Roper and Limmen Bight Rivers. Bentham, in Mueller's paper, 
points out its relationship to A. leptocarpa, A. Gunn. In B. FL, ii., 403, it 
comes next to A. doratoxylon, A. Gunn. 

24. A. gonoclada, F. v. M. (140). 

Victoria River, also Arnhem's Land, Figured in '' Iconography." 

25. A. amentifera, F.v. 31. (141). Upper Victoria River. 

26. A. Wickhami, Benth. (141). Victoria River and Sturt's Creek. 
Mueller described his " GuK of Carpentaria specimen No. 38," under the 

name A. calligera, and Bentham, in doubtfully referring it to A. Wickhami, 
does not take his usual course of recording the synonym in B. FL, ii., 393. He 
points out the variation in the species. 

27. A. ptychophylla, F. v. M. (142). Sturt's Creek. Still little known. 

28. A. umbellata, A. Gunn. (142). 

Type from Cleveland Bay and Cape FHnders, North Queensland, also 
Bauer's " North Coast" which usually means Gulf of Carpentaria in this con- 
nection. 

Bentham, in Mueller's paper, makes the latter's proposed name A. acra- 
denia, a synonym. Mueller collected it at the Gulf of Carpentaria, Seven Emu 
River, and sources of the Victoria River — Northern Territory localities. 

In the same paper Bentham pointed out that " Cunningham's specimen is 
very bad," and that the specific name (umbellata) might perhaps be inappro- 
priate, possibly an allusion to the habit that Mueller and other botanists 
occasionally indulged in of changing specific names if they deemed them 
inappropriate. 

In B. FL, ii., 394, under A. umhellata, Mueller's dcradenia specimens are 
quoted, but the synonym is not mentioned, j^robably through an oversight. 



APPENDIX rv. 323 

In the ■" Iconography ' Mueller figures A. acradenia, but does not mention 
A. umbellatd (it, however, was not his practice to mention synonyms). 

I received it from Tanami from Dr. H. I. Jensen, in 1913, and from the 
Lower Victoria River from R. J. Winters and E. J. Dunn, in the same year. 

29. .4. leptophleba, F.v. M. (143). Sturt's Creek. 

The imperfect specimens were, in Mueller's paper, referred to A. 
aulacocarpa, A. Cunn., but in B. Fl. ii., 395, he points out his error. 
For a note on A. aulacocarpa, A. Cunn., see below, p. 327. 

30. A.crassicarpa, A. Cunn., not crassocarpa (1^3). Point Pearce and 
Victoria River. 

31. A. megalantJia, F. v. M. (143). Sturt's Creek. Still imperfectly 
kno\vn. 

32. ^4. tumida, F. v. M. (144). Victoria River, Point Pearce, Sturt's 
Creek. 

A. retinervis, Benth. (144). 

Bentham, in editing Mueller's paper, considered this species to include the 
preceding, but in B. FL, ii., 409, he acknowledges the specific rank of A. tumida. 

It is recorded from North West Australia, and while it is in the highest 
degree hkely that it also occurs in the Northern Territory, I exclude it from the 
flora until it has been actually found. Mueller includes it in the " Second 
Census," but I do not know on what evidence. 

33. .4. stipuligera, F. v. M. (144). 

Sources of Victoria River, Hooker's and Sturt's Creeks. Bentham says 
it is the '■ Scrub Wattle"' of M'Douall Stuart. 

34. A.sericata, A. Cunn. {A. platyca'rpa, F.v. M. {14:5) ). Suppressed 
by Mueller in favour of A.flavescens, A. Cunn. Gulf of Carpentaria, Victoria 
River. Since found not far from Darwin. 

35. A. holosericea, A. CvMn. (145). Victoria River, Arnhem's Land. 
Var. pubescens, F. v. JI. Victoria and Roper Rivers. 

36. ^4. limbata, F. v. 21. (145). North Austraha (without a definite 
locality). 

37. ^4. dimidiaia, Benth. (145). Macadam Range, Victoria River. 

Var. eriostachya, F. v. 31. (145), Victoria River, -svith tomentose petals and 
calyces ; it is not taken up by Bentham in B. FL, ii., 412. 

38. A. latifolia, Benth. (146). 

Arnhem's Land, Limmen Bight River, Gulf of Carpentaria. Figured in 
■ Iconography." 

39. A. Farne'iiana, WiUd. As A. lenticellata, F. v. M. (147). Sturt's 
Creek and MacArthur River. 

40. A. pallida, F. v. M. (147) partly. 

Macadam Range and Fitzmaurice River. Bentham's comments at pp. 147 
and 148 of Mueller's paper should be read. 

41. A. Bidwilli, Benth. (147). 

A record tentatively stated by Bentham, but in B. FL, ii., 420, he refers 
some of Mueller's specimens from Ridges of the Victoria River to his (?) var. 
major. 

(I have not given all the known localities for Northern Territory species for 
reasons of space.) 



A. 


phlebocarpa, F. v. M. 


A. 


A. 


pinifolia, Benth.= A. junci- 


A. 




folia, Benth. 


A. 


A. 


subternata, F. v. M. 


A. 


A. 


salicina, Lindl, 


A. 


A. 


decora, Beichb. (This is really 






A. Sentis,F.v.M.;see above, 


A. 




p. 320). 


A. 


A. 


dineura, F. v. M. 


A. 


A. 


hemignosta, F. v. M. 


A. 


A. 


pityoides, F. v. M. 


A. 


A. 


orthocarpa, F.v.M.~ A. xylo- 


A. 




carpa, A. Cunn. 


A. 


A. 


gonocarpa, F. v. M. 


A. 


A. 


drepanocarpa, F. v. M. 





324 THE TLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

So that Mueller, in his valuable paper in Journ. Linn. Soc, iii., 114 
(1859), recorded 41 species of Acacia for the Northern Territory, which are now 
accepted as valid records. 

B. — ^In " Landsborough's Exploration of Australia," edited by J. S. 
Laurie, there is an Appendix by Mueller, of a list of plants noticed round the 
GuU of Carpentaria from the Roper to the Gilbert (1862). 

This tract includes part of Queensland, but that portion from the Roper 
River going south and east to the Queensland border is in the Northern Territory. 
The Gilbert River is of course in Cape York Peninsula. 

Following is the list of Acacias recorded by Mueller, and although we can- 
not in all cases say which were actually obtained from the Northern Territory, 
it so happens that they are all Northern Territory species. 

lysiphlcea, F. v. M. 

delibrata, A. Cunn. (?) 

torulosa, F. v. M. 

conspersa, F. v. M. 

calligera, F. v. M.= A. Wick- 
hami, Benth. 

umbellata-, A. Cunn. 

sericata, A . Cunn. 

holosericea, A. Cunn. 

limbata, F. v. M. 

dimidiata, Benth. 

latifolia, Benth. 

Farnesiana, Willd. 

suberosa, A. Cunn. 

42. A. suberosa, A. Cwwra., is the only addition to the preceding list. 

C. — Report by Mr. F. G. Waterhouse on the Fauna and Flora, Natural 
History and Physical Features of Australia, on the line of J. M'Douall Stuart's 
Route across that Continent, from the South to the North Coast. (Parlia- 
mentary Paper, S.A.,No. 125, 1862.) The botanical references are scanty; 
brief ones referring to Acacias will be found at pp. 8 and 10 (Mulga, Myall 
and Acacia Farnesiana). 

D. — The next list of Northern Territory Acacias is to be found in B. F!., ii. 
(1864), but the term " North Australia," as used by Bentham, includes also 
North-west Australia. 

The following species are additional : — 

43. Bynoeana, Benth. Gvilf of Carpentaria (Mueller). 

44. hippuroides. Reward. Attack Creek (M'Douall Stuart). 

Baueri, Benth. "North Coast" (R. Brown), which means Gulf of Car- 
pentaria). I have not seen it from the Northern Territory, and would like to 
see the record confirmed. Mueller omits it from the Second Census. 

45. Simsii, A. Cunn. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria (R. Brown). 
Seep. 346. 

46. dictyophleha, F. v. M. Mt. Humphries (M'Douall Stuart). 

47. latescens, Benth. Capstan Island, Port E sington (Armstrong). I 
have received it, 20th April, 1916, from Koolpinvah. near Darwin. (G. F. 
Hill, No. 436). 



APPENDIX IV. 325 

48. retivenia, F. v. M. Short's Range (M'Douall Stuart). 
• 49. linarioides, Benth. Cavern Island, Gulf of Carpentaria (R. Brown). 

50. stigmatophylla, A. Cunn. Victoria River, Mueller, but not quoted in 
his paper in Journ. Linn. Soc. iii., (1859). 

51. polystachya, A. Cunn. Port Essington (A. Cunningham), and 
probably islands of Gulf of Carpentaria (R. Brown). 

52. plectocarpa, A. Cunn. Islands of Gulf of Carpentaria (R. Brown), 
Sturt's Creek, Roper, Seven Emu and Fitzmaurice Rivers (Mueller), but not 
mentioned in Mueller's paper in Journ. Linn. Soc, ui. 

This is a species concerning which there has been a good deal of confusion. 
It is not the A. plectocarpa a3 figured by Mueller in the Iconography. I have 
dealt with it in my paper before the Royal Society of N.S.W., 1917. 

53. oncinocarpa, F. v. M. Melville Island (Herb. Fraser). 

54. auriculiformis, A . Cunn. South Goulbum Island, A. Cunningham . 
I received this in 1913 from the Lower Victoria River from R. J. Winters 

and E. J. Dunn. 

55. hnrrcifusa, A. Cunn. Islands of Gulf of Carpentaria (R. Brown), 
Victoria River (Mueller), but not mentioned in Mueller's paper in Journ. Linn. 
Soc, iii. 

I received it from the Lower Victoria River from R. J. Winters and E. J. 
Dunn. 

E. — "A catalogue of plants collected during Mr. Alexander Forrest's 
geographical exploration of North-West AustraUa in 1879," by Baron von 
Mueller, Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., xiv., 81 (1880). 

This expedition traversed between King's Sound and Port Darwin, and the 
following Acacias were collected in the Territory : — 

A. Serais, F. v. M., near Rudolph Range, Sturt's Creek. 

A. retivenia, F. v. M., Margaret River. 

A. Wickhami, £ew<A., Margaret River. 

A. stipulosa, F. v. M., East of Oscar Ranges, Humbert River. 

A. pallida, F. v. M., Margaret River. 

A. Farnesiana, Willd., Mt. Hale. 

There are no new records for the Territory. 

F. — ^In the Appendix to Ernest Giles' " Australia Twice Traversed," in 
1872-4 (published in 1889), Mueller gives the following list of Acacias : — 
A. Sentis, F. v. M., between Mt. Olga and Barrow Range. 
A. patens, F. v. M., Mt. Olga and Macdonell Range. 

A. spondylophylla, F. v. 31. Glen of Palms, Macdonnell and Rawlinson's 
Ranges . 

A. lycopodifolia, A. Cunn. Macdonnell Ranges. 

A. minutifolia, F. v. M., Mt. Olga. 

A. strongylophylla, F. v. M., between the Alberta and Mount Olga, Mac- 
donell Range ; also towards Lake Amadous and Barrow Range. 

A. aneura, F. v. M., between Mount Olga and Barrow Range. 

56. A. spondylophylla. 

57. A. minutifolia. 



326 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

58. A. strongylophylla. 

59. A. aneura. 

Are not in previous lists. 

G. — In " Plants indigenous to the neighbourhood of Hermannsburg, on 
the River Finke, Central Australia," collected by the Rev. H. (should be J.) 
Kempe, and named by Mueller, in Proc. Roy. Soc, S.A., v.. 19 (1882), we 
have : — 

A. Sentis, F. v. M. A. aneura, F. v. M. 

A. minutifolia, F. v. M. A. pyrifolia. DC. 

A. Farnesiana, Willd. A. salicina, Lindl. 

60. A. pyrifolia is not in previous lists. 

H.— In " Additions to the Flora of South Austraha," by Prof. Tate 
(ib., p. 82), we have from the Northern Territory : — 

A. Gilesiana,F. v. M., from Mount Eba, quoting Melbourne "Chemist and 
Druggist," July, 1882. 

A. Kempeana, F. v. M., near the Finke River, quoted same Journal, 
June, 1882. 

A. estrophiolala, F. v. M., Southern Science Record, July, 1882. From 
near the Finke River. 

A. sessiliceps, F. v. M., from near the Finke Ri^'er, Melbourne " Chemist 
and Druggist," July, 1882. 

A. lysiphlma, F. v. M., near the Finke River. 

A. dictyophleba, F. v. M., Fragm., iii., 128. Mount Humphries (Stuart), 
and Finke River. 

A. Farnesiana, IFiiM., near the Finke River. 

61. A. Gilesiana. 

62. A. Kempeana. 

63. A. estrophiolata. 

64. A . sessiliceps. 
Are not in previous lists. 

I. — ^In " Plants .collected in Central Austraha," by C. Winnecke in 1883, 
published by Mueller in Proc. Roy. Soc, S. A., viii,, 10 (1886), only one Acacia 
is published, viz., A. dictyophleba, F. v. M. 

J. — Mueller's " Second Census of Austrahan Plants" (1889), hsts 77 
species, and gives for Northern Austraha (including Northern Territory), 
the following not previously enumerated ; — 

A.genistoides, A. Cunn. (I do not know a Northern Territory locaUty). 

A. Gregorii, F. v. M., Fragm., iii., 47. (I do not know definitely a North- 
ern Territory locality). 

A. spathulata, F. v. M. (I do not know a Northern Territory locaUty). 

A. sclerosperma, F. v. M., in Wing's S. Science Rec, ii., 150 (1882), Nichol 
River, North West Australia, but I do not know of any Northern "Territory 
record. 



APPENDIX IV. 



327 



65. A. Luehmanni, F. v. 31., in Fragm, xi., 116 (Liverpool River). 
A . deltoidea, A . Cunn . (I do not know a Northern Territory locality) . 
A. setulifem, Benth. (I do not kno^v a Northern Territory locality). 
A. bivenosa, DC. (I do not know a Northern Territory' locaHty). 
A. Uiiieura, F. v. M. (I do not know a Northern Territory localitj^). 

66. A. pradongata, F. v. J/., Melbourne Chemist and Druggist, August, 
1883. Of the locaUties given in the original description, '' near Port Darwin " 
should be Elizabeth River, near Darwin, and " Adam's Bay" is Adam Bay, 
a few miles north-east of Darwin. 

A.flavescens, A. Cunn. (He suppresses A. sericata, A. Cmw«., which he 
believes A.flavescens includes, so this is not an additional record). 

A. brevifolia, Benth. (I do not know a Northern Territory locality). 

67. A. conjunct if olio , F. v. M., in Fragm., xi., 68. (Victoria River, B. 
Gulliver). 

A . arida, Benth. (I do not know a Northern Territory locality). 

A. leptostachya, Benth. (I do not know a Northern Territory locality). 

A. loxocarpa, Benth. (I do not know a Northern Territory locality). 

A. retinervis, Benth. (I have already commented on th}s species at p. 323, 
and consider it doubtful in absence of evidence). 

68. A. aulacocarpa, A. Cunn. (Prof. Ewart has it in the Melbourne 
Herbarium from A. C. Hulls, Escape Cliffs. Of the references to A. aulacocarpa 
in Journ. Linn. jSoc, iii., 143,the 4. awZacocar^a there quoted by Bentham is 
A. leptophleba, F. v. J/., while the var. brevifolia. F. i\ 21., is from Suttor 

Desert, Queensland, and not from the Northern Territory). 

A. Biduilli, Benth. (See above, p. 323). 

Mueller omitted the following, which appear to be vahd records prior to the 
publication of the " Second Census,' apparently through inadvertence : — 

aneura Kempeana. 

crassicarpa (in his original 1859 paper) niinutifoUa. 

estroph ioki ta . sessiliceps . 

Gilesiana. strongylophylla. 

hippuroides. 

As regards State localities ia the Census, Mueller's prefatory remarks at 
p. viii., of the " First Census of Austrahan Plants " (1882), and not reprinted 
with the " Second Census," may be read. He points out the unsatis- 
factoriness of '' X.A." (and indeed other divisions) as botanical provinces. 
He goes on to say: '" The geogTaphic columns in these pages indicate simph- 
the occurrence of plants within any of the colonial areas, but have been 
extended even to such species, \vhich merely may (my italics) pass boundary 
lines." Mueller then goes on to show the finding of a plant in certain geo- 
graphical areas may require it to be recorded in an adjacent State if the con- 
ditions maj' be presumed to be similar. 

I had correspondence with Mueller on this very point, in the course of 
enquiry as to why certain species came to be recorded for my own State (Ne^^' 
South Wales), when I could not find records of New South Wales locaUties. In 
some cases he informed me that the records for Queensland, South Australia, 
and Victoria ^vore so near the boundary of New South Wales, that thev could 



328 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

safely be attributed to New South Wales. As regards the Victorian-New South 
Wales Boundary, he informed me that when a plant was found fifteen miles 
away from the border, he inserted it for both States. I thought this a pity, 
and respectfully informed the veteran so, as I think that all records for a State 
should be backed up by specific localities in that State. (In the present in- 
complete state of our knowledge of Northern Territory plants, I would of 
course raise no objection to the fifteen mile boundary ; the circumstances are 
different). 

It may be that some of the " N.A " records for Acacias are marked in the 
" Second Census" on the same principle. I do not say they are, for although I 
cannot find the records I will continue to search for them, and also for the pjants 
within the Territory itself. It is, however, proper to point out that records 
simply based on the " N.A." of the " Second Census" have not the same value 
in my eyes as those concerning which I have been able to obtain specific 
locahties. I would gratefully welcome any information on the subject, and 
meantime no harm can result in temporarily excluding some names, " pro- 
babilities" as most of them appear to be. 

K.- — See also Journal of Mr. W. H. Tietkens' Central Australian Expedition 
(1889). This was ordered by the South Austrahan Legislative Assembly to be 
printed on the 30th October (1890). It was reprinted in octavo form by the 
South Austrahan Government Printer in 1891. 

It contains a hst of plants compiled by Mueller and Tate. The paper is a 
copy of one published in Journ. Roy. Soc, S. A., xiii., 94 (1890). It is pre- 
faced by a useful catalogue of locahties. 

The hst of species of Acacia quoted is : — 

A. Bynoeana, Benth. Western end of Lake Amadeus. 

^1. S'pondylofhylla, F. v. M. Mt. Sender. 

A. strongylophylla, F. v. M. Mt. Sonder ; Western end of Lake Amadeus ; 
Mt. Olga. 

A. pyrifolia, DC. Gill's Creek ; Laura Vale ; Sandhills east of Lake 
Macdonald. 

A. notabilis, F. v. M. Mt. Sonder ; Gill's Creek. 

A. salicina, Lindl. Mount Sonder ; West end of Lake Amadeus ; Table- 
land West of Bringa. 

A. dictyophleba, F. v. M. Sandhills North of Mount Harris. 

A. patens, F. v. M. Mt. Sonder, a shrub from 5 to 8 feet. 

A. acradenia, F. v. M. Mt. Harris. = A. umbellata, A. Cunn. 

A. doratoxylon, A. Cunn. 12 miles south-east of Gill's Creek ; Mt. 
Olga ; Tableland West of Eringa. 

A. aneura, F. v. M. West of Lake Amadeus ; tableland West of Eringa. 
A. cyperophylla, F. v. M. Warman Rocks 
A. Farnesiana, Willd. Mt. Sonder. 

69. A. notabilis. (This is in Mueller's " Second Census," but this is ap- 
parently the first record.) 

70. A. doratoxylon. (Admitted in the " Second Census" perhaps on the 
doubtful evidence of Mueller's Journ. Linn. Soc, iii., paper. The reputed 
doratoxylon from the Northern Territory may perhaps be revised.) 

71. A. cyperophylla, F. v. M. 
Are not in previous lists. 



APPENDIX IV. 329 

L. — In 1892 Prof. Stirling collected Acacia retivenia, F. v. 21.. at Attack 
fireek, on the Transcontinental Telegraph Line {Proc. Roy. Soc, S. A., x\ .. 262 
(1892)). 

M.^ — ^In the Report on the botanical collections made by R. Helms, Elder 
Exploring Expedition, Proc. Roy. Soc, S.A., xvi., 333 (1896), which were re- 
ported on by Mueller and Tate, no collections appear to have been made north 
of latitude 26 degrees, but some of them were made so close to that hne that the 
ist of Acacias given at pp. 351-2 will be useful to the student of the Northern 
Territory flora. 

N. — We now turn to the "' Report on the work of the Horn Scientific 
Expedition of Central Australia," Part iii., "' Geology and Botany" (1896), 
'• Botany," pp. 117-194, by Prof. Tate. 

This work is recapitulatory to some extent of the plants collected in former 
expeditions, and mostly named by Mueller. 

The Acacias enumerated at pp. 155-7 include the following not previously 
enumerated : — 

72. A. tetragonophylla, F. v. M. (Hermannsburg, Kempe, Temp© 
Downs, etc.). 

73. A. ulicina, Meissner, var. oxyclada. (West of Macdonnell Range. 

Tietkens.) 

74. A. coriacea, DC. (South Macdonnell Range, Tafe). 

A. Gowleana, Tate, and A. frumentacea, Tate, are described as new 
at p. 187, and there are brief notes on species at p. 193. 

75. A. Cowleana, Tate, is stated to be near to A. glaucescens, Willd., 
and A. Cunninghamii, Hook. 

76. A. frumentacea, Tate, is compared both with A. leptopetala, Benth., 
and with A. Sentis, F. v. M. 

0. — ^Holtze, Nicholas. Bathurst Island (1910). He pubhshed a brief 
botanical report on the island, a list of plants observed, and the fcp. report of 
two and a-half foolscap pages is accompanied by a plan of the island. The 
document is headed " Northern Territory of South Australia," but it does not 
appear to have been presented to Parliament. 
The list of plants contaias the names — 

Acacia prcslongata, F. v. M. 

A. drepanocarpa, F. v. M. 

A. auriculiformis , F. v. M. 

A. latifolia, Benth. 
All of which have been previously recorded from the Northern Territory. 

P. — J. M. Black, in Proc. Roy. Soc, S.A., xxxviii., 460 (1914), describes 
Captain White's collections, the greater part of which were made north of the 
26th parallel, and therefore in the Northern Territory. 

For a list of the Acacias see p. 465. They include : — 

A. aneura, F. v. M., Crown Point, stated to be the dominating feature of 
the local flora. 

A. cyperophylla, F. v. M. 

A. cibaria, F. v. M., 30 miles east of Deep Well. (See A. brachystachtja, 
Benth.. p. 342 below). 



330 THE FLORA 0¥ THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

A. dictyophleba, F. v. M., Depot Sandhills. 

A. Cambagei, R. T. Baker, between Crown Point and Horseshoe Bend. 

A. Kempeana,, F. v. M., thirty (30) miles east of Deep Well. Common 
along the foot, of Macdonnell Range. 

A. Oswaldi, F. v. M., Love Creek. 

A. pyrifolia, DC, Crown Point. 

A. salicina, Lindl., " Umbrella Bush," between Crown Point and Horse- 
shoe Bend. 

A. sessiliceps, F.v. M., near New Crown Point. 

77. A. Cambagei 

78. A. Oswaldi 

Are not in previous hsts. 

79. A. cibaria is also new, but I look upon it as a synonym of A. brachy- 
stachya. In this case, ses p. 341. 

PART II. 

We will now deal with Mr. G. F. Hill's collections ; a few recent specimens 
received from himself and from other collectors have been added. Where no 
name of collector is given, Mr. Hill's is understood. The numbers, together 
with locahties, dates and other particulars given in inverted commas, are 
copies of Mr. HUl's labels. 

BENTHAM'S SERIES II., CONTINUAE. 

1. A. continua, Benth.—" No. 4i)0a. 90 miles north of the N.T. Survey 
Camp iv., 30th June, 1911." 

Pods and a few scattered flowers, the specimens fragmentary. 

SERIES III., PUNGENTES. 
Sub-series Uninbrves. 

2. A. patens, F. v. if.—" 259.^ 35 miles N.E. of Camp 2. 4 feet high, 
7th June, 1911." In bud only. 

3. A. teiragonophylla, F. v. M. — " No. 10. Blood's Creek, Overland 
Telegraph Line, S.A., 17th February, 1911. Shrub 6 feet high, growing near 
watercourse." Flowers and pods. 

Although this specimen came from within South Austraha, it will be 
observed that the species has been recorded (p. 329) from the Northern Territorj''. 

SERIES IV., CALAMIFORMES. 

Sub-series Uninerves, 

4. A. Alleniana. — "No. 776. Sandstone Ranges, near Western 
Creek, N.T., 16th February, 1912." 

Frutex gracilis. Phyllodiis linearibus ad 23 cm. longis, flexuosis, non striatis, sub- 
teretibus, costatis. Ploribus capitulis 5-meris, 4-.5 phyllodiorum axillaribus oongregatis. 
.Bracteis capitulis longis acuminatis et stipitibus tenuibus spinis similibus in capitulo 
immaturo. Calyco angustissimo, spathulato, paucis pilis, corolla circa dimidio aequilongo. 
Fetalis circa dimidio longitudinis oonjunctis, glabris, uno nervo. Pistillo laeve. Legu- 
minibus seminibusque non visis. A. prador.gat..e, F. v M., proxima affinis videtur. 

Phyllodes hnear, a slender shrub up to 23 cm. (9 inches) long, flexuose, 
terminating in a non-pungent point, articulate at base, not striate, covered with 



APPENDIX IV 



331 



pale glandular dots, usually with the appearance of two grooves and a semi- 
circular ridge between them. The opposite surface nearly round. When 
quite fresh, the phyllode is doubtless sub-terete, with the two blunt margins 
slightly incurved. No gland observed at base. 

Flowers in heads, 5-merous. The flower heads are clustered in the axils of 
the phyllodes, 4 or 5 springing from stipules surrounding the pedicels at the base. 

Bracts with long pointed heads and thin stipes, standing out like prickles 
beyond the petals in the unopened flower-head. 

Calyx very narrow spathulate, with a few hairs, about half the length of 
the corolla. 

Petals united about half way up but separating at a touch, glabrous, with 
nerve. 

Pistil smooth. Pods and seeds not seen. 

This interesting species belongs to the series CaZam«/orme5,sectionUniner\'es. 
I dedicate it in honour of Mr. Charles Ernest Froderick Allen, Curator of the 
Botanic Garden, Darwin, now at the front, who has done excellent work in 
collecting species of this genus. 

Its closest affinity appears to be with A. praelongata, F. v. M., from which 
it differs in the greater length of the phyllodes of that species, and also in their 
comparative flatness with midrib and visible lateral nerves. 

The protruding bracts of the new species give it a different appearance to 
that of A. praelongata, but the structure of the flowers is not very different. 

The flowers of the new species are in chisters, and not racemose as in A. 
praelongata. 

When pods are available a further statement can be made in regard to the 
position of the species. 

The prickly bracts are also observable in A. Simsii, A. Cunn., and ^4. 
homoclada, F. v. M. 

I think it very possible that A. Alleniana has been passed over as A. 
juncifolia* the unsatisfactoriness of whose record for the Northern Territory 
I have already drawn attention to. I only know A . juncifolia from Queensland 
and New South Wales at present, and proceed to compare A. juncifolia and A. 
Alleniana, using for the purpose a specimen of the former species from the 
Balonne River, Queensland, which tradition in the National Herbarium, 
Sydney, says was collected by Mitchell, and it is probably a co-type. 

A. juncifolia, Benth. A. Alleniana, n. sp. 

Phyllodes shorter (up to 17 cm.), terete Phyllodes longer (up to 23 cm.), terete, 

or semi-terete, bent near base, where there is no nerve visible, gland absent, long wrinkled 

a gland, nerve visible, short wrinkled attach- attachment, 
ment to the stem. 

Flower heads usually in pairs but some- Flower heads as many as 5 together 

times in threes. Peduncles short. in the axils of the phyllodes. Peduncles 

very long and slender. 

The bract on the pedxmcle figured at 2 No bract seen, 

of Mueller's Iconography Plate of A. 
juncifolia is not present in this specimen. 

Calyx irregularly divided to the base, Calyx divided to the base, narrow, 

glabrous, but rugose or pappilose. It has ciliate at the top. 
no hairs. 

Floral bracts shorter than the buds, Floral bracts much exceeding the buds 

hardly visible in the flower-head. in length, giving a pricldy appearance to the 

flower-head. 



* This is no longer a matter for surmise. See under A. juncifolia, p. 320, where I show 
that a specimen from Kew ilabelted juncifolia), received at the Queensland Herbariiun, 
turns out to be A. Adleniana. 



332 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

SERIES IV., UNINERVES. 

SUB-SBRIB i AnGUSTIFOLIAH. 

5. A. Sentis, F. v. M. — " 34. Idracowra Station, Finke River, 6th 
March, 1911. Host of No. 35." Phyllodes and pods. 

" 109. 37 mile.s east of Hermannsberg, Finke River, 21st March, 1911. 
Up to 15 feet." Phyllodes and pods. 

" 505. 35 miles S.E. Newcastle Waters, stunted bush on plains. 9th 
August, 1911." In flower. 

" 558. Head of Macarthur River, Northern Territory, small tree. 3rd 
September, 1911." In flower. 

SERIES v., BRUNIOIDEAE. 

6. A. spondylophylla, F. v. M. — " No. 178. Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell 
Range, 3000 feet. 16th May, 1911." In flower. 

7. A. Jenseni, n. sp.—" No. 384, N.T. Survey Camp 14, 20th June, 1911. 
On sandhills, grows to 20 feet, If inches in diameter." 

Frutex altus vel arbor parva altitudinem 20' attinens, phyllodiis et ramulis visoidis, 
glabris, ramulis fere teretibios. Phyllodiis oblanceolatis, 2.5-4 cm. longis, reotis vel pauUo 
curvatis, nervo medio venis lateralibusque prominentibus, orassiuaculis et minutis 
glandulia uniformiter tectis. Floribus glabris, 5-meris, capitulis oa 30-floris longis pedun- 
culis glandulosis aliquando, 2.5 cm. longis. Calyce truncato, nervis distinctis calycis 
loborum apicibas inorassatis. Fetalis plus dimidio longitudinis oonjunciis. Pistillo laeve. 
Legumine semineque non visia. A. salicinae, Lindl., afflnis videtur. 

A tall shrub or small tree attaining a height of 20 feet, and a trunk diameter 
of 1 J inches, branches rigid, perhaps pendulous, the foliage pale yellowish green, 
and together with the branchlets viscid, quite glabrous, branchlets nearly 
terete, but slightly angled, particularly towards the ends, through sUghtly 
raised ribs extending from the bases of the petioles. 

Phyllodia oblanceolate, 2.5-4 cm. (say 1-lJ inches long), about 4 mm. 
wide, straight or but slightly curved, terminating in a short point, midrib and 
lateral veins somewhat prominent, the marginal vein slightly incurved, gland at 
base of phyllode, texture rather thick and covered uniformly with minute glands. 

Flowers glabrous, 5-merous, about 45 in the head. Flower heads on long 
peduncles, which are glandular. Sometimes nearly 2.6 cm. (1 inch) long. 
Usually axillary, sometimes racemose. 

Bracts narrow, spoon-shaped, smooth. 

Calyx truncate with marked nerves, which are thickened at the tips of the 
calyx lobes. About two-thirds of the length of the petals. 

Petals united two-thirds up, spreading a little. 

Pistil smooth but not shiny, hoary. Pod and seed not seen. 

The name proposed for the species is in honour of Dr. Harold Ingomar 
Jensen, who, when Government Geologist of the Northern Territory, collected 
the local flora, particularly Eucalyptus, on his official journeys, and supplied 
valuable notes in regard to them. 

This species belongs to the series Uninerves, Section Angustifoliae. 

It appears to be closest related to A. salicina, Lindl., and in the absence 
of pods and seeds it may be separated from that species by the viscid and 
generally smaller phyllodia, the flower heads on long peduncles, which are 
covered with resinous glands, and in the shape and sculpture of the calyx 
which is longer and extends two-thirds along the corolla. 



APPENDIX IV. 



333 



The flower buds are smaller and rounder, that is, less ribbed and pointed 
than those of A. salicina, and also much more numerous in the head. 

SUB-SEBIES RaCEMOSAE. 

8. A. Jennerae,n. sp. — "295. At waterhole about 80 miles north-east 
of C. (arrow), 2, 8th June, 1911." 

Frutex vel arbor parva, glaber, ramulis teretibus. Phyllodiis lanceolatis, reotis vel 
pauUo ciirvatis, apice basique sensim attenuatis, 15 cm. longis et 1.5 cm. latissima parte, 
l-nervosia, nervis secondariis angulum 30 nervum medium facientibus, nullis nervis, second- 
ariis praecipue prominentibus. Racemis brevibus, capitulis globosis ca. 36-floris, pler- 
umque 5-meris, calyce trimcato, brevissime lobato, parte superiore villoso, corolla calycem 
oa. triente superante. Fetalis liberis, glabris. Pistillo laeve vel pruinoso. Leguminbus 
vel seminibus non visis. Videtur A. difformi, R. T. Baker proxime affinis. 

A shrub or small tree, glabrous in all its parts, branchlets terete, or sUghtly 
angular through the decurrence of thin ribs proceeding from the bases of the 
phyllodia. 

Phyllodia lanceolate, straight or slightly curved, tapering gradually 
to both ends, up to 15 cm. (6 in.) long, and about 1.5 cm. in the widest part. 
With from 1-3 marginal glands. One-nerved, the secondary veins meeting the 
midrib at an angle of about 30° and spreading. No secondary vein specially 
prominent. 

Racemes rather short but loose, with several globular flower heads of 
about 36 in the head, mostly 5-merous. 

Bract \\ ith circular dark-brown top, fringed ; on a slender pedicel. 

Calyx truncate, very shortly lobed, hairy at the top, extending two-thirds 
or more up the corolla. 

Petals free, glabrous, except for a few scattered hairs. 

Pistil smooth or hoary. 

Pods or seeds not seen. 

The name is given in honour of Miss Ameha Maud Jermer, Librarian, 
Botanic Gardens, Sydney, to whom I am indebted for useful assistance in the 
preparation of this paper. 

This species belongs to the series Uninerves, Section Racemosae. 

In the absence of pods and seeds, it may be provisionally placed in the 
penninervis-retinodes group, and its nearest afiinity appears to be A. difformis, 
B. T. Baker, Proa. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., xxii., 154 (1897), a species which is, so 
far as we know, confined to the drier parts of New South Wales. 

The differences appear to be absence of a second vein paraUel to the midrib, 
which is often found in A. difformis ; the latter has also a more falcate phyUode 
with a more rounded apex and a pecuhar thickening at the base. 

A. difformis has also longer racemes with more numerous heads of flowers. 

As regards the structure of the individual flowers I can detect no im- 
portant difference between them and those of A. difformis. 

Considering all the points, I think there are sufficient differences between 
the plant under consideration and A. difformis, to warrant a name being given 
to it : its final position can only be assigned with certainty when fnuts are 
available. 

9. A. salicina, Lindl., var. varian-s, Benih. 

" 7. Hot Springs, Dalhousie Station, S.A., 14th February, 1911. Host 
of No. 8." (presumably a Loranth). Flowers and pods. 

"13. Charlotte Waters, 21st February, 1911. Near river bed, grows to 
20 feet." Flowers and pods. 



334 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY 

The phyllodes are long (up to 18 cm.) and narrow-lanoeolate (under 1 cm 
broad). 

9a. A. salicina, Lindl.,var. 

" 362. 40 miles west of Camp iv. Lander Creek, 21st June, 1911/' In 
flower. 

" 196. Near Haasfs Bluff, Macdonnell Range, 4000 feet, 22nd May, 
1911." In bud. 

I have received the same form from the Strelley River, North Western 
Australia, collected by Dr. J. B. Cleland. 

A glaucous or glabrous shrub with angular branchlets. 

Phyllodes obovate-long or almost spathulate, obtuse, narrowed at the base, 
almost sessile, the apex terminating in a short straight or recurved point. 3-4 
cm. long, and rather more than 1 cm. broad. As many as three, and 
occasionally four glands on the inner margin, fewer on the outer margin. 
Texture fleshy, and in drying the phyllodes take on a pseudo -netted - 
veined appearance. 

Flowers in not numerous globular heads, up to 20 and 25 in the head, 
glabrous, 5 or 6-merous, racemes longer than the phyllodia. 

Calyx with nearly oblong sepals, truncate at top, sMghtly lobed and ragged 
at the edge, scarcely thickened at the edge, central nerve visible. Sepals half 
or a httle less than half as long as the petals. 

Petals united about half way up, sometimes spreading. 

Pistil very immature, but appears to be quite smooth. 

Bracts leafy with ragged edge. 

Pod and seed not seen 

I have described these specimens at length because they constitute a form 
new to me. Pods are not available, but the form seems to be conspecific with 
the very variable A. salicina, Lindl. Perhaps when pods are available it m_ay 
be given rank as a variety. 

The following comparisons with species having phyllodes somewhat similar 
in size and shape may be useful. 

1. With A. Watisiana, F.v. M. 

, After A. salicina, its closest affinity appears to be with this species. The 
type of A. Wattsiana, F. v. M., comes from Broughton and Rocky Creeks, S.A. ; 
the species is not rare in that State, and does not appear to extend to the 
Northern Territory or Western Australia. 

The phyllodes of A. Wattsiana are thinner (and therefore do not dry 
\\'rinkled), usually larger, and have fewer glands (being usually uniglandular), 
flowers in the head usually fewer. 

The bract is nail-headed, but foliar in the present form. 

2. With A. bivenosa, DC. 

Principally from the North- West Coast, we have a form of A. bivenosa 
strikingly different in general appearance from the type ; this is A. elliptica, 
A. Cunn. (see B. Fl., ii., 381). A. elliptica is very similar in appearance to 
the new form of A. salicina, but the second prominent vein readily separates 
them. It is, however, to be borne in mind that in individual specimens of A. 
elliptica (bivenosa), the second vein is sometimes so faint as to be easily passed 
over. 

10. A. strongylophylla, F. v. M., Fragm., viii., 226. — " 144. 15 miles 
west Hugh River, Macdonnell Ranges, 3000 feet on hills, Cth May, 1911." 
Phyllodes and pods. 



APPENDIX rv'. 



33.- 



11. A.pyrifolia, DC.—'- 181. Haast's Bluff, Macdoiinell Ranges, 3000 
feet. 16th May, 1911." In Hower. 

SERIES VII., PLURINERVES. 

Sub-Series Bbevifoliae. 

12. A. tmnslucens, A. Cunn. — " 758. Sandstone Ranges, Western 
Creek, Kith February, 1912." In flower. 

13. A. impressa, F. v. M. — " 192. Haast's Bluff, Macdonnell Range, 
4000 feet, 18th May, 1911." In flower. 

'" 234. 40 miles N.N.W. Meyer's Hill, on stony hiUs, shaggy bark, 2nd 
March, 1911." In very young pod, affected with gaUs. 

Sub-Seeies Oligoneueae. 

14. A. estrophiolata, F. v. M. — " 1.'). ' Ironwood,' Charlotte Waters, 
2rst February, 1911." Fruit only. 

"47. Henbury Station, Finke River, small tree in ranges, 10th March, 
1911." Flowers only. 

Flowers very small, glabrous, apparently- 5 or 6-merous, but very fragile. 

Calyx narrow spathulate, a little ragged at the apex ; sepals free. 

Petals free, glabrous. 

Pistil smooth and shiny. 

Bracts irregular in shape, glabrous, with ragged edge. 

Phyllode with gland sometimes near the base and sometimes under the 
tip around which it curves. 

Sub-Seeies Mioroneuea. 

15. A. Cambagei, R. T. Baker. — "14. Charlotte Waters, 21st February, 
1911 ; grows to 20 feet near creek or on plains." PhyUodes (about 7 mm. 
wide) and pods. 

" 19. 20 miles north-west of Charlotte Waters, 24th February, 1911, up 
to 30 feet." Phyllodes (about 4 mm. wide) and pods. 

"527a. Eva Downs, spreading tree 35 feet high, 20th August, 1911." 
Flowers over mature. PhyUodes far more falcate than the others, and much 
-wider (1-1.5 cm.). 

16. A. coriacea, DC. — '" 202. Near Haasts Bluff, Macdonnell Range, 
22nd May, 1911. On ranges, up to 10 feet." Hardly in flower. 

•'221. 25 miles N.N.W. of Meyer's Hill, Macdonnell Range, 1st June, 
191 1, up to 25 feet, 6 inches in diameter." In pod. 

236. 40 miles N.N.W. of Meyer's HiU, 2nd June, 1911." Flower and 
fruit. 

Tanami (Dr. H. I. Jensen). 

17. A. stenophylla, A. Cunn. — "468. Newcastle Waters, large bush, 
17th July, 1911." Flowers past maturitj^ 

Sub-Series Nervosae. 

18. A. hemignosta, F. v. M. — ■• 506. 30 miles south-east Newcastle 
Waters, small tree, 9th August, 1911." In flower. 

" 550. Top spring, Kilgour River, on Sandstone Range, 1st September 
1911." In early bud. 

Ix)wer Victoria River (R. J. Winters and E. J. Dunn). 



336 THE FLOBA OF THE NOBTHEBN TEBEITOBY. 

19, A. dictyophleba, F. v. i¥.— " 235. 40 miles N.N.W. of Meyer's 
Camp, on stony rises, 2nd June, 1911. " 

Tanami (Dr. H. I. Jensen). 

Sub-Seeies Dimidiatab. 

20. A. sericata, A. Cunn. — " 806. Near Bauhinia Downs Station, 
24th March, 1912." In flower only. 

Three or four secondary nerves springing at intervals from the marginal 
dorsal nerve. 

Stems and phyllodes quite glabrous, but the stems mealy. Glands on 
phyUodes 4-5 in the depressions of the edges of the phyllode, and at the extreme 
base. 

Flower-heads usually in fours or fives. 

The flower is smaller than that of var. Dunnii. It has some pale scattered 
hairs on the sepals, and petals above the calyx. 

20a. Var. Dunnii, var. nov. — ^Pound (in Long. 129° 39' E., and Lat. 15° 
14' S. approximately), at Blunder Bay, which. is about 10 miles above the 
mouth of Victoria River, 

The first plant was observed on 22nd May, 1913, in Gouty Gum Gully 
(Baobab trees grow there), about 1 J mUes up the creek from the anchorage on 
the south side of the bay. Afterwards other plants were found growing on the 
quartzite ridge that runs east and west opposite, and on the south side of the 
anchorage at Blunder Bay. 

It occurs at sea level and up to 150 feet above, as on the creek level and on 
top of the quartzite ridge. 

The plant first found grew in poor alluvial soil among stones at the side of a 
small ruiming creek. On the ridge the variety grows on bare hard quartzite 
rock without soil. The roots penetrate the cracks and fissures in the rock, and 
it is marvellous to see such luxuriant foliage supported by apparently innutri- 
tious material. 

Single stems without branches grow up to a height of 12 to 14 feet (including 
the terminal spray of flowers), apparently in one season. Near the ground the 
stems do not exceed one inch in diameter. The stems are round, and several 
grow up from the same root. From top to bottom and including the branching 
flower braniches they are glaucous. The top of the shoot spreads out into a 
bunch of flower heads about 18 inches in length. 

The above notes are based upon a report by Mr. E.J. Dunn (Government 
Geologist of Victoria), who with Mr. R. J. Winters collected it. 

The variety is larger in all its parts than the normal form. It is a superb 
form. 

Mr. Dunn gives the length of the phyllodes up to 17 inches (say 43 cm.), 
and I have seen thoroughly dry specimens up to 14|- inches (say 36 cm.) long, 
and 7^ inches (say 18 cm.) iDroad in the middle. 

The glands do not quite agree with those of the normal form ; in var. 
Dunnii the glands are on an angular or projecting kink of the marginal nerve, 
and always terminating a main nerve. In the normal species the gland is at the 
end of the nerve, and in the depressions of the marginal vein. 

Flower-heads up to four together, and on peduncles of various lengths. 
5-merous. Each flower-hea^d about half an inch in diameter and flowers in 
May (Dunn). 

Calyx-lobes (sepals) separated irregularly nearly to the base. It has a 
strong central nerve to each lobe, and a thickened apex with long hairs. 



APPENDIX IV. 337 

Petals separated irregularly from -^ to | way down. Nerves strong and 
thickened at the tips, with long hairs not quite half way down the flower. 

Pistil exceedingly small and smooth. 

Intermediate forms between the normal form and var. Dunnii were seen at 
Pine and Horseshoe Creeks (E. J. Dunn). 

After the above was written, I saw " Notes on a new Acacia from Victoria 
River, Northern Territory," by E. J. Dunn, Proc. Boy. Soc, Vict., xxviii. 
(new ser.), 228, with two plates. The Acacia is the var. Dunnii just described. 

SERIES JULIFLORAE. 

Sub-Sbbies Rigidulae. 

2i . A. lysiphlosa, F. v. M. — '" 418. 130 miles north of Northern Territory 
Survey Camp iv., N.T., 10 feet, spreading, rough bark." In flower. 

S2. A. Kelleri, i^. v. 1/.— Described in Proc. Linn. Soc, iV./S.lf ., xvi.,468 
(1891), from the Durack River, near the better-known Prmce Regent River, 
M'hich runs into the Cambridge Gulf, North-West AustraUa. 

I have received it from the Lower Victoria River from R. J. Winters and 
E. J. Dunn, 1913, which is a new record for the Northern Territory. 

23. A. stipuligera, F. v. M. — " 258. 35 miles north-east of Camp 2, 
7th June, 1911, 10 feet high." In flower. 

■' 358. 40 miles west of Lander Creek, Camp iv., slender bush." 
In flower. 

Sub-Sebies Stbnophvllae. 

24. A. cyperophylla, F. v. M. — 9. Under this number we have two 
specimens : — 

(A). " Christmas Creek, Dalhousie Springs Station, S.A., 15th February, 
1911." Phyllodes only. 

(B). " Bark and seeds," really bark, seeds and pods. 

We are endeavouriag still to ascertain the range and other particulars of 
^4. cyperophylla, and I invite attention to part LX. of my " Forest Flora of 
New South Wales" in this connection, which deals (pp. 275, 276) with its 
distribution (inter alia) in southern portion of the Northern Territory. 

Dalhousie Springs is a httle south of the Northern Territory boundary, 
but in the work quoted are some locaUties for this species within the Territory. 

The pods, seeds, and red, curly bark, are those oiA. cyperophylla without a 
doubt, and the name " Red Mulga" is that generally appHed to this species, 
but the phyllodes may perhaps belong to another species. I say ,this with 
some doubt, as we do not yet«laiow for certain the amount of variation in A. 
cyperophylla phyllodes. 

25. A. pityoides, F. v. M.—" No. 260. 35 miles N.E. of C (arrow) 2, 
7th June, 1911, 4 feet high." Flower and pod (without seed). 

This specimen agrees with Bentham's description (B. Fl., ii., 400) verj"- 
well, except in one particular. 

Bentham's words are " Calyx very thin and transparent, deeply lobed, or 
the sepals quite free but not spathulate, fully two-thirds as long as the corolla." 

Mueller's original description (Jouin. Linn. Soc, iii., 136) simply says : 
" Sepalis tenerrimis hberis oblongis, corolla triente brevioribus." 

The calyx is truncate, with an irregular edge ; it is thin. It agrees with 
Mueller's description. (At the same time it is closer to Mueller's Iconography 
figure of A. xylocarpa than of A. pityoides.) 



338 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

Mueller's figure of A. pityoides in " The Iconography of Australian 
Acacias "(which, as usual, does not state the history or locality of the specimen 
figured), shows the calyx " deeply lobed" as Bentham describes, and I have not 
come across quite such a deeply-lobed calyx in any plant attributable to A. 
pityoides, although I have seen (in other specimens) the calyx somewhat less 
oblong, and more deeply lobed than is shown in No. 260. 

The flowers are glabrous, and the pistil is hard, brown and hoary. The 
bract broadens and thickens at the top, and is glabrous. The phyllodes are 
finely striate under the lens, often uniformly shghtly scabrous and wrinkled at 
the base. Sometimes different parts of the plant are viscid or resinous. 

The figure of the funicle of A. pityoides, F. v. M., in the Iconography is 
quite straight (perhaps the artist has been a little diagrammatic). In No. 260 
the funicle is much twisted near the seed, even in a very young state. 

No. 260 agrees also with : — 

(a) A specimen in fruit collected at Tanami, Northern Territory, by Dr. 
H. I. Jensen, " small tree, height 6 feet, dense scrubs" (C. E. F. Allen's 
No. 210). 

(6) " Fairly tall plants of 4-8 feet, much branched, and with no definite 
stem, all issuing from a common stool, and also suckering. Usually growing in 
loose sandy places." Jericho, Queensland (J. L. Boorman). 

(c) " 8-10 feet, bark fairly smooth. Shrub spreads into 6 or 8 stems from 
one root. Spike pale yellow, aril yellowish-red." On sandy tableland at 
1400 feet, Prairie to Baronta, 30 miles east of Hughenden, Queensland (R. H. 
C^ambage, No. 3962). 

26. A. tanumbirinense, n. sp. — " No. 802. Sandstone country near 
Tanumbirini,N.T., 26th March, 1912." In flower only. 

Fnitex glaber, surculis teneiis resinosis, ramulis angulatis, phjllodiis angueto-Kiie- 
aribus, ca. 15 cm. longis, .4-5 mm. raaxima latitudine. Nervo medio prominente, nervis 
numerosis tenuibus parallelibus, 1-2 aliquando ceteribus crassioribus. Floribus 5 meris, 
spicis gracilibus non densissimus ad 4 cm. longis, pedunculis 5 mm .Sepalis basi partitis, 
tenuissimis, villosis, corolla ca,-diinido aequilongis. Fetalis basi comiatis, poculo similibus 
formatis, pauUo villosis, tenuissimis. Pistillo villoso, Leguminibus seminibusque non 
visis. A. drepanocarpae, affinis videtur. 

A glabrous shrub, the young shoots resinous, branchlets angular. 

Phyllodia narrow, linear, straight or slightly curved, terminating in a 
blunt, sometimes curved point, tapering -^ery gradually to both ends ; 
gland near base of phyUode on the inner margin. About 15 cm. (6 inches) 
long, and 4-5 mm. in greatest width. Central nerve prominent with num.erous 
fine parallel nerves of which one or two are sometimes thicker than the others. 

Rhachis hoary, resinous. 

Flowers 5-merous in .spikes which are slender and not very deii.se, up to 
4 cm. long, peduncle of about 5 mm. 

Calyx, the sepals divided to the base, very thin, almost without central 
nerve ; hairy, about half the length of the corolla. 

Petals divided half way down, cup shaped (that is to say relatively broad), 
glabrous, except for a few hairs, very thin. 

Pistil hairy. 

Pods and seeds not seen. 

Tliis species belongs to the series Juliflorae, and may be grouped in the 
sub-series Stenophyllae, sub-section with spikes pedunculate. 



APPENDIX IV. 339 

In the absence of pods and seeds, its closest relation appears to be A. 
drepanocarpa, F. v. M., from which it differs in the longer phyllodes with 
solitary glands. 

The flowers are very different, the lobes of the calyx in the new species 
being narrow, almost spathulate, while the calyx of A. drepanocarpa is cupuli- 
f orm as figured by Mueller in the Iconography. In the original description of 
A. drepanocarpa (Journ. Linn. Sac, iii., 137), Mueller says " Floras desunt." 
Bentham, however, describes the flower (B.Fl., ii., 402) as " with narrow lobes, 
half as long as corolla," which description, as far as it goes, would be appUcable 
to the proposed new species rather than to the figure in the Iconography. 

But No. 802 differs in other respects from Mueller's figure or Bentham 's 
description, and seems to be worthy of specific rank. 

27. Acacia aneura, F. v. 21.—" 22 (duplicate). Henbury Station, 
Finke River, 10th March, 1911." A form with narrow phyllodes, up to 9 cm. 
long. The flower is rather old for examination, but the details appear to be as 
follows : — 

Calyx very narrow and thin, fringed at the apex and deciduous. 
Petals united about half waj' up, glabrous. 
Pistil brown with surface finely granulated. 
Bracts capitate, fringed at the apex. 

28. A. Cuthbertsoni, Imehmann. — " 273. 60 miles north-east of Camp 2, 
7th June, 1911." 

" 373. 60 miles west of C (arrow) 14, Lander Creek. Pods only. 

29. A. sihirica, S. Le M. Moore.- — "No. 46. Henbury Station, Finke 
River, 10th March, 1911." In flower. 

" 119. 12 miles south of Ahce Springs, 23rd April, 1911." In flower. 
119 bis. Charlotte Waters northward. Grows to 15 feet, Macdonnell 
Range, 23rd March, 1911." In flower. Some of the phyllodes are com- 
paratively narrow. 

Following is a note on No. 119 : — 

Flower in spikes, 5-merous. Calyx semi-truncate, granulated edge; 
woolly at the base ; thin, often persistent when the corolla has faUen off.' 
Petals smooth, united about haff way up. Pistil smooth or hoary. There are 
broad concave bracts at the base of the spike. 

The original description of A. sihirica in Journ. Linn. Sac, xxxiv., 189 
(1899) omits the pods, or rather the pods are doubtful, nor do the specimens 
now quoted supply the deficiency. 

But Diels and Pritzel (Engler's Bot. Jahrb., xxxv., 308), state under 
A. sihirica, 

" Different from the preceding ( A. aneura), in having broader leaves, but somewhat 
sunilar to it. Specimen ] J. 5 1 22 collected near Menzies is a tree 5 m. high, the fruit deformed 
by some gaU-making insect, but left after a time by the insect with little orbicular doors 
sometimes cordate and emarginate (cf. Spencer Moore I.e., 189). ' 

" The normal fruits entirely similar to those of .4. aneura F. v. M." 

This not only gives the aflSnity of the species with A. aneura, but it de- 
scribes the pods of A. sihirica. I have not seen No. D. 5122, but I venture to 
suggest that it is unlikely that the fruits of one species is likely to be " entirely 
similar" to those of another. 

A. sihirica is most closely related to A. Kempeana, F. v. M. ( Australasian 
Chemist and Druggist, 1882). It is figured in the Iconography, but the speci- 
mens quoted in the original description come from widely separated localities 
no type being mentioned. ' 



340 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

In A. Kempeana we have the " calyx short-toothed, nearly three times 
■shorter than the unstreaked corolla" (compare also Iconography). In A. 
sibirica the flower (already described) is about half the length of the corolla. 
It seems to me that this is the most important difference, as far as our knowledge 
goes at present. The calyx of A. sibirica appears to be larger and more deeply 
lobed, and the. lobes are more obtuse than those of A. Kempeana ; the petals of 
A. sibirica are somewhat recurved, while those of A. Kempeana are not, the 
corolla cyhndroid, forming almost a vase-shape. (See Iconography). 

In A. sibirica the gland is distant from the base of the phyllode ; right at 
the base in A. Kempeana. 

We hope to get pods and particulars of habit, bark and timber of A. 
sibirica, but I think that A. sibirica is worthy of specific rank, and we have 
Northern Territory locaUties for it, which is of some interest. 

30, A. Hilliana, n. sp.- — ""^17. 140 miles north of Northern Territory 
Survey Camp iv., N.T. Bush 18 inches high, spread of 3 feet, 2nd July, 
1911." 

" 327. 12 miles north-west of C (arrow) iii., 12th June, 1911." 

Frutex pumilus, patens, glaber, visoidus, ramulis teretibus. Phyllodiis lineari- 
subulatis, acuminatis ad fere 3 cm. longis, teretibus v. pauUo applanatis, nerviis obscuris et 
itenuibus, numerosis glandulis asperatis. Spieis cum pedunculis longis (2 cm.) ad 2.5 cm. 
perfecte expansis. Sepalis angustis, petalis dimidio aequilongis. Fetalis maxima ex parte 
■conjunetis, deinde liberis, glabris, pauUo patentibus. Pistillo pruinoao. Legumine 
seminibusque non vlsis. 

Species A. aneurap,, P. v. M., affinis. 

A dwarf, spreading, glabrous, viscid shrub, branchlets terete, or nearly so. 
Phyllodia linear-subulate, pointed up to nearly 3 cm. (say 1 inch) long, terete or 
shghtly flattened, obscurely and finely nerved, or nerves obscured by false 
nerves, the result of irregular contraction of the tissue. The surface shghtly 
roughened with numerous small glandular protuberances. 

Spikes singly or in pairs, with long peduncles (say 2 cm.), slender but 
closely packed, up to 2.5 cm. when fully out. 

Flowers mostly 5-merous. 

Sepals narrow, irregularly united near the base, and sometimes free, 
glabrous, thin and transparent, about half as long as the petals. 

Petals united two-thirds of the way up, shghtly spreading, glabrous. 

Pistil hoary. 

Bract capitate, glabrous. Pods and seeds not seen. 

This free- flowering and interesting species I name in honour of Gerald 
Freer Hill, who collected it, and most of the specimens described in this 
paper. His No. 417 I constitute the type. 

His 327 is more viscid, but otherwise typical. 

The following specimen " west of, near Lake Amadeus, Tietkens" (Tate's 
handwriting), belongs to this species. A specimen in his handwriting has " A. 
aff. aneura," and subsequently he struck, out the word " aff." It was after- 
wards labelled " cyperophylla" by him. 

Prof. Tate, in Journ. Gent. Aust. Exp. Exped., 1889, W. H. Tietkens, p. 74 
(1891), labelled this A. aneura. In Part LX. of my " Forest Flora of New 
South Wales," I have tried to make clear Prof. Tate's views on A. cyperophylla, 
but the data are not quite sufficient to say that he published a statement that 
the present specimen is A. cyperophylla as well as A. aneura. There would 
probably have been no difficulty had Tietkens' specimens been numbered. 



APPENDIX IV. 341 

AfITNITIESj 

The new species belongs to the Series Juhflorae, Section Stenophyllae, 
with sub-section " Spikes pedunculate." 

Of this sub-section, Bentham notes four species which are more or less 
viscid or resinous, viz., xylocarpa, gonocarpa, oncinophylla and drepanocarpa. 

1. With A. xylocarpa, A. Cunn. This has much longer phyllodes, which 
are thin, and a different calyx. 

2. With A. gonocarpa, F. v. M. In this species we have much longer 
phyllodes with very different nervation. 

3. With A. oncinophylla, Lindl., a viscid pubescent species from the 
Swan River. It has longer, ribbed phyllodes, with a lobed calyx. 

4. With A. drepanocarpa, F. v. M. This has wider phyllodes and a 
different calyx. 

5. With A. cyperophylla, F. v. M. With reference to what has already 
been said, I venture to suggest reference to Part LX. of my " Forest Flora 
of New South Wales," in which this imperfectly-known species is dealt with. 
It will be seen that in phyllodes and structure of flower it is very different to 
A. Hilliana. 

6. With A. aneura, F. v. M. The sepals of A. aneura are in shape not 
very dissimilar to those of A. Hilliana, but are more hirsute, as is also the 
pistil. The phyllodes are, as a rule, very much broader, and longer, of a very 
different texture, and not viscid. A. aneura is also a much larger shrub. 

A. aneura has some, though not close, resemblance to A. Hilliana, in that 
narrow-phyUoded form which is related to A. brachystachya. 

But the phyllodes of both species are very different to those of A. Hilliana, 
which, in the present state of our knowledge, has no very close congener. 
Until pods and seeds can be procured we must be content with saying that it is 
alHed to A. aneura. 

31. A. ramulosa, W. V. Fitzgerald, Jowrw. W. A. Nat. Hist. Sac, 15 (May, 
1904). See also Ewart and White, Proc. Roy. Soc, Vict., xxii., 92 (1909). 

"213. (C. E. F. Allen). Tree 25 feet high." Tanami, coUected by Dr. H. 
I. Jensen, without flowers and fruits, appears to be A. ramulosa. 

Fitzgerald described A. ramulosa from Lennonville (6 miles north of Mt. 
Magnet), W.A. He did not coUect flowers, but described the pod as " Unear- 
cyhndrical, mostly 4-6 inches long, hardly or not contracted between the seeds, 
the valves striate, finely tomentose." It is one of the local Mulgas. I col- 
lected pods and flower-spikes from near Cue, in the Murchison district. 

The description may be completed as follows ; — 

Flower 5-merous ; calyx very irregular, but sepals bluntly lobed and almost 
spathulate with the tips ciliate, a third as long as the corolla ; petals glabrous 
and recurved, united two-thirds up ; pistil with a close tomentum. 

The synonymy of this species appears to be as follows : — 

1. A. cibaria, F. v. M., in Melh. Chem. and Drugg., July, 1882 (in part). 

2. A. stereophylla, Diels and Pritzel (non Meissn.), in Engler's Hot 

Jahrb., xxxv., 307 (1905). 

1. A. cibaria, F. v. if.— Mueller and Forrest (" Plants indigenous around 
Shark's Bay, W.A.," 1883), speaking of the then recently described^, cibaria, 
F. V. M., say that the native name is " Wonuy," and that the aborigines use 
the seeds for food. Some Shark's Bay seeds that I received from Mueller at 
the time I described as " two or three times as large as most Acacia seeds 



342 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

(resembling small castor-oil seeds somewhat), and with excessively hard and 
very thick coats." 

I am satisfied that they do not answer to the main description of A. 
cibaria seed, although they gave the name to the species. I could now say if 
necessary, with great probability of correctness, the Shark's Bay species that 
yielded the large, edible seeds. 

Tate in Proc. Roy. Soc, S. A., v., 85 (1882), says that " this species includes 
A. aneura, var. stenocarpa. He adds that it may be identical with A. hrachy- 
stachya, Benth., inasmuch as flowering specimens of A. aneura and A. brachy- 
stachya cannot readily be distinguished, and both species occur jn the same 
region ; the length of the spike is variable. Under these circumstances it seems 
advisable to aboUsh the latter specific name." 

Ewart and White {Proc. Roy. Soc, Vict., xxii., 92), state that " . 
A. cibaria, F. v. M., appears close to A. brachysfachya, and was in fact marked 
by Mueller, ' Porsan A. brachystachya.' " 

I find that the original description of A. cibaria is so httle known, and it is 
so important, that I quote it here, with comments in brackets. 

" Branohlets not angular, slightly silky ; phyllodes rather long, thick, rigid, broadly 
linear, very finely many-nerved, of greyish hue, curved apiculated ; stipules and gland 
obliterated." (Applies to both A. ramulosa &nd A. brachystachya). 

" Spikes axillary, solidary, short-stalked, not elongated ; flowers slightly short-hairy, 
bracts rhomboid towards the summiit, very thin towards the base, surpassed in length by the 
flowers ; sepals narrow, free, hardly half as long as the unstreaked corolla ; " (A. brachy- 
stachya) " pods straight, cylindrical, longitudinally streaked, seeds placed likewise, oblong, 
their two areoles minute ; strophiole very short, cupular, occupying only the basal portion 
of the seed ; funicle closely twisted beneath the strophiole." ( A. ramulosa). 

" Between the Darling River and Barcoo, Dr. Beckler" ( A. brachystachya). 

" Near the Murchison River, Ch. Gray, near the Gascoyne River, Oliver Jones." 
( A. ramulosa). 

" A tall shrub or small tree allied to A. aneura in foliage, but very different as regajd.s 
fruit." { A. ramulosa and A. brachystachya). 

" The aborigines use the seeds very largely for food, wherever this species occurs." 
{A. sp.). 

" The fruits from near Shark Bay are much larger and the seeds brownish, not black. 
It is the ' Wonuy' of the natives." { Acacia sp , whose identity can only be guessed at). 

So that the description of A. cibaria is a mixture of A. ramulosa, A. 
brachystachya &nd A.sp. It had better be dropped. 

For a figure and full account of A. brachystachya, Benth., see Part LXI. of 
my " Forest Flora of New South Wales." 

2. A. stereophylla, Diets and Pritzel non Meissn. In Engler'S Bot. 
Jahrb., xxxv., 307 (1905) Diels and Pritzel quote what they call A. stereophylla, 
Meissn., and add A. cibaria as a synonym. Following is a translation of their 
remarks, and although I have not seen the specimen described in the first 
paragraph, it is evident to me that it is A. ramulosa, W V.F. 

' ' To the description is added : — Up to 3 m. high, phyllodes glaucous-cinereous, legumes 
afterwards pendulous, thick, more or less smooth, coriaceous but scarcely woody, dis- 
tinctly longitudinally striate (the younger ones sometimes shortly cinereous-pubescent), 
narrowed slightly between the seeds, seeds longitudinal, thick but hardly twice as long as 
broad, concave in the middle of both sides. 

" In the Austin district near Menzies, in open shrubby places in sandy-muddy soil, in. 
fruit (m. Oct. D. 5123), near Carnarvon at the mouth of the Gascoyne River, in sandy soil, 
in fruit m. Aug. (D. 3724). A,lso in the Berlin Herb, there is an undetermined specimen 
collected at Shark's Bay in 1830 by Gaudichaud, which agrees entirely in fruit and flowers 
with preceding specimens. 

" With these specimens collected by us, and with the originals of A. cibaria, F. v. M., 
in the Melbourne herbarium agreeing entirely with every description of A. stereophylla, 
MriFFiv., wr thin I: .'1 . ribaria ourrht to be suppressed. 



APPENDIX IV. 343 

" This species ( A. stereophylla), with the fruit up till now unknown, was placed by 
Bentham with doubt close to A. acuminata, Benth. Now by the structure of the pod, 
our specimen appears to be close to A. xylocarpa, A. Cunn." 

(It is evident that the authors have got a wrong impression as to what 
A. stereophylla, Meissn., is.) 

Range of A. ramulosa, W. V.F. 
Dr. Jensen's finding it at Tanami adds another species to the flora of the 
Northern Territory. It was previously only known from Western Austraha, 
as under : — 

{a) " An erect, much branched shrub of 6-10 feet." Lennonville 
(Murchison River district). Type (W. V. Fitzgerald). 

(b) A spreading shrub 8-10 feet. Laverton, 211 miles north of 

Kalgoorlie. (J.H.M.). 

(c) Tampa, 122 miles north of Kalgoorhe (J. F. Jutson, No. 11). Pods 

flat in the unripe state, and doubtful because so unripe. 

(d) Coolgardie (L. C. Webster). 

(e) A shrub of 2-3 m. (6J-10 feet) high. Watheroo Rabbit Fence (Max 

Koch, No. 1662). This was named A. ramulosa, by Fitzgerald, 
with A. cibaria, F. v. M., and A. stereophylla, Meissn., as 
synonyms. See also note by Ewart and White already quoted. 
These authors attribute this labeUing as ' ' probably Diels and 
Pritzel." This may be, but the National Herbarium, Sydney, 
has received from Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald portion of his herbarium 
as a gift, and the above specimen is labelled (not recently) in his 
handwriting — " A. stereophylla, Meissn. = A. cibaria, F. v. M.= 
A. ramulosa, W. V.F." 

Sub-Seeies Falcatae. 

32. A. doratoxylon, A. Cunn., aff. — "No. 261. 35 miles north-east of 
Camp 2, 7th June, 1911." In late flower. 

" 360. 40 miles west of Camp 4, Lander Creek, 21st June, 1911." In 
late flower and very early fruit. 

Phyllodes linear, thick, one indistinct central nerve, very finely striate, 
gland at base, up to about 16 cm. (say 6| inches) long and 3 mm. broad. 
Flowers in short spikes, 5 or 6-merous. 
Calyx truncate, thin, a few short hairs on the ribs and apex. 
Petals 5 or 6, glabrous, lobed about one-third down. 
Pistil hoary or smooth. 

When more satisfactory material (including pods and seeds) is available, 
the Acacia can be re-examined, but at present I do not feel justified in saying 
that it is or is not A. doratoxylon, in spite of the fact that it has not the tuft of 
hairs surrounding the calyx which seems pretty constant in A. doratoxylon. 

The calyx in Nos. 261 and 360 is relatively larger, compared with the corolla, 
than ia the case in A. doratoxylon. 

33. A. oligoneura, F. v. i¥ .— " 132. Near Red Lily (Lagoon), 6th April, 
1912." In flowers only. Flowers identical with those of the same species from 
Liverpool Range, Western Australia. See my remarks on this species at p. 321. 

34. A. torulosa, Benth. — " 383. 70 miles north of Camp 4 on sand- 
hills." In flower only. 



344 THE FLOKA OT THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

" 419. 140 miles north of Northern Territory Survey Camp 14. 10 feet, 
spreading, 2nd July, 1911." 

All other specimens of this species seen by me have very thin phyllodes ; 
those of Nos. 383 and 419 are rather thick, and they agree with the plate in 
Mueller's Iconography in being nearly straight and obscurely veined. 

35. A. Cowleana, Tate.—" 345. 78 miles N. i W. of Camp iii., 
15th June, 1911. In desert. 10 feet high. Clean stem." 

" 389. 70 miles north of Camp 14. On the sandhills, 10 feet high." 
Flowers only. 

• It seems to be this species (Horn Exped. Botany, p. 187), type from 
Macdonnell Range, which I have not seen. It has a remarkable satiny sheen 
with golden tips to young shoots. It is a matter for consideration as to 
whether this species is sufficiently di tinct from A . Gunninghamii, Hook, but 
pods are not available for a final decision. 

36. A. tumida, F. v. If .— " 497. Newcastle Waters, 7th July, 1911." 
In flower only. 

Following are additional Northern Territory locahties, which will supple- 
ment those in B. FL, ii., 409. 

Darwin district ; also Melville Island (W. Baldwin Spencer) ; Medium 
shrub on sandyflat 20 miles soutti-east of Darwin (G. F. Hill, No. 433) ; Pine 
and Horseshoe Creeks (E. J. Dunn) ; Lower part of Victoria River (R. J. 
Winters) ; Umbrawarra (Dr. H. I. Jensen, No. 414) ; Near Wandi (Dr. H. I. 
Jensen, No. 397). 

I have a single specimen in flower given to me by Walter Scott Campbell, 
who collected it in 1911,, as from Thursday Island. As this would constitute 
a new record for Queensland, I draw attention to the matter with the view of 
it being confirmed or rejected. 

The following north-west Austrahan locahties wiU supplement the single 
one (Isle Lacrosse) quoted in B. FL, ii., 409. Mr. Fitzgerald also quotes it from 
Roebuck Bay and the Fitzroy River. 

(a) Artesian Range, West Kimberley (W. V. Fitzgerald, No. 1361). 

(6) Knobby's Well, West Kimberley (W. V. Fitzgerald). 

(c) Near junction of Lennard and Barker Rivers (W. V. Fitzgerald, 

No. 534). 

(d) Bamett River, near junction of Station Creek (W. V. Fitzgerald, 

No. 1098). 

(e) Dampier's Land, near Broome (Dr. E. Mjoberg, No. 132). 
(/) Strelley River (Dr. J. B. Cleland). 

Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald, in reference to the glaucousness of this tropical 
species, speaks of it as " a bluish looking tree of about 30 feet in height." 

He collected specimens from DiUen's Springs, East Kimberley, which appear 
to be normal, except that the phyllodes are narrower, and both they and the 
pods are covered with a dense silky tomentum. 

It would appear to be convenient to record this as var. pubescens. It 
would certainly help to justify the tree being called " bluish." 

37. A. difficilis, n. sp. — " 578. 25 miles S.W. of Borroloola, 7th Sept., 
1911." Pods only. 

" 598. Near Sandstone Ranges, Borroloola, 2nd October, 1911." Pods 
only. 



APPENDIX IV. 345 

The following additional specimens belong to this species, and supply 
flowers which are not available in Nos. 578 and 598 : — 

(a) Howard Creek, 20 miles south-east of Darwin, 15th June, 1916. 

In flower only (G. F. HiU). 
(6) Batchelor, 17th July, 1913. In flower only (G. F. Hill, No. 317)'. 

(c) Koolpinyah, on graveUv rises, 3rd September, 1915. Fruits only ; 

also flower and pod on same twig ; slender, drooping habit 
seeds used for poisoning fish (G. F. Hfll, No. 350). 

(d) Francis Creek (calciphile). Fruits only, 27th July, 1916 (Dr 

H. I. Jensen, No. 431). 
The foUowing specimens from North Queensland have narrower phyllodes : 

(e) Little River, 30 mUes east of Croydon, North Queensland, 28th 

August, 1913. Flowers and fruits (R. H. Cambage, No. 3918). 
(/) Also from a correspondent of Mr. Cambage at Croydon. Phyllodes 
comparatively narrow. In flower and mixed with A. torulosa, 
Benth, August, 1914 (R. H. Cambage, No. 4107 in part). 

(g) About 15 feet high. On granite at 1600 feet, Alma-den, North 
Queensland, 18th and 20th August, 1913. Fruit only (R. H, 
Cambage, Nos. 3855 and 3891). 

Frutex plus minus pubescens, habitu gracOe pendulo, ramulis fere teretibus, alljido-seu 
bre vissimo -pubeso ent ibus 

Phyllodiis falcato-oblongis ad falcato-lanceolatis, basi multo angustatis et valde 
' obliquis, sparse hirsutis, plerumque 8-10 cm. long's, 1.5-3 cm. latis, venis parallelibus numer- 
osissimis, 5-0 promiiieutioribus quam ceteris quae sunt tenues et raro coaleseentes. Spicis 
gracibbus sed densis 2. 5-5' cm. longis. Sepalis lineari-spathulatis, ciliatis. Fetalis sepalis 
circiter duplo longioribus. Legumine falcate fere terete, non tumido, 12-14 cm. longo, 
4 mm. lato. Seminibus nigris, oblongo-ovatis, legumine longitudinaliter dispositis. 
Funiculo breve, plica ultima, in arillum brevem turbinatum dilata. 

A. iumidcB, F. r. M., valde affinis. 

A more or less pubescent shrub of slender, drooping habit. Branchlets 
nearly terete and densely covered with short white hairs which disappear in old 
specimens. 

Phyllodia falcate- oblong to falcate-lanceolate, much narrowed and very 
oblique at the base, more or less plentifuUy besprinkled with hairs, the young 
phyllodia sflvery white with a dense tomentum, usually 8 to 10 cm. long (say 
3-4 inches), 1.5 to 3 cm. broad (say f to 1^ inch), with very numerous paraUel 
veins, 5 to 9 of them more prominent, the others very fine, closely packed, and 
very rarely anastomosing. Single gland at base of phyllode as in A. tumida. 

Spikes slender but dense, soUtary, in pairs or threes, 2.5 to 5 cm. (1-2 inches) 
in length. Flowers 5-merous. 

Sepals linear-spathulate, very thin, almost transparent, usually separating 
to the base (sometimes irregularly united at the base), covered with long silky 
hair. 

Petals united half way up, about twice the length of the calyx. 

Pistil large and covered with pale hairs. 

Pod falcate, more or less twisted, narrow, nearly terete, not tumid 12-1'4 
cm. (51 inches) long, 4 mm. wide, v-ith rudimentary, shghtly oblique septa, 
between the seeds. 

Seeds shining black, oblong-ovate, 5 mm. long, with haU the breadth, 
almost strictly longitudinally arranged in the pod, funicle short, the last fold 
broadened, ridged, and dilated into a shallow turbinate aril under the seed. 

The type is Howard Creek, loth June, 1916 (G. F. Hill) (In flower). Co- 
types are Nos. 578 and 598. 



346 THE FLORA Off THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

So far as the evidence is available at present, it is not a strong species, but I 
thinksufficiently different from its nearest ally, A.tumida, F.v.M. Goodwill 
result from drawing special attention to its characters, and I believe that further 
acquaintance will increase its stabiUty. We require further information ia 
regard to quite a number of Northern Territory species. 

Affinities. 

1. With A. tumida, F. v. M. — ^This species is the one to which it is closest 
related. 

The phyllodia of A. tumida are larger, and, speaking generally, more 
glabrous, but we have specimens of A. tumida from North Western Australia 
more tomentose than any I have seen in A. difficilis. 

The flowers of the two species closely resemble each other. A difference 
appears to be in the calyx which, in the proposed new species, appears to have 
the sepals broader and more silky-hairy. In the new species the bracts appear 
to be hooked or nail-headed rather than fohar, but this difierence may be only 
apparent. 

The pods of the two species seem, however, sufficiently different, those of 
A. tumida much broader and with fleshier valves, while the seeds are more 
obliquely arranged, and, in the only specimen I have seen with sound seeds 
(Dillon's Springs, East Kimberley, W. V. Fitzgerald, October, 1906), the seeds 
are ovoid to pear-shaped, and with the funicles missing. They are the shape of 
those depicted in the " Iconography," rather than the oblong shape of the new 
species. 

In comparison with the figure of A. tumida in ""Iconography of Aus- 
tralian Acacias," it would appear that the aril of the new species is more hood- 
shaped, and extends for a greater distance over the seed. 

The bracts of A. tumida are figured toothed ; only entire ones have been 
noted in the new species. 

2. With A. holcocarpa, Benth. — This is another terete-podded species 
with which it may be compared, but the funicle is long and straight, making the 
seeds pendulous when the valves are opened. The sepals and the comparative 
length of sepals and petals are very different in the two species. 

3. With A. retinervis, Benth. — The new species can be compared with 
A. retinervis, of which, however, the pod is not known. 

The phyllodes of the two species have a general resemblance, but in the 
new species there may be as many as 14 intermediate longitudinal veins seen 
under the lens ; in A. retinervis they are fewer and anastomosing. 

Tn A . retinervis the sepals are not separated much more than half way down 
the petals ; they come off in one piece, and are much less transparent than in 
the new species. 

38. A. Simsii, A. Gunn, var. multisiliqua , Benth. (B. Fl. ii., 383). 

In describing this variety, Bentham quotes R. Brown's specimens from the 
Carpentaria Islands (Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria), and under " North 
AustraUa" the only locaUty given for A. Simsii is " Islands of the GuK of 
Carpentaria." 

Our specimen of A. Simsii collected at " Bay of Inlets" Banks and 
Solander, and figured in Illustr. Bot. Cook's Voyage, tab. 84, p. 27, is also var. 
multisiliqvM, although the pods figured are short and broad. 

Tumiag to the " Iconography of Austrahan Acacias'' (Mueller), the two 
cenft'al drawings of flowering specimens are var. multisiliqua. 



APPENDIX IV. 347 

In Mr. Hill's collection under review we have : 

" No. 801. Sandstone country near Tanumbirini, N.T." Also I have : 

" Slender shrub of 8 feet in dense thickets, Channel Island, Port Darwin, 
1st June, 1916 (G. P. Hill, No. 435)." In young pod. 

There is a gland a little (half inch) above the base of the phyllode. The 
calyx is very narrow-spathulate. The petals are glabrous, united two-thirds 
of the way up, but separating at a touch. Pistil smooth. 

A word of caution may be desirable as to the considerable similarity in 
phyllodes and flowers of this variety, and A. homoclada, F. v. M. {Fragm., xi., 
34) (see Iconography), but the arillus is very different. 

SUB-SEEIES DiMIDIATAE. 

39. A. latifolia, Benth. — " 624. North Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, 
20th October, 1911." Flower and fruit. 

40. A. holosericea, A. Cunn. — The following note on the seed may be 
added from a ripe, fresh specimen, from Darwin. 

When the twisted valves open, the small, perfectly black, highly pohshed 
seed drops out and remains for some time, suspended by a long funicle which is 
attached to a bright yellow aril (G. F. Hill, No. 321). 

Lower Victoria River (R. J. Winters and E. J. Dunn), Tanami (Dr. H. I. 
Jensen). 

41. A. dimidiata, Benth. — " 56."). 20 miles south-west of Borroloola, 
7th September, 1911." In pod. 

■' 826. Ranges Hodson Downs, 5th April, 1912." In flower. 
Lower Victoria River (R. J. Winters and E. J. Dunn). 

BiPINNATAE. 

42. A. Farnesiana. Willd. — " 44. Henbury Station, Finke River, 9th 
March, 1911." 

43. A. Bidwilli, Benth. — " 840. McMinn's Bar, 7th April, 1912." 
This specimen has about 46 pinnules to a leaflet ; in the " Iconography" figure 
there are 62 pinnules. Also Darwin (Prof. Baldwin Spencer), Tanami tinfields 
(Dr. H. I. Jensen, No. 201). 

44. A. Sutherlandi, F.v. M. — " 537. Tree, 35 feet; 4 inches in diameter 
Head of Kilgour River, 30th August, 1911." 

38 pinnules to the leaflet in this specimen ; in the " Iconography" 32 are 
figured. 

The type came from Flinders River, North Queensland ; the present is 
believed to be the first occasion on which it has been recorded for a definite 
Northern Territory locahty. 

Additions to the Flora of the Territory. 

Six new species are described in this paper, viz. :■ — 
AUeniana Hilliana _ Jenseni 

difficilis Jennerae tanumbirinensis 

Five previously described species are added, viz. : — 

coviinua Kelleri Sutherlandi 

■CutJibertsoni sibirica 



348 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY., 

Records proposed to be rejected. 

I recommend that the following speciCiS, reputed to belong to the Northern 
Territory flora, be not admitted without additional evidence : — 

Baueri, Benth. juncifolia, Benth. retinervis, Benth. 

julifera, Benth. pendula A. Gunn. 

(See also my remarks under Mueller's "Second Census" records at p. 327). 

Species endemic in the Northern Territory. 

The following species are endemic, so far as our knowledge goes at present, 
but I am confident that further search will cause the number to be greatly 
reduced. In the meantime it will be a useful check hst. 

Alleniana, n. sp. Gilesiana oncinocarpa 

amentifera Hilliana, n. sp. pachycarpa 

conjunctifolia Jennerae, n. sp. praelongata 

Cowleana Jenseni, n. sp. ptychophylla 

crassicarpa latescens sessiliceps 

difficilis, n. sp. leptophleba strongylophylla 

estrophiolata megalantha suhternata 

frumentacea minutifolia 

Total, 23. 

The Northern Territory species, arranged in regard to affinities, stand as 
follows : — 

SERIES I. ALATAE. 

(No members recorded). 

SERIES II. CONTINUAE. 
contimia 

SERIES III. PUNGENTES (PLURINERVES). 
phlebocarpa 

' SERIES III. PUNGENTES (UNINERVES). 
patens tetragonophylla 

(No Aphyllae or Spicatae recorded). 

SERIES IV. CALAMIPORMES (PLURINERVES). 

Bynoeana 

Gilesiana sessiliceps 

CALAMIPORMES (UNINERVES). 
Alleniana praelongata 

(No Subaphyllae recorded). 

SERIES V. BRUNONIOIDEAE. 

galioides lycopodifolia spondylophylla 

hippuroides minutifolia suhternata 

(Six Brunoiiioideae out of ten known). 



APPENDIX IV. 349 

SERIES VI. UNINERVES (ANGUSTIFOLIAE). 
Jenseni Sends 

UNINERVES (RACEMOSAE). 

frumentacea notabilis salicina 

Jennerae pyrifolia strongylophylla 

(Spinescentes, Armatae, Triangulares, Brevifoliae, not recorded. 

At p. 11.5 {Joum. Linn. Soc, iii.), Mueller observed that Uninerves are 
exceedingly rare within the tropics. This remains true, in spite of the fact 
that many species of Acacia have been added to the flora since 1859. Two 
(a comparatively high number) have been added in this paper. 

SERIES Vn. PLURINERVES (TRIANGULARES). 
Luehmanni stipulosa 

PLURINERVES (BREVIFOLIAE). 

impressa translucens 

PLURINERVES (OLIGONEURAE). 
estropMolata Simsii 

PLURINERVES (MICRONEURA). 
Cambagei coriacea Oswaldi stenophylla 

PLURINERVES (NERVOSAE). 
dictyophleba hemignosta 

PLURINERVES (DIMIDIATE). 

dineura retivenia 

latescens sericata 

(Armatae not recorded). 
SERIES, VIII. JULIPLORAE (RIGIDULAE). 



amentifera 


linarioides 


stipuligera 


gonoclada 


lysiphloea 


umbellata 


Kelleri 


megalantha 


Wickhami 


Kempeana 


ptychophylla 


xylocarpa 


leptophleba 


sibirica 




limbata 


stigmatophylla 




JULIFLORAE (STENOPHYTT.AE). 


aneura 


cyperophylla 


ramulosa 


brachystachya 


drepanocarpa 


pityoides 


conjunctifoUa 


gonocarpa 


tanuwhirinense 


Cuthbertsoni 


Hilliana 





350 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 



JULIFLORAE (FALCATAE). 



auriculiformis 
conspersa 
Cowleana 
crassicarpa 
delibrata (?) 



doratoxylon 
oligoneura 
cmcinocarpa 
aulococarpa 



pachycarpa 

plectocarpa 

polystachya 

torulosa 

tumida 



JULIFLORAE (DIMIDIATAE). 

dimidiata holosericea humifusa 

(Tetramerae not recorded). 



latifolia 



At p. 116, Journ. Linn. Soc, iii., Mueller says : " Most singular is the vast 
preponderance of JuHflorae in North AustraUa, being nearly equal in number 
to those of all other sections collectively." This was written in 1859, and in 
1916 one writes with somewhat different facts. Yet now the numbers appear 
to be 45 JuUflorae, total of all other sections 44, making 89 species in all. 



SERIES IX. BIPINNATAE. 
Bidwilli Farnesiana pallida suberosa 

Species recorded for the Territory. 



Sutherlandi 



In the following list, records of occurrence in other States is given ; the 
letter (a) means that the species is, so far as we know at present, confined to 
the Northern Territory. 

We know so Uttle of plant distribution in the Territory at present, that 
the letters (b) signifying Coastal, and (c) Inland, may be suggestive. The 
suggestions are purely tentative. 

Synonyms and doubtful records are in Italics. 



Alleniana, n. sp., a. 


conspersa, b. 




frumentacea, a., c. 


aneura, W.A., S.A., V., 


continua 




gahoides, Q., b. 


N.S.W., Q., c. 


coriacea, Q. c. 




genistoides 


amentifera, a, c. 


Cowleana, a, c. 




Gilesiana, a., c. 


aneura, var. stenocarpa 


crassicarpa, a, b. 




gonocarpa, b. 


arida 


Cuthbertsoni 




gonoclada, Q., b. 


asperulacea 


cyperophylla, c. 




Grregorii 


auiacocarpa 


decora 




hemignosta, b. 


auriculiformis, Q., b. 


delibrata 




HiUiana, n. sp., a. 


Baueri 


deltoidea 




hippuroides, a. 


Bidwilli, Q., b. 


dictyophleba, S.A., 


Q.,c. 


holosericea, Q., b. 


bivenosa, W.A. 


dififioiUs, n. sp., a 




humifusa, Q., b. 


brachystachya, S.A., 


dimidiata, b. 




impressa, W.A., S.A., 


N.S.W., Q., c. 


dineura, b. 




Q.,b., c. 


brevifolia, Q. 


doratoxylon, W.A. 


, S.A.^ 


, Jennerse, n. sp., a. 


Bynoeana, S.A., b., c. 


v., N.S.W., Q. 


, c. 


Jenseni, n. sp., a. 


calliqera. 


drepanocarpa, b. 




julifera 


Cambagei, S.A., N.S.W., 


estrophiolata, a, c. 




juncifolia. 


Q., c. 


Farnesiana, W.A., ' 


3.A., 


Kelleri. 


cibaria 


N.S.W., Q., b.^ 


, c. 


Kempeana,S.A.,N.S.W., 


conjunctifolia, a, b. 


flavescens = sericata 




Q., c. 



APPENDIX IV. 



351 



latescens, a., b 
latifolia. Q., b. 
leptophleba, a., c. 
hptostachya, Q. 
limbata, b. 
linarioides, b. 
loxocarpa 
Luehmanni, b. 
lycopodifolia,S.A.,Q.,b.,c. 
lysiphlcea, S.A., Q., b., c. 
megalantha, a., c. 
minutifolia, a., c. 
uotabilis, W.A., S.A., 

N.S.W., c. 
oncinocarpa, a., b. 
oligoneura, b. 
orthocarpa 
Oswaldi, S.A., N.S.W., 

Q., c. 
pachycarpa, a., c. 
pallida, c. 
patens, S.A., c. 
pendula 
phlebocarpa, Q., b. 



pityoides, Q., b., c. 
plectocarpa, b. 
polystachya, Q., b. 
praelongata, a., b. 
ptychophylla, a., c. 
pyrifolia, W.A., c. 
ramulosa; W. V. F. 
retinervis 

retevenia, S.A., c. 
salicina, W.A., S.A, V., 

N.S.W., Q., b., c. 
sclerosperma 
Sentis, W.A., S.A., V., 

N.S.W., Q., b.c. 
sericata, Q., b. 
sessiHceps, a., c. 
setulifera 
sibirica, W.A., c. 
Simsii, Q., b. 
spathulata, W.A. 
spondylophyUa, S.A., c. 
stenophyUa, S.A., V., 

N.S.W., Q., c. 



stereophylla, Diels and 

Pritzel. 
stigmatophyUa, b. 
stipuligera, S.A., Q., c. 
stipulosa, W.A., c. 
strongylophylla, a., c. 
suberosa, b. 
subtemata, a., b., c. 
Sutherland!, Q. 
tanumbirinense, n. sp. 
tenuissima 
tetragonophyUa, S.A., 

N.S.W., Q., c. 
torulosa, Q., b. 
translucens, b., c. 
trineura, S.A., V. 
tumida, b., c. 
ulioina, W.A., S.A., 

N.S.W., Q., c. 
umbeUata, Q., b., c. 
Wickhami, b., c. 
xylocarpa, b. 

Total 90 species 



CONCLUSION. 

I hope this preliminary paper may be of some use as forming a basis for 
consideration of the Acacias of the Northern Territory. I have encountered 
unexpected difficulties in finding that certain specimens and plates did not 
always tally with the descriptions. Materials of tropical (particularly coastal) 
Australian Acacias are. in the case of some species, not quite satisfactory, but 
the director of Kew (Sir David Prain), the keeper of the Kew Herbarium (Dr. 
Staff), the keeper of the British Museum Herbarium (Dr. A. B. Rendle), and of 
the Melbourne Herbarium (Prof. Ewart) have always promptly helped me with 
material. As regards a number of the older species, it is to be borne in mind 
that they were obtained from the coastal districts, and only those who have 
collected in the tropics in coastal areas know how very difficult (and in the 
rainy season almost impossible) it is to preserve good specimens. 

In many species (and this also applies to some of the six species I propose 
as new), botanists have, even to the present day, found it impossible to obtain 
both flowering and fruitiag specimens, at all events properly matched. 

The assiduous collector (Mr. G. F. HiU) of most of the material dealt with 
for the first time in this paper, and Mr. C. E. F. Allen, are both officers of the 
Commonwealth Government, resident in Darwin, and they are doing good work 
in collecting property matched material of the genus, and ia giving data con- 
cerning the plants. It is hoped, therefore, that in a very few years our know- 
ledge of the Northern Territory Acacias will be more certain than it is at the 
present time. We are dealing with a Territory rich in the genus, and I believe 
that many more species remain to be discovered in it, some of them new to 
science. 

I am very grateful for the assistance of Miss Margaret Flockton, who has 
made admirable detail drawings of many of the species, and also of Mr. W. F. 
Blakely, one of my botanical assistants, who has given me most valuable help. 



352 2 THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

DESCRIPTIONS OP PLATES. 
PLATE XXVI. 

Acacia Alleniana, n. sp. (A-G). 

A. Phyllode, average length 9 inches ; natural size. 

B. Showing base of phyllode. 

C. Portion of phyllode showing grooves. 

D. Flower-head showing the floral bracts extending beyond the buds. 

E. Elower. 

F. Pistil. 

G. Floral bracts. 

Acacia Jenseni, n. sp. (H-M). 

H. Flowering twig ; natural size. 

I. Flower-head. 

K. Flower. 

L. Pistil. 

M. Floral bract. 

Acacia Jennerce, n. sp. (N-S). 

N. Flowering twig ; natural size. 

0. Flower-head. 
P. Flower. 

Q. Corolla opened out. 

R. Pistil. 

S. Floral bract. 

PLATE XXVII. 

Acacia Hilliana, n. sp. ( A-D). 

A. Flowering twig ; natural size. 

B. Flower. 

C. Pistil. 

D. Floral bract. 

Acacia tariumbirinense, n. sp. (E-H) 

E. Flowering twig ; natural size. 

F. Flower. 

G. Pistil. 

H. Floral bract. 

Acacia difficilis, n. sp. {I-O). 

1. Phyllode and floral spike ; natural size. 
K. Flower. 

L. Pistil. 

M. Floral bract. 

N. Pod. 

0. Seed and attachment. 



353 



INDEX. 

Index to orders, genera, new species, economic plants, vernacular names, and 
to the species of Eucalyptus and Acacia. The species in the general text 
are arranged in alphabetical order, and hence can be found by direct 
reference to the particular genus. 



Abrus 
Abutilon 
A. pedatum . . 
Acacia 
A. Alleniana 
A. amentifera 
A. aneura 
A. aulacocarpa 
A. auriculiformis 
A. Baueri 
A Bynoeana 
A. Bidwilli . . 
A. Cambagei 
A. eibaria 
A. conjunctifolia 
A. coiispersa 
A. continua 
A. coriacea . . 
A. Co^vleana 
A. crassicarpa 
A. Cuthbertsoni 
A. cyperophylla 
A. delibraia 
A. dictyophleba 
A. difficilis 
A. dimidiata 
A. dineura . . 
A. doratoxylon 
A. drepanocarpa 
A. estrophiolata 
A. Famesiana 
A. frumentacea 
A. galioides . . 
A. gonocarpa 
A. gonoolada 
A. Gilesiana 
A. hemignosta 
A. Hilliana . . 
A. hippuroides 
A. holosericea 
A. humnifusa . . 
A. impressa 
A. Jeimerae 
A. Jenseni • . 
A. KeUeri .. 
A. Kempeana 
A. latescens 
A. latifolia . . 
A. leptophleba 
A. limbata . . 
A. linarioides 



Page 

. . 151 

. . 181 

.. lS-2 

122, 318 

.. 330 

.. 322 

326, 339 

. . 327 

.. 325 

.. 324 

. . 324 

323, 347 

330, 335 

.. 330 

.. 327 

.. 322 

.. 330 

329, 335 

329, 344 

.. 323 

.. 339 

328, 337 

.. 321 

324, 336 

.. 344 

323, 347 

.. 320 

328, 343 

.. 321 

326, 335 

323, 347 

.. 329 

.. 320 

.. 321 

.. 3J2 

.. 326 

321, 335 

.. 340 

.. 324 

323, 347 

.. 325 

321, 335 

.. 333 

.. 332 

.. 337 

.. 326 

324 

323, 347 

.. 323 

.. 323 

.. 325 



A. Luehmanni . . 327 

A. lycopodifolia . . 3. 

A. lysiphloia 32.1, 337 

A. megalantha . . 323 

A. minutifolia . . 325 

A. notabilis . . . . 328 

A. oligoneura 321, 343 

A. oncinocarpp, . . 325 

A. Oswald! . . . . 330 

A. pachycarpa . . 322 

A. pallida . . . . 323 

A. patens 319, 330 

A. pendula . . . . 320 

A. pityoides 321, 337 

A. phlebooarpa . . 319 

A. plectocarpa . . 325 

A. polystachya . . 325 

A. praelongata . . 327 

A. ptychophylla . . 322 

A. pyrifolia . . 326, 335 

A. ramulosa . . 341 

A. retivenia . . 325 

A. salicina . . 320, 333 

A. Sentis . . 320, 332 

A. serioata . . 323, 336 

var. Duiinii . . 336 

A. sessiliceps . . 326 

A. sibirica . . . . 339 

A. Simsii . . 324, 346 

A. spondyllophylla325, 332 

A. stenophylla 320, 335 

A. stigmatophylla . . 325 

A. stipuligera 323, 337 

A. stipulosa . . 319 

A. strongylophyUa 326, 334 

A. subtemata . . 320 

A. Sutherlandi . . 347 

A. tanumbirinense . . 338 

A. tetragonophylla329, 330 

A. torulosa . . 322, 343 

A. translucens 321, 335 

A. tumida . . 

A. uliciaa 

A. vunbellata 

A. Wickhami 

A. Xylocarpa 

Acanthacese 11- 



Acanthus 
Achyranthes . 
Acrostichum . 
Adansonia . 



323, 344 
. 329 
. 322 
. 322 
. 321 
3, 250 
. 252 
. 101 
19 
. 188 



Adenanthera 

Adenia 

Adenosma 

Adijantum 

Adriana 

Aegiceras 

Aegialitis 

Aeschynomene 

Aglaia 

AizoaoesB 

Aizoon 

Albizzia 

Alisma 

Alismacese 

Allophylus 

Alphitonia 

Altemanthera 

Altstonia 

Alysicarpus 

Alyssum 

Alyxia 

Aiuarantaceae, 

Amarantus 

AmaryUidaceae 

Ambulia 

Atmnania 

Amorphophallus 

Ampelidaceae 

Amphipogon 

Anacardiacese 

Anagallis 

Andrachne 

Andropogon 

Aneilema 

Angianthijs 

AnguiUaria 

Anisacantha 

Anisomeles 

Anonacese 

Anthistiria 

Anthobolus 

Antiaris 

Antidesma 

Apocynaceae 

Aponogeton . . 

Apouogetonacese 

Apophyllum 

Apple Mangrove 

Aracese 

Araliacefe 

Aristida 



17 



18, 



14-16 



17 



Page 

154 

196 

246 

4 

167 

216 

216 

149 

159 

106 

106 

122 

21 

21 

173 

. 176 

101 

. 222 

. 150 

114 

. 222 

97,282 

97 

i, 73 

245 

197 

65 

8-10 

52 

10, 171 

216 

162 

28 

69 

281 

72 

95 

240 

5-7, 111 

32, 281 

89 

78 

.. 166 

1-13, 221 

21 

21 

.. 116 

.. 159 

64 

. . 8-10 

41 



354 



THE FLOEA OF THE NOBTHEEN TBEEITOEY. 





Page 




Page 




Page 


Aristolochia . . 


90 


Borraginacese 




Canscora 


. . 220 


Aristolochiacese 1 


1-16, 90 


> 11-13, 231 


, 282 


Cans j era 


90 


Aroideae 


. 17-18 


Boronia 


156 


Cantharospermum . . 152 


Arrow Grass . . 


21 


Bossisea 


139 


Caoutchouc 216 


, 221, 223, 


Arthrostyles 


. 62 


Bottle tree . . 


192 




285 


Arundo 


52 


Box tree . . 202 


, 205 


Caper 


.. 116 


Arundinella . . 


34 


Brachychiton 'ji'i 


191 


Capparidacese 


5-7, 114 


Asclepiadaceae 1 1 


-13, 223 


Brachycome ■' ' 


281 


Capparis 


.. 115 


Asparagus 


72 


Brachysema f^i '" . . 


136 


Caprifoliaceje 


.. 8-10 


Aspidium 


19 


B. undulatum 


2 


Carallia 


199 


Asplenium . . 


19 


Bradshawia . . 


249 


Carapa 


■ • 159, 


Aster, Coast 


. 274 


Brasenia 


111 


Cardamine . . 


• . 113 


Astrebla 


45, 281 


Bredemeyera 


160 


Cardiospermum 


.. 173 


Astrebla elymoides 


46 


Breweria 


227 


Careya 


.. 198 


Atalantia 


. 158 


Breynia 


165 


Carissa 


.. 221 


Atalaya 


. 173 


Bridelia 


167 


Carpentia 


.. 227 


Atriplex 


93 


Brisbane box -tree . . 


202 


C. floribunda 


.. 227 


A. varia 


94 


Bristlewort . . 


65 


Cartonema 


69 


Austral Bluebell 


. 262 


Brucea 


158 


Caryophyllacese 


5-7, 107 


Australian Cotton 


188 


Brucin 


220 


Cassia 


2, 133 


Australian Sea Hea 


th 195 


Brugniera 


200 


Cassytha 


.. 112 


Avicennia 


. 238 


BrunoniaceEe 


269 


Cassine 


. . 172 






Brunonia 


269 


Casuarina 


76 






Bryonopsis . . 


261 


Casuarinaceas 


14-16, 76 


Babbagia 


97 


Buchanania . . 


171 


Catosperma . . 


.. 267 


Baoopa 


. 246 


Buechnera . . 


247 


Cattle bush . . 


.. 174 


Baeckea 


. 208 


Buffalo Grass 


40 


Caustic creeper 


.. 170 


Balanophoracese 


.14-16 


Bulbostylis . . 


289 


Caustic plant 


.. 170 


Balloon vine 


. 173 


Bulrush . . ' 


19 


Caustic vine 


.. 224 


Bambusst 


52 


Bulwaddy tree 


213 


Caustis 


63 


Banksia 


87 


Bunch Spear Grass 


30 


Celastraceas . . 


8-10, 172 


Barbed-wire' Grass . 


31 


Burmarmia . . 


74 


Celastrus 


.. 172 


Barley Grass 


37 


Burmanniacea» 17-18, 74 


Celtis 


77 


Barringtonia 


. 199 


Bur-marigold 


280 


Cenchrus 


39 


Bassia 


94 


Burr Daisy, yellow . . 


274 


Centaury, Australian 220 


B. spinosa . . 


95 


Burr Grass . . 32, 39 


Centipeda 


.. 281 


Batha-oorroo 


93 


Bursaria 


118 


Centranthera 


.. 247 


Bauhinia 


2,132 


BurseracesB . . 6-7 


158 


Centrolepidacese 


17-18, 65 


Beach Grass 


40 


Burtonia 


137 


Centrolepis . . 


65 


Beard Heath 


. 216 


Butomaceae . . 


21 


Ceratophyllum 


.. 214 


Bear's Breech 


. 252 


Button Grass 


46 


Ceratopteris 


4 


Beaufortia . . 


. 208 


Buttons 


278 


Cerbera 


.. 223 


Beauty Heads 


. 279 


Byblis 


117 


Ceriops 


.. 199 


Bergia 


. 194 


Byronia 


217 


Chamaeraphis 


.. 40 


Berrigan . . 2 


53, 254 






Cheilanthes . . 


4 


Bidens 


. 280 


Cadaba 


116 


Chenolea 


95 


Bignonia Berrigan . 


. 253 


Caesalpinia . . 


154 


Chenopodiacese 


14-16,91 


Bignoniacese 11- 


13, 249 


Caesia 


71 


Chenopodium 


92 


Bindweed 


. 230 


Caiaioa 


170 


Chionachne . . 


25 


Birthwort 


90 


Cajeput . . 208, 


292 


Chloanthes . . 


.. 239 


Bisehoffia 


. 171 


Cape Gooseberry 


241 


Chloris 


45 


Bitter Crab . . 


. 166 


Calandrinia . . 


106 


Chlorophytum 


71 


Bixaceae . . 5 


-7, 195 


Callicarpa 


237 


Cienfuegosia 


.. 188 


Bladderwort . . 


. 249 


Callitris 


19 


Cissus 


.. 177 


Yellow 


. 249 


Calocephalus 


279 


Citriobatus . . 


.. 118 


Blechnum 


4 


Calogyne 


267 


Cladium 


63 


Blennodia 


. 114 


Calophyllum 


194 


Cleistanthus 


.. 167 


Blinding tree 


. 168 


Calostemma 


74 


Cleome 


.. 114 


Bloodwood . . 


. 205 


Calotis 


273 


Clerodendron 


.. 238 


Blueberry 


72 


Calytrix . . 209, 


303 


Clianthus 


.. 148 


Blue Pincushion 


. 269 


Campanulaoese 11-13 


262 


Clitoria 


.. 151 


Blue Bod . . 


. 246 


Camptostemon 


189 


Clove-strip . . 


.. 214 


Blumea 


. 275 


Canarium 


158 


Coclcshin Grass 


37 


Blyxa 


22 


Canary Wood 


256 


Cockspur flower 


.. 240 


Boerhaavia . . 


. 104 


Canavalia 


152 


Codonocarpus 


.. 104 


BombacacesB 


. 188 


Canavalia obtusifolia 


2 


Coelospermum 


259, 260 


Bombax 


. 189 


Cannon Ball Tree . . 


159 


Coldenia 


.. 232 



Index. 



355 







Page 






Page 




Page 


Coleocoma . . 




277 


DiUeniacese . . 


5-7, 192 


Erythroxylaceae 


.. 154 


Coleus 




240 


Dimeria 


.. 25 


Erythroxylon 


.. 154 


Colocasia 




65 


Dioscoreaceae 


17-18,74 


Eucalyptus . . 


203, 305 


Combretaceae 


8-10, 


211 


Diospyros 


.. 217 


E. alba .. - 


.. 309 


Comet River 


Grass 


32 


Diplachne 


.. 48 


E. aspera 


.. 311 


Commelina . . 




68 


Diplapeltis . . 


.. 174 


E. clavigera 


.. 306 


C. acuminata 




68 


Dipodirmx 


76 


E, ferruginea 


.. 312 


Commelinaceae 


17-18, 68 


Dischidia 


.. 226 


E. Foelschiana 


.. 313 


Compositse 


11-13, 


270 


Distichostemon 


.. 175 


E. gamophylla 


.. 305 


ConifersB 


14-16 


, 19 


Dissilliaria . . 


.. 167 


E. grandifolia 


.. 310 


Convolvulacese 


11-13 


, 226 


Ditch MiUet 


34 


E. Houseana 


206, 311 


Convolvulus 




230 


Dock 


.. 91 


E. intertexta 


.. 306 


Conyza 




281 


Dodonaea 


.. 174 


E. latifolia . . 


.. 313 


Corohorus 




178 


Dogs Mustard 


.. 114 


. E. microtheoa 


.. 306 


C. serioeus . . 




178-9 


DoUchandrone 


.. 250 


E. miniata . . 


.. 312 


Cordia 




232 


Dolichos 


.. 154 


E. odoutoearpa 


.. 314 


Comaceae 




8-10 


Doodia 




19 


E. oleosa 


.. 305 


Coronocarpus 




113 


Dracaena 




.. 72 


E. pachyphyUa 


.. 306 


Corynotheca 




71 


Drosera 




.. 116 


E. pallidifolia 


.. 305 


Cotton bush 


'95 


, 168 


Droseraceae 




8-10, 116 


E. papuana . . 


.. 306 


Cotton tree . . 


187, 


189 


Drymaria 




19 


E. phoenicea 


.. 311 


Crabs-eyes . . 




151 


Dryopteris 




.. 19 


E. pruinosa . . 


.. 305 


Crassulaceae 




8-10 


Duboisea 




.. 244 


E. ptychocarpa 


.. 312 


Cressa 




227 


Dye 




.. 285 


E. rostrata 


.. 306 


Crinum 




73 


DysophyUa 




.. 240 


E. setosa 


.. 312 


Crotalaria 


2 


, 139 


Dysoxylum 




.. 159 


E. Spenceriana 206, 306,307 


Croton 




167 


Dysphania 




97, 110 


E. terminalis 


.. 313 


Cruciferae 


5-7, 


113 






E. tetradonta 


.. 314 


Cryptocarya 




112 


Early Spring 


Grass 34 


Eugenia 


.. 201 


Cucumis 




261 


Ebenaceae 


11-13, 217 


Euphorbia . . 


.. 168 


Cucurbitacese 


8-10, 


260 


Ebermaiera . . 


.. 251 


Eulophia 


76 


Cupania 




174 


Ebonywood, Q'land 217 


Euphorbiaceae 14-16, 161 


CupuUferse . . 




14-16 


Echpta 


.. 279 


Everlasting 


.. 278 


CurcuKgo 




74 


Economic plants . . 285 


Evolvulus 


.. 228 


Cyanostegia . . 




236 


Eotrosia 


.. 51 


Exocarpus . . 


.. 89 


Cyanotis 




69 


Eaible fruits and seeds 285 


Excoecaria . . 


.. 168 


Cyoadacese . . 


14-16, 19 


Ehretia 


.. 232 






Cycas 




19 


Elaeocarpaceae 


.. 177 


Fagraea 


.. 220 


Cymbidium . . 




76 


Elaeooarpus 


.. 177 


False Cedar 


.. 232 


Cymodocea . . 




20 


Elatine 


.. 194 


Fan flower . . 


.. 267 


Cynanchimi 




224 


Elatinaceae 


5-7, 194 


Fatoua 


78 


Cynodon 




44 


Eleagnaceae . . 


.. 14-16 


Fenzlia 


.. 201 


Cynoglossum 




235 


Eleclianthera 


.. 72 


Fibre 


. . 285 


Cjrperus 


53, 


288 


Elephantopus 


.. 273 


Ficoideae . . 8-10. 104 


Cyperaceae 17-18,52 


,287 


Eleusine 


46 


Ficus 


78 








Elythrophorus 


.. 48 


Fimbristylis . . 


58, 288 


Dampiera 




269 


Emmenospermum . . 176 


F. Allenu .. 


61 


D. cinerea . . 




269 


Enchylaena . . 


.. 96 


F. lanceolata 


62 


Datura 




244 


Epacridaceae 


11-13, 216 


Fireweed 


. . 281 


Dauous 




216 


Epaltes 


.. 277 


Flagellariaceae . . 


65 


Daviesia 




139 


Eragrostis 




49, 281 


Flagellaria . . 


65 


Decazesia 




281 


Ereehtites . 




.. 281 


Flame tree . . 


. . 192 


Dendrobium 




76 


Eremophila . 




.. 252 


Flaveria 


280 


Denhamia 




172 


Ericaceae 




11-13 


Flemingia 


2 


Denisonia 




236 


Erigeron 




.. 281 


Fluggea 


162 


Dentella 




255 


Eriachne 




.. 42 


Fodder plants 


98.S 


Derris 




151 


Eriachne nervosa 


.. 44 


Frankeuiaceae 5-7 1 aR 


Desmodium 




149 


Eriocaula<!eae 


17-18, 66 


Frankenia 


. 195 
. 154 

71 
iS, 289 


Dianella 




72 


Eriocaulon 


.. 66 


French Bean 


Dicarpidium 




190 


E. graphitinum 


.. 67 


Fringe Violet 
Fuireua 56, 2i 


Dichondra . . 




227 


Eriochloa 


34, 281 


Dichrostachys 




131 


Erioglossum 


.. 174 




Dicliptera 




252 


Eriosema 


■ ■ 153 


Gahnia 


63 

. 152 
. 151 


Dicrastyles 

Didymanthus 

Didymoplexis 




237 
97 
76 


Eryngium 
Erythraea 
Erythrina 


.. 216 

.. 220 

2, 151 


Galactia 
Galedupa 
Garciana 
Gardenia 


Didymotheca 




104 


Erythrophlae 


am 


-.2,132 


70 
. 256 



M 



356 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 





Page 




Page 






Page 


Garuga 


.. 158 


Heterachne . . 


. 51 


Kyllingia 


62 


288 


Gastrolobium 


2, 139 


Heterodendron 


. 174 








Geodcrum 


... 76 


Hibbertia 


. 192 


Labiatae 


14-16 


,239 


Gentianaceae 11 


13, 220 


Hibiscus 


. 185 


Labichea 




132 


Geraniaceae . . 


. . 5-7 


Hibiscus hemp 


. 185 


Lamprolobium 




154 


Germander . . 


.. 239 


Hibiscus Spenceri 


. 186 


Lantern flower 




181 


Gesneriacese . . 


11-13 


Hickory Wattle 


. 128 


Lappago 




32 


Gleichenia . . 


4 


Homalanthus 


171 


Lawsonia 




198 


Glossogyne . . 


.. 280 


Homalocalyx 


. 210 


Lauraceae 


u-Ve, 


112 


Glossostigma 


.. 249 


Hop bush 


. 175 


Laurel dodder 




112 


Glycine 


.. 151 


Hovea 


. 139 


Leea 




177 


Gmelina 


.. 238 


Huxleya 


. 282 


Lecythidaceae 




198 


Gnaphaliixm 


.. 281 


Hybanthus . . 


. 195 


Leichardt tree 




256 


Gnephosis 


.. 281 


Hydnophytum 


260 


Leguminosae 


8-10, 


118 


Gomphrena . . 


. . 102' 


HydriUa 


21 


Lemnacese . . 


.. 17-18 


Gc odenia 


.. 263 


Hydrocharidacese 1 


7-18, 21 


Lentibulariaceae 


11-13 


249 


G. erecta 


.. 265 


Hydrocotyle 


. 215 


Lepidium 




114 


Goodeniacese 1 1 


-13, 263 


Hydrolea 


. 231 


Leptocarpus 




65 


Gossypium . . 


.. 188 


Hydrophyllaceae 11- 


13. 231 


Leptochloa . . 




46 


Gramineae 17-18 


, 22, 281 


Hygrophila . . 


. 251 


Leptorhynchus 




278 


Gratiola 


.. 249 


Hymenophyllum 


4 


leptospermum 




207 


Grevillea 


81 


Hypericinese 


. 5-7 


Lepturus 




52 


G. decurrens . . 


.. 83 


Hypoestes 


. 252 


Lespedeza 




154 


G. Uvea 


84 


Hypcxis 


74 


Leschenaultia 




266 


Grewia 


.. 179 


Hyptis 


. 240 


Leucas 




240 


Guettarda . . 


.. 258 






Lignum 




91 


Gum 


.. 285 


Ichnocarpus 


. 223 


Liliaceae 


17-18 


, 70 


Gum Myrtle 


.. 201 


Ilicineae . . 8 


10, 217 


Limn anthemum 




220 


Gutta-percha tree 


.. 168 


Ilysanthes 


. 247 


Limnophila . . 




245 


Guttiferse 


5-7, 194 


Immortelle . . 


. 278 


Linaceae 




5-7 


Gymnanthera 


.. 224 


Imperata 


25 


Lindemia 




247 


Gymnema 


.. 225 


Indigo 


141 


Lindsaya 




4 


Gyrccarpus . . 


.. 113 


Indigofera boviperd 


a 2, 142 


Lipocarpha 53 


288, 


289 


Gyrostemon 


.. 103 


Indian Tulip tree 


. 187 


Lippia 




236 






Injurious plants 


. 284 


Litsea 




112 


Habenaria . . 


75 


Iphigenia 


71 


Hvistona 




64 


Haemodoraoese 


72 


Ipomaea 


. 228 


Lobelia 




262 


Haemodorum 


72 


Iridaceae 


.17-18 


Loganiaceae . . 


11-13 


218 


Hair-trigger plant 


.. 269 


Iron-bark tree 


. 205 


Lomandra . . 




72 


Hakea 


.. 85 


Ironwood 


77, 132 


Loofah 




261 


H. digyna . . 


.. 85 


lechoemum . . 


27 


Loranthaceae 


8-10, 87 


H. intermedia 


.. 86 


Isotoma 


. 263 


LoranthuB 




87 


Holgania 


.. 232 


Isotropis 


136 


Lotus 




144 


Haloragaceae 


.. 8-10 


I. argentea . . 


. 136-7 


Lovegrass 




49 


Haloragis 


.. 214 


Ixiolaena 


. 278 


Ludwigia 




214 


Halorrhagidaceae 


.. 214 


Ixora 


. 258 


Luffa 




261 


Harpullia 


.. 176 






Lumnitzera . . 




213 


Harrisonia . . 


.. 158 


Jacksonia 


. 137 


Lygodium 




4 


Hat-pin Grass 


66 


J. anomala . . 


. 138 


Lythraceae . . 


8-i6, 


197 


Heart Pea . . 


.. 173 


Jasmine 


. 217 


Lythrum 




198 


Heart plant 


.. 107 


Jasminese 


. 11-13 








Heleocharis . . 


57 


Jasminum 


. 217 


Maba 




217 


Helicia 


87 


Josephinia . . 


. 250 


Macaranga . . 




167 


Helicteres 


.. 191 


Jiincaceas 


..17-18 


Macarthuria 




106 


Heliotrope . . 


.. 232 


Juncaginaceae 


21 


Macgregoria 




173 


Smooth 


.. 334 


Jussieua 


. 214 


Macropteranthes 




213 


Helictropium 


.. 232 


Justicia 


. 252 


Macrozamia 




19 


H. ethelium 


.. 234 






Madwort 




114 


Hehninthcstachys 


4 


Kangaroo Grass 


32 


Magnoliaceae 




5-7 


Helipterum . . 


.. 281 


Kapok 189, 1 


95, 285 


Mahogany, Swamp 


203 


Hemiarrhena 


.. 248 


Kentia 


64 


Maiden's Blush 




231 


Hemichroa . . 


92 


Keraudrenia 


. 191 


Mailaisia 




78 


Hemicyclia . . 


.. 165 


Kidney weed 


. 227 


Malacca Bean 




238 


Hemiphora . . 


.. 239 


Knoxia 


. 260 


Mallatus 




167 


Hemp 


.. 285 


Kochia 


95 


Malpighiaceae 




5-7 


Heritiera 


.. 192 


Koola 


. 155 


Malvaceae 


5-7 


180 


Hernandiaceae 


.. 113 


Kurrajong . . 


. 192 


Malvastrum . , 




183 



Index. 



357 





Page 




Page 


Mangrove, gre 


y . . 199 


Native Bluebell 


.. 262 


Mangrove, bis 


i«k . . 199 


Native Fuchsia 


.. 254 


Mangrove, or£ 


mge . . 200 


Native Mangel 


.. 162 


Mangrove, re< 


L . . 200 


Native Pear 


.. 201 


Mangrove, Ri 


ver . . 216 


Native Tobacto 


.. 244 


Mangrove, wh 


ite . . 238 


Nelsonia 


.. 251 


Manisuris 


27 


Nelumbo 


111 


Marsdenia 


.. 226 


Nepenthacese 


..14-16 


Marsh wort . 


. . 220 


Nephrolepis . . 


19 


MaximiDiana 


.. 195 


Neptunia 


.. 131 


Mayepea 


.. 218' 


Newcastlia . . 


.. 237 


Medicinal plai 


its . . 285 


Nicotiana 


.. 244 


Melaleuca 


207, 291 


Nightshade . . 


.. 241 


M. Leucadenc 


ron . . 291 


Nitraria 


.. 156 


var. niimos( 


aides . . 295 


Notholsena . . 


4 


Melastoma . 


.. 213 


Nobooralla . . 


.. 238 


Melastomaceae 


8-10,213 


Nun- flower . . 


75 


Melhania 


.. 189 


Nut sedge . . 


56 


Melia 


.. 159 


Nyctaginaceae 14-16, 104 


Meliaeese 


5-7, 158 


Nymphsea 


.. Ill 


Melothria 


.. 261 


Nympheaceae 


5-7, 111 


Melschia 


.. 189 






Memecylon . 


.. 2U 


Oat Kangaroo G 


rass 32 


Menisperma^je 


» 5-7, 112 


Ocimum 


.. 240 


Mentha 


.. 240 


Oil 


.. 285 


Mesembrianth 


emum 106 


Olacaceae 


8-10, 90 


Metrosideros 


. . 202 


Olax 


.. 90 


Microoarpaea 


.. 246 


Oldenlandia . . 


.. 256 


Microchloa . 


44 


01ea<?eae 


. . 217 


Micromelum 


.. 157 


Olearia 


.. 274 


Mioroetemma 


.. 225 


Onagraceaa . . 


8-10, 214 


Milk bush . 


.. 223 


Ophioglossum 


4 


Milky Mangro 


ve . . 168 


Opilia 


.. 90 


Mimulus 


.. 245 


Orchidaceae . . 


17-18, 74 


Mimusops 


.. 217 


Orobanchaceae 


11-13 


Mint bush . 


.. 239 


Orthosiphon 


.. 240 


Minuria 


.. 273 


Oryza sativa 


39 


Mirbelia 


.. 136 


Osbeckia 


.. 213 


Mitrasacme . 


. . 218 


Osbornia 


20?, 290 


Mitre wort . 


.. 218 


Ottelia 


22 


Mitreola 


.. 218 


Owenia 


.. 159 


Moghania 


.. 153 






MoUugo 


.. 105 


Pachygone . . 


.. 112 


Momordica . 


.. 262 


Pachynema . . 


.. 193 


Monimiaceae . 


14-16 


Pahnae 


7-18, 64 


Monkey flowe 


r . . 245 


Pandanaceae 


17-18, 20 


Monochoria . 


70 


Pandanus 


.. 20 


Moonia 


.. 279 


Panicmn 


34 


MoraceaB 


77 


Papa Grass . . 


37 


Morgania 


.. 245 


Papaveraceae 


.. 5-7 


Morinda 


.. 260 


Pappophonim 


47 


Moschosma . 


.. 240 


Parietaria 


.. 80 


Mosquitofuge 


.. 285 


Parinarium . . 


.. 118 


Mucuna 


.. 152 


Paronychiaceae 


14-16 


Muehlenbeokis 


I ..91 


Parson-in-the-pnl 


pit 75 


Murraya 


.. 157 


Paisonsia 


.. 223 


Myoporaoeae 


11-13, 252 


Paspalum 


34 


Myoporum 


. . . . 254 


Passifloraceae 


8-10, 196 


Myriocephalur 


n . . 281 


■ Pea-bush 


.. 148 


Myriophyllmn 


.. 215 


Peach-leaved Pois 


on tree 77 


Myristica 


.. Ill 


Pea- flower Poisor 


I bush 139 


Myristicese . 


14-16, 111 


Pear, native 


.. 201 


Myrsinaceae . 


11-13, 216 


Pedaliaceae 1 


1-lS, 250 


Myrtaceae 8 


10, 200, 290 


Peltophorum 


.. 136 






Pemphis 


.. 198 


Naiadaoese . 


17-18, 20 


Pennisetum . . 


40 


Naias 


. 20 


PennjTvort . . 


.. 215 1 



Pentatropsis 
Peplidium 
Perfume 
Perotis 
Persoonia 
Petalostigma 
P. nigrum 
Petalostylis . . 



Page 
224 
246 
285 
32 
81 
166 
166 
132 



P. labicbeoides, var. 

microphylH 132-3 

Phaseolus . . 2 153 

Philydraceae 17-18, 70 

Philydrum . . . . 70 

Phvllanthus . . 163 

P. Hunti . . . . 164 

Physalis . . . . 241 

Phyt laocacea; 14-16,103 

Pigeon grass . . 39 

Pill Wolfmillc . . 170 

i?imelea . . . . 196 

Pimpernel . . . . 216 

Piperaceo: . . 14-16 

Pisonia . . . . 104 

Pithecolobium . . 122 

Pittosporaoeae 5-7, 117 

Pittosporum . . 117 

Pityrodia . . ..9,36 

Plagianthus . . . . 183 

Plantaginaceae . . 14-16 

Plectanthrus . . 240 

Pleurocarpsea . . 273 

Pluchea . . . . 275 

Plumbago . . . . 216 

Plumbaginaceee 11-13,216 

Poa . . . . 51 

Podocoma . . . . 274 

Podolepis . . . . 279 

Pogonia . . . . 76 

Poison bush . . 139 
Poisonous plants . . 284 

Polanisia . . . . 114 

Pollinia . . . . 25 

Polyalthia . . . . Ill 

Polycarpaea . . . . 107 

P. brevianthera . . 109 

P. triloba . . . . 109 

P. Holtzei .. 109-110 

Polygala . . . . 160 

Polygalaceae 5-7, 160 

Polygonaceae 14-16, 90 

Polygonum . . . . 91 

Polypodium . . 19 

Pcndweed . . . . 20 

Pontederiaceae 17-18,70 

Pop-pods . . . . 139 

Popowia . . . . Ill 

Popular names . . 281 

Porana . . . . ,?.31 

Poranthera . . . . 171 

Portulaca . . . . 107 

Portulaccaceae 5-7, 106 

Potamogeton . . 20 
Potamogetonaceae . . ."^0 

Pouzolsia . . . . 80 

Premna . . .- . f>37 

Prickly Saltwort . . 96 

Primulaxjeae .. 11-13, 216 



358 



THE FLORA OF THE NOKTHEEN TEEBITOBY. 









Page 








Page 


Prostanthera 




239 


Santalum 




89 


Proteacese . . 


14-16, 80 


Sapindaceae . . 


8-16, 


173 


Psoralea 




2 


143 


Sapotacese 


11-13 


, 216 


Psychotria 






258 


Sarcoeephalus 




256 


Pterigeron 






276 


Sarcostemma 




224 


Pterocaulon 






277 


Saxifragaceae 




8-10 


Pterostylis 






75 


Scaevola 




267 


Ptilotus 






97 


S. paniculata 




268 


Ptychosema 




145 


Scented Golden Beard 


31 


Pycnospora . . 




150 


Schizoloma . . 




4 








Schoenus 62 


288, 


289 


Queensland Ebony 


132 


Sohizaea 




4 


Queensland Hemp . . 


184 


Scirpus 


. . 56, 288 


, 289 


Queensland Nutmeg 


111 


Scitamineae 






17-18 


Queensland Oak 




76 


Scleria 




33, 288, 289 


Quinine bush 




212 


Sclerolaena 






95 








Scoparia . . 




247 


Randia 




256 


Scrophulariaceae 


u'-ia 


, 244 


Eanunculacese 




5-7 


Scyphiphora 




260 


Haspwort 




214 


Sea heath 




195 


Rats-tail Grass 




42 


Sebastiania 






168 


Rattlepods . . 




139 


Secamone 






224 


Red Ash 




176 


Selagineae 






11-13 


Reesia 




282 


Semecarpus 






172 


Restiaceae 


17-18, 65 


Senebiera 






113 


Restio 




65 


Senecio 






281 


Rhagodia 




92 


Sesbania 




2, 


147 


Rhamnaceae 


8-10 


, 176 


SesLivium 






106 


Rhamphicarpa 




248 


Setaria 






39 


Rhaphidophora 




65 


Setosa 






33 


Rhizophora 




199 


She'cke 






76 


Rhizophoracese 


8-10 


199 


Sida 






183 


Rhynchosia . . 




153 


Sida hemp 






183 


R. minima . . 




3 


Sida weed 






184 


Rhynchospora 




63 


Sideroxylon 






216 


Rice 




39 


Silk Cotton tree 




189 


Ricinocarpus 




171 


Silver -spiked Grass 


37 


River Poison tree . . 


168 


Simarubaceae 


5-7 


158 


Roeperia 




115 


Smilax 




72 


Rosaceae 


8-10 


118 


Smithia 




154 


Rosella, native 




186 


Sneezeweed . . 




281 


Rosin weed . . 




227 


Snufi plant . . 




281 


Ro39itia 




157 


Solanaceae 


11-13, 


241 


R. scabra 




157 


Solanum 


241-243 


Rotala 




198 


Sslanum petrophilum. 




Rothia 




139 


var. pedicellatum 


243 


Rcttbcellia 




27 


Sonneratia . . 




199 


Roxburghiacese 


17-18,70 


Sophora 




154 


Rubiaceae 


8-10, 


255 


Sorghum plumosimi 


29 


Rubus 




118 


Sowerbaea . . 




72 


Ruellia 




251 


Spartothamnus 




239 


Rulingia 




190 


Spermaooce . . 




259 


Rumex 




91 


S. scabra 




260 


Russian Thistle 




96 


Sphaeranthus 




277 


Rutaceae 


5-7, 


156 


Sphenoclea . . 




263 


Rutidosis 




279 


Spade flower 
Spathia 




196 

26 


Saccopetalum 




111 


Spike rush . . 




57, 


Sacred Balm 




240 


Spilanthes . . 




280 


Sacred Lotus 




111 


Spinifex 




40 


Salicornea . . 




96 


Sporobolus . . 




42 


Salomonia 






161 


Spring-back plant . , 


269 


Salsola 






96 


Stachytarpheta 




236 


Saltbush 




92 


93 


Stackhousiaceai 


8-10, 


172 


SamoliM 






216 


Stackhousia . . 




173 


Samydaceae . 






8-10 


Star Grass . . 




45 


Santalacese . 




14-16, 


89 


Statice 






216 



Page 

Stemodia . . 245, 246 

Stemona . . . . 70 

Stenochlaena . . 19 

Stenotaphrum . . 40 

Stenocarpus . . 87 

Stenopetalvim .. 114 

Stephania . . . . 112 

Sterculia . . . . 191 

Sterculiaceae 5-7, 189 

Stipa . . . . 62 

Striga . . . ■. 248 

Stringy-bark . . 206 

Strobilanthes ' . . 252 

Stryehnos . . . . 220 

Strychnine . . . . 220 
Stylidiaceae 11-13, 269, 282 

Stylidium . . 269, 282 

Stylobasium . . 118 

Styraceae . . 11-13 

Suaeda . . . . 97 

Sun hemp . . . . 141 

Supplejack . . . . 65 

Swainsona . . 3, 148 
Swamp Mahogany . . 203 

Tabemaemontana . . 222 

Tacca . . . . 74 

Taccaceae . . 17-18, 74 

Tamarindus . . . . 132 

Tannin . . . . 285 

Tape Grass . . . . 22 
Tassel Blue Grass . . 31 

Tatea . . . . 239 

Tea tree . . . . 207 
Tea tree. Broad -leaved 208 

Tecoma . . . . 249 

Templetonia . . 139 

Tephrosia . . . . 145 

T. purpurea . . . . 3 

Terminalia . . . . 211 

T. arostrata . . 212 

Tetragonia . . . . 106 

Teucrium . . . . 239 

Thespezia . . , . 187 

Thespidium . . . . 276 
Three-awned Spear Grass4I 

Thryptomene 210, 303 

Thuarea . . . . 40 

Thunbergia . . . . 252 
Thymeleacese 14-16, 196 

Thysanotus . . . . 71 

Tiliaceae . . 5-7, 177 

Tinospora . . . . H3 

Timber trees . , 284 

Timoniiis . . . . 258 

Tournefortirt . . 232 

Towel-gourd . . 261 

Trachymene . . 215 

Tragus . . . . 32 

Trema . . . , 77 

Tremandraceae . . 5-7 

Trenagooharis 21 

Trianthema . . . . 105 

Tribulus . . . . 154 

Trichinium . . . . 100 

Trichodesma 235, 282 
Tricholaena rosea . . 52 



Index. 



359 





Page 




Page 






Page 


Triohoaanthes 


.. 262 


Ventilago 


176 


Watery Bush 




254 


Trioostularia 


62 


Verbena 


236 


WedeUa 




280 


Trigloohin . . 


21 


Velleia 


263 


Weeping love 


grass 


50 


Trigonella . . 


.. 154 


Verbenaoeffi U-13, 23S 


,282 


Werribee-Werribee . . 


170 


Triodia 


48 


Vemonia 


273 


White Cedar 




159 


Tristania 


202, 290 


Vertioordia . . 210, 


304 


Whitewood 




174 


Tristiohooalyx 


.. 112 


Vervain 


236 


Wikstroemia 




196 


Triraphis 


.. 47 


Vigna 


154 


WUsonia 




231 


Triumfetta . . 


.. 180 


Violacese . . 5-7 


195 


Wrightia 




222 


Turrsea 


.. 159 


Vixum 


89 


Wrinkle wort 




279 


Twinhead 


.. 279 


Vitaceae 


177 








Tylophora . . 


.. 225 


Vitex 


237 


Xanthorrhoea 




72 


Typha 


.. 19 


Vittadinia 


274 


Xanthostemon 


202, 


290 


Typhaceae . . 


17, 18, 19 






Xanthoxylvim 




156 


Typhouium . . 


65 


Wahlenbergia 


262 


Xeroohloa 




40 






Waitzia 


278 


Xerotes 




72 


Ulmaceae 


77 


Wall - flower poison bush 139 


Ximenia 




90 


UmbellifersB 


8, 10, 215 


Waltheria . . 


190 


Xyridacese . . 


17-18 


, 66 


Uraria 


.. 151 


W. virgata . . 


190 


Xyris 




66 


XJrena 


.. 188 


Wart Cress . . 


113 








Urtioaoese 


14, 16, 80 


Washerman's Plant 


101 


Yillaroo 




92 


Utrioularia . . 


.. 249 


Water Lily . . . . 


111 








Uvaria 


.. HI 


Water Lily, fringed 


221 


Zizyphus 




176 






Water Milfoil 


215 


Zygpohyllacese 


5-7, 


154 


Vallisneria . . 


22 


Water Plantain 


21 


Zygophyllum 




156 


Vanda 


76 


Water Shield 


111 


Zomia 




149 




THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY 



361 




Plate I. — Spatkia nei;kosa. 

Fig. 1, Inflorescence. 2, Young plant entire, shewing spathes with laminas attached. 
3, Spathe with enclosed inflorescence. -i. Single spikelet cluster with basal herma- 
phrodite and terminal sterile spikelet. .5, Hermaphrodite spikelet, with stamens, but 
ovary removed. 6, Sterile spikelet. 7, Grain shewing hilum and embryo. 

N 



362 



THE FLORA OV THE NOETHEEN TEREITOEY. 




r PLji^TB 11. — Setosa bbeota. — Fig. 1, General habit. 2, Spiuate inflorescence. 
3 Section of rhizome nearnode — (a) parenchyma ; (b) sclerenchyma ; (c) vascular 
bundle. 4, Section of leaf — (a) corrugated cuticle ; (6) epidermis ; (c) scler- 
enchyma above bundle. 5, Epidermis of leaf, highly magnified. 




Plate III.— Setosa erecta.— Fig. l,?Smgle spikelet (x3)— (o) awn ; (6) pedicel- (c) smaU 
outer glume ; (d) flowering glume of male flower. 2, Spikelet attached to axis and 
(o) shewing position from which awn (6) arises. 3, Large outer glume dorsal view 
shewmgawn arisinglaterallyfrompedieelof spikelet(x3). 4, Large outer glume ventral 
view (x 3). 5, Flowering glume of male flower (x 3). 6, Pale of male flower through 

which stamens are seen (x 3). 7, Stamens of male flower more highly magnified 1= 

lodicules. 8, Flowering glume and pale of hermaphrodite flower, shewing 2 stigmas and 
3 rudimentary stamens (x 9). 9, Stamens, ovary, style and stigmas of a youns 
hermaphrodite flower, highly magnified. 10, Grain, shewing position of embrvo 
Gram, shewing rounded hflum. ■' ' 



11, 



364 



THE FLORA Or THE NOBTHEKN TERRITORY 




Plate I"\'. — Ekiachne nervosa. 
Fig. 1 , Habit. 2, Inflorescence. 3, A single spikelet (x 3). 4, Outer glume shewing 
numerous nerves (x 7). 5, Flowering glume (x 7). 6, Pale, showing rachis of spikelet 
hairy round the pale, one of the stamens, ovary and lodicules (x 7). 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHBEN TEERITORY. 



365 




Plate V. — Asteebla eiymoides. 
Fig. 1, Spike. 2, Spikelet with outer glumes removed (x 3) ^ q«,.„„^ „ ^ 
glume (X 5). 4, Lowest outer glmne (x 7). 5, A single flower (x sf fi W^ ' 
mg g ume (x 5). 7, Pale (x 6). 8, RudiiAent^ tergal rfSaefx 51 'q 0^'" 
shewtag hilum (X 4). 10, Grain shewing position ofXbryo(^I) '' ' ^ 



366 



THE FLOEA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 




Plate VI. — Ebiooatjlon gbaphitinum. 



Figs. 1 and 2, Plants shewing variation in size. 3, Flowering bract (x 38). 4, Male 
flower (x 38). 5, Female flower (x 38). 



THE FLORA OF THE NOBTHBBN TEE&ITOEY. 



367 




^ jJif J^JLyn/if\.t^J^ 



Plate VII. — Commelina aotjminata. 

Pig. 1, Inflorescence. 2, Spathe. 3, Male flower. 4, Hermaphrodite flower 
5, One of the three partly sterile anthers. 6, Seed. (5 and 6 magnified.) 



368 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 




2 Ji^vchejt cU-l 

Plate VIII. — Grevillea livba. 
Fig. 1, Inflorescence and leaf. 2, Single flower. 3, Carpel. 4, Segment of 
perianth 5, Fruit. 6, Seed. 7, Side view of stigma. 8, Section of leaf. 
(Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5, x 5 ; Fig. 8, x 12). 



THE FLOBA OF THE NORTHERN TEEEITORY. 



369 




■'*"■ vm 





FigM. Fi^.vni, 



Fig.K. 



Plate IX. — Ha'kf.a digyna. 
Fie 1 Hakea di>^\-na, portion of stem, etc. 2, Xormal flower. 3, Normal carpel on 
pedicel. 4,''"Stigma.tic disc. 5, Interior of perianth. 6, Flower with two 
carpels! '',' 8. 9. Transition stages in the fusion of the pedicels, etc. 



370 



THE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TEEBITORY. 




Fi^.ffl. Fig.IV KFigY. Fig.VI 



Plate X. — Hakea intermedia. 

Fig. 1, Hakea intermedia. 2, Single flower. 3, Carpel. 4, Stigmatio diso» 

Hakea intermedia. 5, Stigmatie disc, Hakea lorea. 

6, Stigmatie disc, Hakea Ednieana 



TKE FLORA OF THE NORTHERN TERRITORY. 



371 





Fi^.ni 



Fii.N.